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Full text of "The Canada Year Book 1922-23"

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CANADA 
DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS 


THE 
CANADA YEAR BOOK 


1922-23 


OFFICIAL STATISTICAL ANNUAL OF THE RESOURCES, 
HISTORY, INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC 
CONDITIONS OF THE DOMINION 


Published by Aut.horit.y of 


The Honourable THOS. A. LOW, M.P., 
MINISTER OF TRADE AND COMMERCE 


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PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY 
1924 



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PREF ACE. 


The Canada Year Book had its origin 
n the firs
 year of th
 Dominion. The 
want of a publication that would assemble III convemently access
ble and summary 
form the chief comparative statistics of Canada, togethe
 wIth the necessary- 
descriptive matter was felt immediately after ConfederatIOn, 
hen t
e "Year- 
Book and Almana
 of British Korth America," b
irW, (to quote Its 
ub-tItl.e), "an 
Annual Register of political, vital an.d trade 
tatllihcs, customs tarIff, eXCISe and 
stamp duties, and public events of mterest m Upp
r and Lower Canada, 
ew 
Brunswick, Xova Scotia, Prince Edward .Island, i\ewfoundland and}he '
est 
Indies," was founded. Subsequently the title was altered to that of The .l.ear 
Book and Almanac of Canada, -an ann
lal stat
stica
 
bstr!lct of the .Do
mIOn, 
and a Register of legislation and of publIc men III BntIsh 
orth Amenca.. The 
work was edited by l\Ir. Arthur Harve
, F:S.S., of the Dep
rtment of Fmance, 
but was in no sense a government publicatIOn. It was publIshed annually from. 
1867 to 1879. 
In 1886, after the pas:;ing of a General Statistics Act, the ItStatllitical Abstract 
and Record of Canada" was instituted as an official book of reference re
pecting the 
institutions, population, finance, trade, and general conditions of the Dominion, 
"with comparative data for the 'Cnited Kingdom, British Possessions and foreign 
countries." The work was prepared in the General Stati"tical Office of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and was continued annually until 190-1 under the direction of 
Dr. George Johnson, F.
.S. In 1903, the General Statistical Office was amalgamated 
with the Census Office (which was at the same time made a permanent organization), 
the Year Book being remodelled by the late Dr. Archibald Blue, Chief Officer, and 
continued under the title "The Canada Year Book, Second Series." 
In the reorganization and centralization of statistics which followed the Report 
of the Commission on Statistics of HH2, and the establishment of the Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics in 191
, the continuous improvement of the Year Book, both 
in content and method of presentation, was made a primary object. A fundamental 
purpose of statistical organization is the securing of an aperçu or conspectus of the 
country as an entity, especially as regards its manifold social and economic activities, 
which are thus viewed both in their totality and in their relations to each other. In 
addition, therefore, to the branches of the Bureau which deal with specific subjects, 
such as population, agriculture, mining, trade, education, etc., etc., and which work 
in collaboration with the various Dominion and Provincial Departments having 
jurisdiction in corresponding fields, there was created a "General 
tatistics Branch" 
whose functions are: (a) the carrying on of subsidiary inquiries on a great variety 
of subjects of less extent and complexity than those assigned to special branches in 
the Bureau, but es
ential to a complete and rounded scheme; (b) the synthesizing 
of general statistics and the interpretation of the general economic trend; (c) the 
preparation of digests and abstracts of statistics relating to group phenomena; and 
(d) the bringing of Canadian statistics as a whole into relation with British Empire 
and world statistics, under the necessary reservations suggested by differing polit.ical 
and economic systems in the different nations. In these multifarious activities, the 
Branch builds upon the inter-departmental organizations completed by the other 
branches of the Bureau (which provide for a pooling of data as between the Bureau 
and the various executive Departments, Dominion and Provincial), but also supple- 
ment"! these materials with descriptive and other data drawn from a wide field. 
The most important publication of the General Statistics Branch of the Bureau 
is the Canada Year Book, which is a compendium of official data on the physiography, 
history, institutions, population, production, industry, trade, transportation, finance, 
labour, administration, and general social and economic conditions and life of the 
Dominion-the whole conceived from the widest point of view and presenting the 
more salient statistics of the country against a background of interpretative matter 
designed to bring out their significance. It will be appreciated that a work of this 
character is dependent upon completion of the basic organization of statistics, and 
that it has been necessary therefore to develop the Year Book gradually, as the 
improved materials under the Bureau became available. 
'Vith the present edition of the Year Book, the Bureau has entered upon the 
final stages of its revision of this important publication. The changes that havE' 
62373-A! 



iv 


been made in recent years have been described in the pref
ce for each edition. The 
present is marked by the omission of any le:tding topical article; effort having been 
concentrated during the past year on the general improvement of the several sections 
and their arrangement in logical form and sequence. E
pecially thorough has bcep 
the revision of the sections on population aml on the differcnt pha
e" of production. 
Among other features of the cdition to which the spccial atterl
ion of the reader 
may be directcd are' the contributions by Rir Frederick Rtupart, Director of the 
Meteorological Service of Can:tda, on the f:tctors which control Canadian weather 
and on thc development of the 
leteorological Rervicc; the cxpamled trcatment of 
parliamentary representation in Canarla anù of provincial governmcnts and min- 
istries; the summary of the principal data collected at the census of 1921 and t.he 
first detailed treatment of vital !'tatistics; the addition to the productiun section 
of a general survey of production and of a I;ub-section on construction, and the 
development of the other sub-sections under thi" heading; the more adeauate 
treatment of internal trade; the in:--.ertion of sub-sections on roads and highways 
and on aerial navigation in the 1 ransportation and communications !'cct.ion; the 
publication of the Burcau'!' new index number of ,,,hole"ale prices anù of its statistics 
of retail prices; th(' introduction into the finance section of a discussion of national 
wealth all11 national income; the adding to the administration section of an entirely 
new sub-section on "public health and public benevolence," also of a selcct bibli- 
ography of leading books relating to Canadian history. 
Throughout the volumc, the latest available information is included in each 
section, the- tables in many cases including figures for the fiscal year lÐ

-
:3, and the 
letter-pre!':; supplying supplementary figurcs extending in some cases to the end of 
the calemlar year 1923. 
The present edition of the Ycar Book has bcen edited by l\lr. R ..:\. Cudmore, 
B.A. (Tor.), M.A., (OJ\.on.), F.S.
., F.R. Econ. Soc. Grateful acknowledgments 
are hercby tendered to the numerous officials of the Dominion and Provincial 
Governments who have generously assisted in the collection of information. The 
tables havc in the main been compiled, as for many years, by ::\Ie!'srs. Jas. I
 kcad 
and Jos. 'Yilkins, while most of the diagrams have been dra"n by 
Ir. R. B. 'Vatts. 
R. H. CO_\.1'8, 
Dominion Statistician. 


Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Ottawa, Dcc. 31, 1923. 



SYNOPTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 
1. Geo
aphical Features..... _.. - .. . _ _ _ . . . .. ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. General Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Land and Water Area of Canada by Provincell! and Territories as in 1923... ... 
2. Physiography....................... _... ':'. .... .... ................. .... '" 
3. Rirers and Lakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Drainage Basins of Canada..... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Lengths of Principal Rivers and Tributaries in Canada........ ., . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
4. Area, Elevation and Depth of the Great Lakes................... ........... 
5. Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces. . .. . ... . . .. .- 
4. Islands....... . ., . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . .. . . - . . . . - . . . . . - -- 
2. Geological Formation....... ............. .... -........ . -.. .. -.. - -.. -... ... 
1. H iswrical Outline and Geological Divisions . . . _.. . . _ .. ............ 
2. Economic Geology of Canada, 1922... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Seismology in Canada... ... _ . . .. _....... - . . . . . . . . - . . . . . 
4. The Flora of Canada........ . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5. Faunas of Canada............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. The Natural Resources of Canada.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
7. Climate and Meteorology.............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
1. The Facwrs which Control Canadian TV eather. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. The Climate of Canada since Confederation.... .. . . . . . . . .. ....................... 
3. The Meteorological Service of Canada....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 
6. Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations. . . . . . . . . 
7. Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations....... 


II. HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY. 
1. History of Canada... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Chronological History of Canada, 1497 to 1923................................ 


III. THE CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL GOVERNMENT OF CANADA. 


1. Constitutional Development of the Colonies Prior to Confederation........... . 
2. The Constitution of the Dominion at Confederation................ .. ...... .. 
3. Evolution of the !lõational Constitution since Confederation............. . . . . 


IV. PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA. 
1. Nova Scotia....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. !lõew Brunswick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Prince Edward Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Quebec.......................... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . _ . _ . _ _ . 
5. Ontario .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 
6. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. .1Ianitoba......... .......................................... 
2. ::5askatcheU'an.. 
3. Alberta.. . . . . . . . _ . _ _ ................... _ _ 
7. British Columbia....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. ........ 


V. PARLIA 'WENT AR Y REPRESENT A TIO
 IN CAï"lADA. 


1. Dominion Parliament............. .... .... .... .... 
1. Governor::.-General of Canada, Ibß7-1923...... 
2. ::\Iinistries since Confederation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
3. Duration and Sc-sions of Dominion Parliament." ISfi7-1923.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
4. Rf'pa ,entation in the Senate of Canada, by Pro," inc I, according to the British 
1\orth America -\.ct, 1
t.i7, anù amending Act
, a at Oct. 31, H/:!3..... ....... 
5. Repn.".entation in the House of Commons of Canada, showing the effect of 
Hepre<<entation Acts, 18ß7 to 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . _ . . . . . . . . . 
6. RepH''''mtation of the Provmces and Territories of Canada in the House of 
Commons, as determined by the British North America Act and the Censuses 
of 1911 and 1921........ . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
7. Tablp sho""ing Application of Section 51, Subsertion 4, of British North America 
Act, to reprnentation of Ontario and 
ova 
cotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. Repn ,entation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Repn entation Act. 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923....... . . . . 
2. Provincial Governments............... .... ... ...... .. .. . ....... ........ ...... 
9. Pro",inc( j and Territori{ ; of Cau1.rla, ""it.h pro ent .-\.reas, Dat , of .\dmÏ::,sion to 
Confederat.ion and Le
islativp Proc' 
 bv which thi'! was eiTected. .......... 
10. Lieutenant-Governors, Leg;"laturc and Ì\Iini trips of Provinces, 1567-1923.... 
3. The Canadian High Commissioner and the Provincial .\gcnts-Genl'ral.. . . . . . . . . 


PAOIiI. 
1-13 
1- 5 
5 
5--7 
7-12 
8 
9-10 
10 
11-12 
12-13 
13-24 
13-20 
20--24 
24-25 
25-32 
32-3ð 
36-38 
39-59 
39-43 
43 
43-59 
48-53 
54-59 


60-80 
80--88 


89-91 
91-94 
94-100 


102-103 
103-104 
104-105 
105-107 
107-109 
110--113 
111-112 
112-113 
113 
113-115 


116-129 
116 
117-118 
118-119 
120--121 


122 


B1I 
123 
124 
121-129 
129-139 
] 29 
130-139 
3() 



YI 


VI. POPULATION. 
1. Growth and Distribution of Population........... .... ......... ............... 
1 Census Statistics o/General Population..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in the Census years 1871 to 
1921. .............................................................. 
2. Percf>ntage Distribution of Cal\adian population by Provinces and Territories 
1871 to 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............................ 
3. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871 and 1921. and 
numerical increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. -. .. 
4. Population of Canada by Provinces and Territories in 1871, and increase per ccnt 
by dccades from 1871 to 1921. ...
.................... ..... .... ........ 
5. Arca and Population of Canada by rrovinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901. .. ................... ...................................... 
6. Density of Population in Canada according to the Census of 1921.... . . . . . . ., . 
7. l\Iovement of Population, including estimated Natural Increase, recorded 
Immigration, and estimated Emigration for the intercensal periods 1901-1911 
and 1911-1921........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Sex Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. Sex Distribution of the People of Canada, by Provinces. 1871-1921..... .. .. . . . 
9. Proportion of Sexcs per 1.000 of Population in Canada, by Provinces, 1871-1921 
10. l\1asculinity of the Population of Various Countries....... . 
3. Conjugal Condition. .... .., ............ . . .. ............ ............. 
11. Conjugal Condition of the Population by numbers and percentages. as shown by 
Censuses of U.;71, U.;81. 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ........ 
12. Conjugal Condition of the P('ople of Canada, classified as Bin,,!;le, :\Iarried, 
'Vidow('d, Divorced, L('gally S<,parated. and not given, by J>rovinces, Census 
1921........................................................... -....... 
13. Conjugal Condition of the Population, 13 years of Age and Over, 1921...... 
4. Dwellings and Families.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
14. Number of Dwellings and Families in Canada, by Provinces, as shov.n by the 
Census of 1921. . .. . .. . .. . . 
5. Al7e Distnbution...... . . . . . . . . . .. .. -. . .................................... 
15. Proportion pf'r 1,000 of the Population by .\.ge-Periods. 1871. 181'1, 1891, 1901, 
1911 and 1921.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......... 
16. Proportion per 1,000 of the Population by Age-Periods by Prm-inces, 1921, with 
totals for l!H 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
17. Male and Female Population of Canada by Age-Periods, lE.81, 18m, 1901, 1911 
and 1921. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Racial Origin. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
19. Origins of the Pcople according to the Cen
uses of 1
71, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 
1!121................. .. . .... . . . ..... ............................. 
20. Proportion per cent which the People of each Origin form of the Total Popula- 
tion, 1871, 18S1, 1901, lUll and 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . ... .... . 
21. Racial Origin of the Population, by Provinces and Tprritories, 1921....... . . . . . 
22. Racial Ori"in'! of the People for Nine Cities of GO,OOO and over, as shown by the 
Census of 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
7. Religions .... . -.................. ...................................... 
23. Heligions of the Ppople at each Dccennial Cpnsus, 1871-1921.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
24. Ratio per cent of Specified Denominations to Total Population in Census Years. 
25. Hf'ligions of the People by ProvincC'5, Census 1921....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. Birthplac('s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
26. Birthplaces of thl' Population of Canada according to the Censuses of 1871-1921 
27. Population claf'sified by Sex and Nativity, by Provinces and Territories, according 
to the C('nsus of 1921...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ... 
9. Rural and l'rban Population....... . . .. ................................... . 
28. Rural and ('rban Population by PrO\ inces and Territories, 18m, 1901, 1911 and 
1921.. _.. _.... .. ................ ..... ...................... 
29. Percentage Distribution of Rural and t:'rban Population by Provinces and 
Territories, 1
!n, HI01, 1911 and 1921. . ..... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
30. L'rban Population of Canada, divided by Size of Municipality Groups, 1901, 
1911 and 1\121...................................... ............. 
:U. Ratio of Femalps to l\1ales in Rural and L"rban Populations, 1921.. . . . . .. .... 
32. Population of Citi('s and 1'0\\ ns having over 5,000 inhabitants in 1921, compared 
\\ith lR71,-Rl,-!H, HI01,-11............................................. 
33. Population of To\\ns and Villages ha,ing betv.een 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 
1921. as compared \\ith 1901 and 1911....... ..... 
10. Quinquennial Population of the Prairie Provinces....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ..... 
34. Population of the Prairie Provincf>s, 1901, 190r., IfIll. 1916 and 1921... .., .... 
35. Population of the Prairie Pro"inces by Sex at eac'h Census Period from 1870 for 
l\lanitoba and from I!.1Ol for Saskatchewan and .\.Iberta........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
11. Pnpulation of the British Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..................... 
36. Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 1911 and 1921. . . . . . 
12. J'opulation of the World........ . ..... ... ......... ...................... ..... 
37. Number and Density of the Population of the Yarious Countries of the "'orld . 
2. Vital Statistics......... . . . . . . . ., . . . . . ., .. .. .. . .. . . . 
l.i.l\'atural Increase..................................................... -...... 
38. Bummary of Births, :\Jarria
('!!, Deaths and Natural Increase, by Provinces, for 
the calcndar years I!I:?O, 19:11 and 1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
39. Summary of Births, l\Iarriages, Dpaths and Natural Increase, by Cities of 10,000 
and over, for the calendar year 1921......... .. . . . . . . . ... ., . . .. . . . . ., . . . .. 
2. Births................... ........... ....................................... 
40. Summary Analysis of Birth Statistics for the calendar years 1920 and 1921... . . 
41. Births per 1,000 Married 'Vomen of Child-bearing age, hy Provinces, HI:?1.. . . . 


PAGE. 
140-182 
140-149 
140 
140 
141 
141 
144-148 
148 


149 
140-151 
150 
151 
151 
152-154 


1.'J2 


153 
153-154 
154-155 


155 
155-157 


156 


156 
156-157 
157-162 
159 
159 
1oo-1tB 
162 
162-165 
163 
163 
Hì4-165 
lüü-lü7 
lü6 


Hì7 
1ß7 -175 
169 
170 


171 
171 


171-173 
173-17i) 
176-177 
176 
176-177 
177-180 
177-180 
181-182 
181-182 
183-204 
18,)-187 
186 
187 
188-192 
188 
189 



2. Vital Statistlcs-concluded. 
42. Births by Sex and Ratio of Males to Females, 1921....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
43. Illegitimate Births in Registration Area, by Age of Mother and by Provinces, 
1921 and 1922....... ... . '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 
44. Stillbirths in Registration Area, by Age and Status of Mother and by Provinces, 
1921 and 1922...... . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . '" . .... . . ... . . . ... . . . . . 
45. Crude Birth Rates of Various Countries in Recent years................... .. 
3. Marriages.................................................................. 
46. Marriages and Marriage Rates, by Provinces, 1921 and 1922 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
47. Previous Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms, 1921.. . . " ... . . . .. ..... 
48. Nativity, by Percentages of Persons Married, in the Registration Area, by 
Provinces, 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
49. Crude Marriage Rates of Various Countries in Recent years........ .......... 
4. Deaths........................................................... . . . ... . .. . 
50. Deaths and Death Rates, by Provinces, 1920, 1921 and 1922......... . . . . . . . .. 
51. Excess of Births over Deaths, by Provinces, for each Sex and by Totals, 1921 . . 
52. Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading Causes, 1921 
and 1922....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 196-197 
53. Deaths from Tuberculosis in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922.. . .. 197-198 
54. Deaths from Cancer in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922.... . . . . .. 198-199 
55. Crude Dcath Rates of Various Countries in Recent Years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 
56. Infantile Mortality by Provinces, together with the rate per 1,000 Living Births, 
1920, 1921 and 1922....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
57. Number and Ratio of Infant Deaths in the Registration Area to Living Births, 
by Sex and Provinces, 1921. ........................................... 
58. Infantile Mortality by Se... in the Registration Arca by Principal Causes of 
Death, 1921 and 1922. ..... .. . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
59. Rate of Infant l\1ortality p
r 1,000 Living Births in Various Countries of the 
World in Recent years..... ............. ............. ............ ...... 
60. Rate of Infant Mortality per 1,000 Living Births in Great Cities of the World 
in Recent Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
61. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area by Age Groups, 1921-1922....... 
62. Maternal Mortality in the Registration Area by Causes of Death, 1921-1922. .. 
3. Immigration.................................................................. 
1. Statistics of Immigration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
63. Number of Immigrant Arrivals in Canada from the United Kingdom, the United 
States and other countries, 1897-1923......... ................. ...... 206 
64. Immigrant Arrivals in Canada, by Nationalities and Races, Fiscal years 1916- 
1923......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . 207-208 
65. Destination of Immigrants into Canada, by Provinces, 1901-1923............. 208 
66. Occupation and Destination of Total Immigrant Arrivals in Canada for the 
fiscal years 1922 and 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
67. Rejcctions of Immigrants upon Arrival at Ocean Ports and Deportations after 
Admission, by Principal Causes and by Nationalities, 1903-1923........ ..... 
68. Juvenile Immigrants and Applications for their Senrices, 1901-1923............ 
69. Record of Chinese Immigration, 18R6-1923........... .... .... ..... .... ..... 
70. Rccord of Oriental Immigration, 1901-1923. .... . . . . . . . . " . . 
71. Expenditure on Immigration in the fiscal years, 1868-1923..... .... ... ...- 
2. Immigration Policy... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


vii 


VI. POPULA TION-concluded. 


PAGE. 


189 


190 


191 
192 
192-194 
193 
193 


194 
194 
194-204 
195 
196 


200 


201 


201 


202 


203 
203 
204 
205-215 
205-214 


209 


210--211 
211 
212 
213 
214 
214-215 


VII. PRODUCTION. 
I. r General Survey of Production...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 216-220 
I. Summary by Industries of thc Value of Production in Canada during 1920 and 
1921......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ....... ........ .... . 219 
2. Summary by PrQvinces of the Value of Production in Canada, 1920...... .... . 219 
3. Percentages of the Value of the Net Production in each Industry to the Total 
Net Output of each Province, 1920....... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 
2.- Agriculture...................................... .... ......... .... .. _.. .. 220-309 
1. Development of Agriculture in Canada........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 220-225 
1. The Beginnings of Agriculture... .. .. . . . ..... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. ........... _ . . . ., 220-221 
2. Agriculture in the Provinces before Confederation... . ... . .. .. . ..... .... . . . . . . . .. .. 221-224 
3. Progress since Confederation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 224-225 
2. The Government in Relation to Agriculture.. .. .................................. 225-235 
1. The Dominion Department of Agriculture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 
2. Provincial Departments of Agriculture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 226-227 
3. Agricultural Experiment Stations of Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 
4. Dominion Experimental Farms and Stations... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 227-230 
5. Provincial Experimental Farms and Stations..... . ....... ........... ... . . . .. .. . ... 230-235 
3. Statistics of Agriculture.... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 235-309 
1. Acreage, Yield, Quality and Value of Crops.. ....... .... ... .. ." ... . . . ..... . .... .. 236-260 
1. Area, Yield, Quality and Value of Principal Field Crops in Canada, 1917-1922 
and five-year average, 1917-1921 ......... '.' .... . . " . . . ..... .. . . . . .. .. ... 238-254 
2. Annual Average Yields per Acre of Field Crops for Canada, ßnd by Provinces, 
from 1915-1922, with decennial averages for the years 1912-1921... . . . . . . . .. 255-257 
3. Areas !\nd Yields of Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye and Flaxseed in the three Prairie 2-7 
ProVInces, 1920-1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. ... .. . . . .... . .. . . a 
4. Total Areas and Values of Field Crops in Canada, 1
17-1922..... ... . . . . . . . . . 2.38 



viii 


VII. PRODUCTION-continued. 


2. A
riculture-continued. 
5. Field Crops of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 1921 and 1922. 
6. Quality of Grain Crops, as indicated by Average Weight per measured bushel, 
1913-1922... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....................................... 
7. Average Value!! per Acre of Occupied Farm Lands in Canada, as estimated by 
Crop Correspondents 1908-1910, 1914-1922.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2ðO 
2. Farm Live Stock and Poultry............................................... . . . .. 2ðO-270 
8. Numhers of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1921-1922............. 261-263 
9. Estimaterl Numbers of }'arm Live Stock in Canada, 1917-1922............... 263-264 
10. Avcrage Values of Farm Animals and of 'Wool, as estimated by Crop Correspond- 
ents, 1916-1922.......0. . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......... '265--266 
11. Average Values per head of Farm Live Stock in Canada, as estimated by Crop 
Correspondents, 1916-1922...... . . . . . ., . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . _. ............ 266-267 
12. I:stimated Total Values of Farm Live Stock in Canada, by Provinces, 1916-1922267-268 
13. Estimated Numbers and Values of Farm Poultry in Canada, 1921-1922........ 269-270 
3. Fur Farming. 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' ......... 270-271 
14. Number of Fur Farms and Value of Land and Buildings, 1920, 1921 and 1922. 0 271 
15. Number and Value of Fur Bearing Animals on Fur Farms in Canada. 1920, 1921 
and 1922........... ............. ...................................... 
4. Dairying Statistics....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
lb. Production and Value of Creamery Butter, by Provinces, 1920-1922......... . . 
17. Production and Valúe of Factory Cheese, by Provinces,. 1920-1922. . . . . . .. . ., . 
18. l\Iiscellaneous Products of Dairy Factories, 1920, 1921, 1922....... . . . . . . . . . . . 
19. Production and Value of Creamery Butter and Factory Cheese in Canada, by 
Provinces, 1900, 1910, 1915 and 1920-1922.. 0" . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . .. 273-274 
20. Total Value of all Product", of Dairy Factories, by Provinces, 1918-1922.. . . . . . 274 
5. Fruit Production......... . . .0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 275-277 
21. Fruit Trees, Bearing and Non-bearing, togcther with Average Number per Farm 
and per 100 Acres of Improved Land, 1911 and 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
22. Fruit Production for all Canada, together with the A verage Production per Farm 
and per 100 Acres of Improved Land, 1900-1920........ .. . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . 
23. Production and Value of Apples in Canada. by Provinces, in 1920, according to 
the Census of 1921......................0............................... 
24. Production and Value of Commercial Apples in Canada, by Provinces, 1921 and 
1922. ................................................................ 276 
25. Production and Value of all Kinds of Commercial Fruits in Canada, 1920-1922. 277 
6. Farm Labour and '''ages............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............................ 278-280 
26. Average'" ages of Farm Help in Canada, as Estimated by Crop Correspondents, 
1915-1922...........0........ .... .................................... 278-279 
27. Average" ages per Year of Farm Help in Canada, as Estimated by Crop Corre- 
spondents, 1920-1922.......... . . . . . . . . . .0.. 0 . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . 280 
7. Prices of Agricultural Produce...... ............................................ 280-292 
28. "\\ eekly Range of Cash Prices per Bushel of Canadian Wheat at Winnipeg, 
Basis in store, Fort William-Port Arthur, 1922. .... . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . .... . . . .. 281-282 
29. l\Ionthly Range of Average Cash Prices of'tanadian Wheat at Winnipeg, Basis 
in store, Fort "\\"illiam-Port Arthur, 1920-1922 . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............ . 282-283 
30. "\\ eekly Range of Cash Prices of Oats at "\\"innipeg, Basis in Store, Fort William- 
Port Arthur, 1922..... ............................................... 0 283-284 
31. "eekly Range of Cash Prices of Rarley and Flaxseed at Winnipeg, Basis in Store, 
Fort William-Port Arthur, If)22. .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 284-285 
32. l\Ionthly Hange of Average Ca.,h Prices of Barley, Oats and Flaxseed at Winni- 
peg, Basis in Store, Fort William-Port Arthur, 1920-1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
33. l\lonthly Hanj!e of Average Prices in British Markets of Canadian Wheat and 
Oats, 192o-1!J22.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ...... 286-287 
34. Ymrly AVPT3ge Prices of Home Gro\\n '" heat, Barley and Oats in Englantl and 
,\ ales, 1!J02-1922... " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '" ..... 
35. A"erage 
lonthly Prices of Flour, Bran, and 
horts at Principal Markets, 1022 
36. Averagp Pripps per C\\ to of Canad;an Live Stock at Principal l\Iarkets. 1920, 
1921 and 1922. .................... .................................. 
37. Average l\Ionthly Prices per C\\t. of Canatlian Live Stock at Principal Markets, 
1922......................0- ......... 0............................. 
38. Average Prices per lb. paid by Farmers i0r Grade Number 1 Clover and Grass- 
sed., by Pro" inces, durin!!: April and l\Iay, 1 !l23, and Average Prices for Canada 
during April and 
lav, UIl9-1!J2
...... ........ ......................... 
39. A" eragc Pncps per lb'-Paid to Farmers for Clover and Grass-8Cpd, by ProvincE !, 
during .\pril and l\Iay, 1!J23, and Average Prif'es for Canada during April and 
l\lay, 1919-192
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... 
40. Index Numbers of Agricultural PriCI 
 for Canada. 1914-1922......... 
8 Mif>cellaneous Agricultural Statbtics....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . 
41. E timatpd Production of ,\ 001. by Pro"inces, 1922.... 
42. Produption "tnd Value of 'Vool ill Canada, 1915-1922... . . .. 
43. Area and \ ielrl of Tobac 0 in Canada, HI2{}-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
44. Area, ): ield and Valup of Sugar Beets in Canada and Production of Refined 
Beet-root SUjI;ar, 1911-1922..... .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
45. Maple Product'! in the Prm ince of Quebec, 1!!18-H122.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
46. Stock!) of Grain in Farn1f'rs' Hands at the end of the Crop Years 1920-22... . . . 
47. Stocks of Grain in ('anada at the close of the Crop Years 1020, 1921 and HI22. 
48. Stocks of Wheat in Canada, March 31, HI19-1923. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 
49. Stocks in Canada of Oats, Barley and I'Iax<;ped, March 31, 1922 and 1923...... 
50. DistriLution of Canadian ,\ heat Crops of 1921 and If)22....... .. . 
51. Dif>tributioll of {'anadiail. Oat Crops of 1921 and 1922..............0. ....... 


PAOB. 



ð8 


2
9 


271 
271-274 
272 
272 
273 


275 


275 


276 


2Sö 


287 
288 


289 


290 


291 


291 
292 


292-2U!I 
2!I:l 
2(14 
294 


295 
296 
2!J6 
2
}6-297 
2U7 
297 
298 
298 



VII. PRODUCTION-continued. 
2. Agriculture-concluded. 
9. Summary Statistics of Agricultural Revenue and .Wealth..... . . .. ................. 299-301 
52. Estimated Gross Annual Agricultural Revenue of Canada, by Provinces, 1918- 
1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 299-300 
53. Estimated Gross Agricultmal Wealth of Canada, by Provinces, 1922........ . . . 301 
10. Statistics of the World's Agriculture.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . .. 302-309 
54. Acreage and Production of Cereals and of Potatoes in various Countries of the 
World, 1921 and 1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 303---307 
55. Yields per Acre of Cereals and of Potatoes in Yarious Countries of the World, 
HJ21 and HJ22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Forestry........ . ........... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Physiography, Geology and Climate from a Forestry "Viewpoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. ltI ain Types of Forest Growth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Important Tree Species....... " ..................... ................. ........ 
4. Forest Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Estimated Stand of Timber of merchantable size in Canada, by Regions, 1922. . 
5. Forest Administration....... -. . . .. - - . - - - - . . . .. . . . . . . .... .... . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . 
6. Forest Utilization............................................................ 
2. Lumber, Lath and Shingle Production in Canada for the calendar years 1908-1921 
3. Total Prod1iction of Lumber, Lath and Shingles in Canada, by Kinds of Wood, 
for the calendar year 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Production of Lumber, Lath and Shingles in Canada, by Provinces, for the 
calendar 
-par 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5. Imports of Forest Products, by Chief Classes, calendar years 1920-22. - . . . . . ... . 
6. Exports of Forest Products, by Chief Classes, calendar years 1920-22. . . . . . . .. . . 
7. Production, Consumption and Export of Pulpwood, calendar years 1908-22..... 
8. Pulp Production, Mechanical and Chemical, calendar years 1908-22....... . . . . . 
9. Pulp Production, by Classes and Provinces. calendar years 1921-22....... " . . . 
10. Summary of Paper Production in Canada, calendar years 1917-22..... . . . . . . 
11. Paper Production in Canada, by Classes, calendar years 1921-22..... . .... .. . . 
12. Exports of 'Wood Pulp, by Countries, calendar year 1922.... ................ 
13. Imports of Wood Pulp, by Countries, C'alendar year 1922.. . . . . - . . - - . - . . . . . . . . 
14. Exports of Paper, by Principal Countries, calendar year 1922... . . . . . 
15. Imports of Paper, by Principal Countries, calendar year 1922 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . - . . 
16. Summary Statistics of Forest Products, 1917-21............................. 
17. Total Values of Primary and Secondary Forest Production, 1920-21... ... . . . .. 
7. Forest Depletion and Increment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Fur Trade............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Numbers and Values of Pelts Purchased by Traders from Trappers and Fur 
Farmers, years ended June 30, 1921-22............ . - . . . . . . . . .. .......... 
2. Kind, Number, Total Value and Average Value of Pelts of Fur Bearing Animals 
taken in Canada, year ended June 30, 1922, v.ith Comparative Average Values 
for the year ended June 30, 1921 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 
5. Fisheries....... .... .... ............. .... 345-361 
1. The Early Fisheries........ . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ 345. 
2. The Canadian Fishing Gro',nds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . _ _ . . 346-349 
3. The Gorernment and the Fisheries. . .. ................. _ . . . . . . . . - ........ 349-351 
1. Government Bounties to Fishermen, in the fi,;C'al years 1918-1921... . . . . . 351 
4. The Modern Fishing Industry....... .... ......... .... .351-3ßl 
2. Total Value of the Fisheries of Canada, in the fiscal years 1870-1921...... 352 
3. Total Value of Fisheries, by Provinces in the calendar years 1917-21... 352 
4. Quantity and Value of Chief Commercial Fishcs, 1917-21.. ...... . .... . .. .... 352-333 
5. Quantities and Values of Sea fish marketed during the calendar years 1920 and 
1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . ...... . . . . . . . .. 3.')4-355 
6. Quantities and Values of Inland Fish l\Iarketed during calendar years 1920 and 
1921..................................................... -.. - . ...... 
7. Yield of the Fisheries of Canada, compared as to Quantity and Value, for 
1920-1921..... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8. Number of Fish Canning and Curing Establishments, by Provinces, 1921....... 
9. l\Iaterials used and Value of Products of Fish Canning and Curing Establish- 
ments, 1920-1921. .. . .. ............ .................................. 
10. Number and Capital Value of Fishing Ve spl'!, Boats, Nets, Traps, etc., used in 
the Fisheries of Canada, 1920-21........ . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
11. Number of Persons Employed in the Fisheries of Canada 1920-21... ........ 
12. Salaries and Wages in Fish Canning and Curing Establi!>hmcnts, 1920-21. 
13. Value of Exports and Imports of Fish and Fish Products. 1902-1922. .... ... 
14. EXPOIts of the Fisheries, the Produce of Canada, by Principal Countries, in the 
fiscal years 1921 and 1922. ..... . . . . . . . . . . .. .......................... 360 
15. Exports of the Fisheries compared as to Quantit
 and Value, for the fiscal years 
1\.121 and 1922........ .. ... .. . ... . . . .. . .. 360-361 
6. Mines and Minerals....... ............. .... _ _.. 361-400 
1. General Production...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . . .,. . .. . . 361-369 
1. Value of Mineral ProduC'tion in Canada, calendar years 18"),j-1921.. ............ 3G2 
2. :\li
eral Production of Canada, calendar 
ears 1921 and 1922.... . . . . . . . . . . . " 362-3b3 
3. l\Iin<::-al Production of Canada compared a to Quantity and Value, calendar 
years 
 021 and 1 t/22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


IX 


PAGE. 


308-309 
310-341 
310-311 
312-314 
314-317 
317-318 
3]8 
318-322 
322-339 
323 


325 


325 
326 
327 
328 
332 
334 
335 
335-336 
337 
337 
337 
338 
339 
339 
340-341 
341-345 


344 


356 


336 
357 


357 


358 

5.' 
359 
360 


364 



x 


VII. PRODUCTION-continued. 


6. Mines and Minerals-concluded. 
4. l\Iineral Production of Canada, by Provinces, 1800-1922.. . . - 
5. l\1ineral Production of Nova Scotia, 1920-1021-1922.. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . - . 
6. l\1!neral Product
on of New Brunswick, 1920-1921-1922... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 
7. Mmeral ProductIOn of Quebec, 1920-1921-1922.. ....................... .... 
8. l\1ineral Production of Ontario, 1920-1921-1922...... .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
9. l\1ineral Production of Manitoba, 1920-1921-1922...... .. . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
10. l\Iineral Production of Saskatchewan, 1920-1!)21-1922.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
11. l\1ineral Production of Alberta, 1920-1921-1922... -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . 
12. l\Iineral Production of British Columbia, 1920-1921-1922. - ............. 
13. l\1ineral Production of Yukon, 1920-1921-1922........ 
2. lIfetallic 111inerals....... . . . . . . . . ., .. . . .. . - . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . 
1. Gold.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
14. Quantity of Gold Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calendar years 1911-1922. 
15. Value of Gold Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calendar years 1911-1922... . 
16. QU'l.ntity and Value of the \Vodd's Production of Gold and Silver for calendar 
years 1920-1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . - - . 374-375 
2. Silver........ ... .................................. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 375--377 
17. Quantity 
md Value of Silvcr Produced in Canada during the calendar years 
1
'-i7-1922. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
18. Quantity and Valu!' of Silvpr Produced in Canada. by Provinces, during the 
calendar years 1911-1922... _ _.' _... ......... .............. 377 
3. Copper.................................. _ . . _ . . _ ....... ....................... 378-379 
19. Quantity and Value of Copper Produced in Canada, by Provinces, calcndar 
years 1911-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . 379 
20. Copper Production of Seven Countries and of the World, 1013-1022. .... . - - 379 
4. Lead......................................................................... . 380-381 
21. Quantity and Value of Lpad Produced from Canadian Ore, calendar y
ars 
1887-1922. - _ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ........................... 
5. NickeL............. - . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............................................. 
22. Quantity and Value of Nickel Produced in Canada during calendar years 1889- 
1922........ ............... -. .......................... 
6. Cobalt........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
7. Zinc...... ............................. -....................... .............. 
23. Production of Zinc in Canada, calendar years 1911-1922........ ......... 
8. Iron......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
24. Iron Ore Shipments and Production of Pig Iron, calendar years 1909-1922.... 
3. Non-Metallic 1I1inerals.... . . . . . - . '.' ... . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. . .. ............... 
1. Coal.................... ....... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
25. Production of Coal in Canada, calendar ycars 1909-1922... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
26. Imports into Canada of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal for Home Consumption, 
fi.,cal ycars 1901-1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................. 
27. Exports of Coal, the produce of Canada, fi
f'al years 1903-1!)23.. . . . . . . . 
2R. Annual Consumption of Coal in Canada, c
('ndar years 1!)0l-1!)22 .......... .. 
29. Coal made available for consumption in Canada, by Provinces, calendar year 
1922. .. _ . . . .. . . . . . . 388-300 
Coal Resources of the Provinces..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391-394 
30. Coal Resources of Canada, by Provinces and Classes of Coal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 
31. Coal Production in the Principal Countries of the \\ orId, 1!)13-1921... 394-395 
2. Asbestos..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 395-396 
32. Production of .\<;bestos and Asbestic in Canada, calpndar years 1900-1922...... 3!)6 
3. Otner Non-
Ietallic Minerals. . . ." .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 396 
4. Clay Products and Structural lIIaff'rials......... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 306-397 
33. Production of Cement in Canada, calendar years 1902-1922... . .. .,. - . . - . . . . 397 
34. Imports into Canada of Portland Cement, fiscal year::! 1:0;98-1023.... _. . 3!)7 
5. Number of ."fines, Capital, Labour, Wages, etc., by Principal Groups. . . . . . . . . .. .. 397-400 
35. Summary of Principal 
tatistips rplative to :\linin
. l\1ptallurgical, Structural 
:\Iaterials and Clay Products Industrie", Operating Plants, 1!J21......... .... .. 309-400 
7. \Vater Powers............. .... . _........... ..... ......... ......... ... 401-411 
1. TVater Powers of Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., .......... - - . . .. 401-404 
I. Devploped \\"atcr Power of leading countrics, J!I22... . . . _ . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . 401 
2. Available and Developed Water Power in Canada. February 1, 1023....... ... 402 
3. Developed \\ ater Power in Canada, February 1, 1923... ...... . . . . . .. -. . . . . . . 403 
4. Developed 'Water power in Canada, Utilizcd in the Central Electric Station 
Industry, February I, 1923. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .., . . . 
5. Developed Water Power of Canada used in the Pulp and Paper Industry, February 
I, 1923........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Central Electric Stations.... - - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Statistics of Central Electric Stations, calendar years 1917-1!J21.. . . . . . . . .. ... 
7. Electric Energy Geupmted in calendar years lOBI, 1!J20, 1921, by Provinces. . .. 
8. Number of Electric Light and Power Companies registered under the Electricity 
Inspection Act in the fiscal years 1914 -1923. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
9. Electrical Energy Generated or Produccd for Export by Canada under the 
authority of the Electricity and Fluid Exportation Act during thc fiscal ycar
 
1918--1923........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ., . . . . . 


PAGE. 


365 
363 
3ß6 
3ß6 
3ß7 
368 
3ß8 
368 
369 
360 
370-384 
370-375 
370 
371 


377 


3
0 
381 


381 
382 
382-383 
382-383 
383-384 
384 
384-396 
3R4-3!)5 
385 


387 
;
87 
310.18 


403 


404 
404-406 
404 
405 


406 


406 



7. Water Powers-concluded. 
3. Public Ownership of Hydro-Electric Power.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 406--411 
10. Consolidated Operating Report of the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario, 1912-1922....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
11. Statement of Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Departments of 
Municipalities served by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Commission, calendar 
years 1919-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12. Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Electric D('partments of :l\Iunicipalities 
sen'ed by the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission for the calendar 
years 1919-1922. .. ........ _ . . . . . .. ....... ...... . . . ... 0 .. .. 409-410 
8. Manufactures................................................................. 411-459 
1. Et1olution of Canadian 111 anufactures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . 0 . . .. 411-413 
2. Statistics of ..1-/anufactures.... .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . .. 413-443 
1. Growth since 1871......................................................... _. . .. 413-416 
1. Historical Summary of Statistics of Manufactures. by Provinces, 1870-1921. . .. 415-416 
2. Recent ::\Ianufacturing Production................................................ 417-431 
2. Volume of Products of Canadian Manufactures, 1915-1921.......... .... .... 417 
3. Summary 
tatistics of ::\Ianufactures of Canada, 1919, 1920, 1921.. . . . . 0 . . . . . . 418 
4. Principal Statistics of Forty Leading Industries, 1920..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 418-419 
5. Principal Statistics of Forty Leading Industries, 1921.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 
6. Summary Statistics of l\Ianufacturps, by Groups of Industries (old classifica- 
tion) 191R, 19HI, HJ20.......... .......................... _.... _. _ ... 420-421 
7. Statistics of the Numbers, Capital, Employees, Wages, Cost of Materials and 
Value of Products of Canadian :Manufacturing Industries, 1921, with summary 
by groups for HJ20 (new classification).. . . .. . . .. . . ..0. . . . . . . 0 422-431 
3. Capital Employed........... 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 430-432 
B. Capital Employed in the :\Ianufacturing Industries of Canada, in Percentages, by 
Provinces, 1915, 1917-21............ . .....0.......... ........... ........ 
9. Capital Employed in the l\Ianufacturing Industries of Canada, by Industrial 
Groups, 192(}-1921...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
10. Capital Employed in the l\Ianufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces 
and by Groups of Industries, 1921_ . . . . . . . . . _ _ .. . . . . . 0 432 
4. Employment....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . 433-435 
11. 'V age Earners in Manufacturing Indu!'tries, 1915-1921............... .... ... 433 
12. Average Yearly Earnings and Real Wages of 'Yage Earners in l\Ianufacturing 
Industries. 1913-1921......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434: 
13. Male and Female Employees on Salaries and Wages, by Provinces, 1920 and .1921 435 
5. Power and Fuel..... _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ .. 435-437 
14. Power used in the Manufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces and Groups 
of Industries, 1921... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 
15. Fuel used in the l\Ianufacturing Industries of Canada, by Provinces, 1921...... 437 
6. Localization in :\Ianufacturing Industries.......................................... 437-443 
16. Statistics of ::\Ianufactures, by Cities, Towns, and Villages of 1,000 Population 
and over, 1920........ . .. . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 438-443 
3. Typical Individual .\Ianufactures........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 443-459 
I. Flour l\Iilling.. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 444-446 
17. Production and Export of 'Wheat Flour, by 
Ionths, during the Crop Year 
ending August 31, 1923..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 
2. The Boot and Shoe Industry..... . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446-449 
3. The "'oollen Industry............................. . .... . . . . . . . . . . .. 0 . . . . . . 449-452 
4. The Iron and Steel Industry...... 452-456 
5. Chemical and Allied Industries.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . .. 456-459 
9. Construction.............................................................. 0 . . .. 459-462 
1. Relation of Construction Industry to General Business Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . .. 459-461 
1. Cost of l\Iaterials and Value of Products in the Construction Industries as reported 
to the Industrial Census, 1920-1921.................. ............. . _...... 
2. Employees, and Salaries and Wages Disbursed in the Construction Industries, as 
reported to the Industrial Census, 1920-1921.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . .. 
3. Value of General Construction completed by Classes of Work, 1921........ . . . . 
2. Construction in Transportation and Public Utility Industries....... 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
3. Contracts A warded. . . . . .. ................................................... 
4. Value of Construction Contracts awarded in Canada, 1918-1923, according to 
the compilation of MacLean Building Reports, Ltd........... .. . ......... 
4. Building Permits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5. Values of Building Permits Taken out in 35 Cities for the calendar years 1918- 
1923..................................................... 0............ 


xi 


VII. PRODUCTION-concluded. 


VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE. 
1. External Trade....... ..........................0.................... 
1. Historical Sketch of External Trade and Tariffs...... 0 . .. . .. ... .. . . . . .. . . 
2. The Commercial Intelligence Sert1ice...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3. Statistics of External Trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Aggregate External Trade of Canada, 18ü8-1923.... . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 


PAOE. 


408 


409 


432 


432 


460 


460 
461 
461 
461-462 


462 
462 


462 


463-579 
4ü3-465 
465-466 
466-554: 
470 



xii 


VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE-continued. PAGE. 
1. External Trade-concluded. 
1. Ratio of Exports to Imports and Value per Capita of Exports, Imports and 
Total Trade. l!:iü8-1923... _. ........... . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 471 
3. Movement of Coin and Bullion, lR6S-1918......... . . . .. ................... 472 
4. Duties Collected on Exports, 18üh-l !:i92. and on Imports for Home Cons umption, 
IhÜ8-19:!3.... .... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . _ . . . _ ................... 473 
5. Exports to the United Kingdom. United States and to other Countries, of Mer- 
chandise. the produC'e of Canada. l!:iüS-1923....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 
6. Imports from the L"nited Kingdom. United States. and from other Countries 
of l\lerch:lIldise entered for Home Consumption. 186h-1923.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 
7. Percentage Proportions of Imports from Umted Kingdom and United States 
respectively. to Totals of Dutiable and Free in the 23 fiscal years 1901-U)23.. 476 
B. Average Ad Valorem Rates of Duty Collectal on Imports from the United 
Kingdom, rnited 
tate!<, and all Countries in the 56 fiscal years 1868-1923.. . 476 
9. Imports for Home Consumption of Certain Raw Materials used in Canadian 
t.lanufactures, 1902-1923........... .. .... .............. _ _..... ......... 477 
10. Exports to thc United Kingdom. to the United States and to all Countries by 
Classes of 
lerchandise, the Produce of Canada, by Values and Percentages, 
1920-1923... .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 
11. Imports from the Cnited Kingdom, from the United States and from all Coun.. 
ries, by Classes of )lerchandise entered for Home Consumption, by Values and 
Percentages. 1920-1923.... _ . . . .. ...................................... 479 
12. Exports of Canada to the United Kingdom, United States and all Countries. in 
Quantities and Values, by Classes of Home Produce in the 4 fiscal years 1920- 
1923...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . - - ......... 480-505 
13. Imports of Canada from the Cnited Kingdom, the United States and all Count- 
ries, in Quantities and Values, by Classes entered for Consumption, in the 4 
fiscal years 1920-UJ23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 506-537 
14. Imports (Dutiable and Free) and Exports of Canadian and Foreign Produce, by 
)Iain Classes. during the fiscal years ended l\Iarch 31. 1914, 1919-HJ22....... 538-539 
15. External Trade of Canada, by :\lain Groups and Degrees of .Manufacture, 
according to Origin, year ended March 31, 1922......... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. 540-541 
16. Summary of the Trade of Canada. by )Iain Groups, compiled on a Classifica- 
tion according to Purpose. fiscal year ended March 31, 1922...... . . . . . . . . . ., 542-546 
17. Value of Total Exports and Imports entered for Conswnption and the Duty 
Collected thereon at certain Ports, during fiscal years ended l\larch 31, 1922 
and 1923....... ..... .... ............. ................................. 547-548 
lB. Imports of Canada, by values entered for Consumption, from the British Empire 
and :Foreign Countries under the General, Preferential, and Treaty Rate 
Tariffs in the 2 fiscal years 1921-1922. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M9 
19. Aggregate Trade of Canada, by Countries, for the fil:!cal year ended ;\Iarch 31, 
1923.... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 550-551 
20. Values of Exports of Home Produee from Canada to the British Empire and to 
]."oreign Countries in the 5 fiscal years 1919-1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . - . 552 
21. Values of Imports into Canada of Merchandise entered for Consumption from 
the British Empire and from Foreign Countpes. in the 5 fiscal years 1919-HJ23 553 
22. Value of Merchandise Imported into and Exported from Canada through the 
United States during the fiscal years ended )Iarch 31. 1921-1922........... 554 
4. Canadian-Irest Indian Trade................ ................................. 554-556 
23. Value of Imports and Exports from and to British and Foreign 'Vest Indies, 
1901-23..... ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 
24. Values of Exports I Domestic and Foreign) to the British and Foreign "Test 
Indies, by Countries, during fi"cal years 1921-192;{..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 
25. Values of Imports entered for Home Consumption (Dutiable and Free) from the 
British and Foreign \\ est Indies, by CountrlCs, during th<: fiscal years 1!121-1923 556 
5. Statistics of the Fnited .({ingdom Import and United States Export Trade in Food 
Commodities ................ _ . . . . .. ..... 557-579 
26. Quantitil' and Yalups of 
electeù Animal and Agricultural Food Products 
imported into thp lnited hingùorn, by Countries \\ hence imported. during the 
5 calendar year", 1917-1921. __ ....... _................... ........ 557-5ül 
27. Quantities and Values of \nimal and Agricultural Products e"-ported from the 
ùnited State'! to principal countries, for the year ended June 3U, H117. and the 
calendar years 191h-19HJ-1920 and 1921....... . . . ... . . . . . .. 561-579 
2. Internal Trade. _.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0-612 
1. InteT1JTOvincial Trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 580 
2M. Rail\'. ay Traffic 1\10' ement of \\ hpat in Canada and its provincl 
, in tons. for 
the calendar years 19:!1 and 19:!2. . .. . 500 

.Gra'.Trad ,stall' ......... .. 5ðl-594 
29. Number and Stora
e Capacit
 of Grain Elpvators in the licens years 1913-1!}
3.. 5'-'6-587 
30. Quantiti of Grain Inspected during the fiscal Y".ns 1921-HI:!3... ........... 5:- ,-591 
31. Quantiti
 of Grain In..pect
d dUring the fi"cal year::! endpd )larch 31. HJ14 -1923 5!11-592 
32. Shipme111, uf Grain by V( eI::! from rort" illiam and I'ort \rthur, for the n.1vi- 
atioll f. 
::'ons 19:! 1- HJ:!:! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .' .. 593 
33. Shipmenu of Grain by \ ( wi", and all-Hail Route, from Fort \\ Illium and Port 
.\rthur. for th crop 
u.r Ildpd August 31. 1
:!1-1!122........ .... ........ 593 
34. Canadian Grain handled in I'ublic I:levators in the East. by crop year
 . nding 
Augu"t31.191E-l!122........ .... ........ ..... ......... 59& 
35. Canadian Grai'l h.mdled in Public I:levators in the East, by Ciao cs of Ports, 
during the crop :J,ear ending .\ugllst 31, 1!J:!2... ... ...................... 594 



xiii 


VIII. TRADE AND COMMERCE-concluded. 


2. Internal Trade-concluded. 
3. Marketing of Live Stock and Animal Products..... .. .... .... . . ............. ...... 594-604 
36. Animals on Farms and Killed or Sold by Farmers in Canada, by censal years, 
1871-1921 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 
37. Index Numbers of Animals on Farms in Canada, from 1918 to 1922........... 596 
38. Live Stock Marketed through Stock Yards, Packers, etc., in several provinces 
of Canada, 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .., ................................... 597-598 
39. Grading of Live Stock marketed at the Stock Yards of Canada, by provinces, 
calendar year 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 
40. Receipts and Disposition of Live Stock :It Principal Markets in Canada, calendar 
years 1921 and 1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 
41. Principal Statistics of the Slaughtering and Meat Packing Industry of Canada. 
for censal years 1871-1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 
42. Live Stock slaughtered at Canadian Inspected Establishments, by months, 1921- 
1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ .. ... 601 
43. Total and per capita Consumption of l\Ieats in Canada, per annum, calendar 
years 19HJ-1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . _ , . . . . . . . . . . 602 
44. Summary of Interprovincial and Export Shipments of Meats for fiscal year 1922 603 
4. Cold Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 604-606 
45. Cold Storage Warehousps in Canada, 1923....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 604-605 
46. Stocks of Food on hand in Cold Storage and in process of cure, by Months a.nd 
Commodities, 1922......... .... ............. ............. . _.. .... ...... 606 
5. CoaL... . . . .. ...................................... . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 606-608 
47. Distribution of Coal through Retail Dealers, by Provinces, 1921 and 1922.... 607 
48. Yearly Average Retail Prices of Coal in Canada, by Principal Municipalities, 
1920-1921-1922........ . . . . . . . . . . . . '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., . . . . . . .. 607-608 
6. Bounties, Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Marks..... . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. _.. . . . _ . _ . . . .. 608-612 
49. Bounties pairl in Canada on Crude Pptroleum, 1903-1923... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 
50. Number of Canadian Patentees, by province of 


idence, for the fiscal years 
1913-1923.......... . . ........................... .... . ..... ........... 610 
51. Statistics of Patents applied for, granted, etc., fiscal years 1919-1923. ........ . 611 
52. Statistics of Copyrights, Trade Marks, etc., fiscal years 1919-1923........ . . . . . 612 


IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS. 
1. Government Control over Agencies of Transportation and Communication.... 
The Board of Railway Commissioners for Canada. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Steam Railways................................................. _ ... _ _ _..... 
1. Historical Sketch. . . . . .. . . . - . . . . - .. . . - . - . 
2. Statistics of Steam Railways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
I. Record of Steam Railway Mileage, June 30, 1835-1919, and December 31, 
1919-19:!
........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Steam Hailway Mileage, by provinces, June 30, 1916-1919 and December 31, 
1919-1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . _ . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....................... 
3. Capital Liability of Steam Railways, June 30, 1876-1919, and December 31, 
1919-1922..... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Mileage, Capital Liability, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways, 
for the calendar year 1921. . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5. Mileage, Capital Liability, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Railways, 
for the calendar year 1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Steam Railway Statistics, years ended June 30, 1901-1919 and for the calendar 
years 1919-1922........... ................. ........................... 
7. Earnings and Operating Expenses of Steam Rail ways per mile of line and per train 
... mile for years ended June 30,1909-1919 and for calendar years 1919-1922. __ 
B. Distribution of Operating Expenses of Steam Raih\ ays for the calendar years 
1919-1922................ ............. ........ ..... .. ................. 
9. Summary Analysis of Statistics of Passenger and Freight Services and Receipts, 
1910-1922......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ". . . .. 628-629 
10. Number of Steam Railway Employees, Amount of Salaries and Wages and 
Ratios of latter to Gross Earnings and Operating E"-pcnses for years ended 
June 30, 1907-1919 and for calendar years HJ19-1922........ . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . 
11. Mileage and Rolling Stock of Steam Railways for years ended June 30, 1918 
and 1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922................. _ _.......... .. 
12. Commodities hauled as Freight on Steam Railways during the calendar years 
1920, 1921 and 1922....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63(H)31 
13. Areas of Land Subsidies Granted to Steam Raih\ays by the Dominion and 
Provincial Governments up to December 31, 1922.......................... 
14. Railway Bonds Guaranteed by Dominion and Provincial Governments........ . 
15. Analysis of the Total Financial Aid given to Steam Railways up to December 

 31, 1922.... . . .. ................................... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
16. Cost of Construction, Working Expenses, and Revenue of Canadian Government 
Railways for the fiscal years 1868-HJOO, 1901-1922 and I:efore Confederation.. 633-634 
17. Capital Expenditure on Government Railways to March 31, 1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . 634 
18. Number of Passengers, Employees and others killed and injured on Steam 
Railways, for the years ended June 30, 1888-1919, and for calendar years 
1919-1922........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
19. Number of Persons killed and injured on Steam Railways, for the calendar years 
1920-1922......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. 635-636 
20. Canadian National Railways Train Traffic Statistics for years ended December 
31, 1920, 1921 and 1922......... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. 636-637 


PAGE. 


614-616 
615-616 
616-637 
616-623 
623-637 


623 


624 


624 


625 


626 


627 


627 


628 


629 


630 


632 
633 


633 


635 



XIV 


IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS-continued. PAGE. 
3. Electric Railways.............................................................. 637-642 
21. Summary Statistics of Electric Railway Operation, years ended June 30, 1901- 
1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922.... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. 
22. Mileage and Equipment of Electric Railways for the calendar years 1919-1922. 
23. Capital Liability of Electric Railways, years ended June 30, 1908-1919, and for 
calendar years 1919-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
24. Mileage Operated, Capital, Earnings and Operating Expenses of Electric Rail- 
ways in Canada, year ended December 31, 1921.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ....... 
25. Mileage Operated, Capital, Earnings, Operating Expenses, Employees and 
Salaries and Wages of Electric Hail\\8Ys in Canada, year ended December 31, 
1922................................................................. 641-642 
26. Number of Passengers, Employees and others killed and injured on Electric 
Railways, years ended June 30, 18!)4-1919, and for calendar years 1919-1922. 642 
-4. Express Companies....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 642-646 
27. Operating Mileage of Express Companies in Canada, by Routes, by Provinces 
and by Companies, for the calendar years 1919-1922... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
28. Earnings of Express Companies for the years cnded June 30, 1915-1919 and for 
the calendar years 1919-1922..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ ......... 
29. Operating Expenses of Express Companies for the years ended June 30, 1915- 
1919, and for the calendar years 1919-1922............... ......... - - .... 
30. Business transacted by Express Companies in financial paper for the calendar 
years 1919--1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 
5. Roads and Hi\?,hways.......................................................... 646-648 
31. Classification of Canadian Highway and Road Mileages as at October 31, 1922. 647 
32. Statement of progress of the provinces under Canada High\\ays Act, 1919, to 
l\larch 31, 1922....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Motor Vehicles..... .... . ................... .. ......................... . ..... .. 
33. Number of .Motor Vehicles registered in Canada, by Provinces, 1907-1922...... 
34. T)-pes of Motor Cars registered in Canada, by Provinces, 1922................ 
35. Revenues from the Taxation of the Sale, Distrihution and Operation of l\1otor 
Vehicles, by Provinces, for the calendar year 1922........ . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 
Motor Vehicle Acts and Regulations in Force.......... . . . . ..... . . . .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 651-654 
Imports and Exports 0/ Motor Vehicles. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 654-655 
36. Canadian Imports and Exports of 1\lotor Vehicles, fiscal years ended l\1arch 31, 
1907-1923. ........ . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
7. Ale Navigation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . 
37. 
ulIlmary f-:tatistics of Civil Aviation in Canada, calendar years 1921 and 1922. 
38. Civil Aviation Accidents in Canada for the calendar years 1921 and 1922....... 
8. Canals................................................................ . . . 
39. Canals of Canada, Length and Lock Dimensions, 1922....................... 
40. Canal Traffic during the Navigation Seasons of 1921 and 1922, by direction and 
origin. _ . _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 
41. Distribution of Total Canal Traffic hy month!!, 1917-1922....... ... ........ 661 
42. Tonnage of Traffic by Canals and Classes of Products, 1921-1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 
43. Principal Articles carried through Canadian Canals during the navigation 
seasons, 1921 and 1922. ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. 661-662 
44. Traffic through the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal during the navigation 
seasons 190(}-1922, by Nationality of Vessels and Origin of Freight. . . . . . . . . . 
45. Traffic through all Canadian Canals during the navigation seasons 1900--1922, 
by Nationality of Vessels and Origin of Freight...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 
46. Traffic through individual Canadian Canals during the navigation seasons 
1!J18-1!J22................ ... ......................................... 663-664 
47. Total Expenditure and Hevenue of Canals, 18ü8-1922, and before Confederation 665 
48. Capital Expenditure for Construction and Enlargement of Canals for the fiscal 
years 186
-1922, and before Confedcration...... . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
49. Traffic through the Panama Canal by Nationality of Vessels, years ended June 
30, 1919-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 
50. Summary of Commercial Traffic through the Panama Canal, years ended June 
30, 1915-1922. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .' . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 667 
9. Shipping and Navigation........... ........ ................ ................... ü67-680 
51. ::;ea-going Vessels (exclusive of Coasting Vessels) entered and cleared u.t Canadian 
ports during the fiscal years 1921 and 1922... ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 
52. Sea-going Vessels cntpred and cleared at the Principal Ports of Canada, fiscal 
year 1922... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
53. Sea-going Vessels entprpd in\\ards and outwards hy COllntries, 1!J22.... . . . . . . . . 
54. Sea-going V pssels entered and cleared at Canadian Ports, with Cargo and in 
Ballast, 1901-1922.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '.' .. ., . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
55. Sea-going and Inland Vessels (exclusive of Coasting Vessels) arrived at and 
departed from Canadian Ports, 1901-1922........ . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
56. British and Foreign Vessels employed in the Coasting Trade of Canada, 1918- 
1922.............. ................................................ -" 
57. Canadian and American Vessels trading on Rivers and Lakes between Canada 
and the United States, exC'lusive of fprriagp, 1918-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
58. Statement showing, by Provinces, the Total Number and Tonnage of all Vessels 
entered and cleared at Canadian Ports during the fiscal year ended March 31, 
1922................................................................. . 
59. Vessels built and registered in Canada and Vessels sold to other Countries, 
fiscal years 1901-1922. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. 
60. Number and Net Tonnage of Vessels on the Registry of Shipping of Canada, 
by Provinces, calendar years 1912-1921...... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 


639 
639 


639 


640 


644 


645 


646 


648 
648-655 
650 
650 


65.5 
655--656 
656 
656 
657-667 
658-659 


662 


665 


666 


669 
670 


671 


671 


&72 


673 


674 


674 


675 



xv 


IX. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS-concluded. 


9. Shipping and Navigation-concluded. 
61. Revenue of the Department of l\larine, fiscal years 1917-1922............ .... 676 
62. Expenditure of the Department of .Marine, fiscal years 1917-1922.... . . ... . . .. 676-677 
63. Total Revenue and Expenditure of the Department of Marine, fiscal years 
1868-1922.......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
64. Steamboat Inspection during the fiscal year 1922.. ... . .... . ... . . . . ... .. . .. .. 
65. Number of Seamen Shipped and Discharged at Canadian Ports, calendar years 
1908-1921.......... . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
66. Canadian Wrecks and Casualties, for 1870-1900, for the years ended June 30, 
1901 to 1917, and for the calendar years 1918-1921......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 
67. Comparative Statement of Marine Danger Signals, fiscal years 1912-1922... . .. 
Canadian Government Jlerchant .,.[arine............. . . .. ...... ..., . . . .... ....:.. . . . 
Telegraphs.......................................... ........... _. .... .. .. .... 
68. Bummary Statistics of all Canadian Telegraphs, for calendar years 1920 and 1921 
69. Telegraph Statistics of Chartered Companies, June 30,1919, and for the calendar 
)-ears 1919-1921............ .......................... .... ............ 682 
70. Radio Stations licensed in Canada for the fiscal year 1923......... . ... . . . . . . .. 683-684 
71. Canadian Government Steamers equipped \\ith the Radiotelegraph, fiscal year 
1923................................................................. . 
72. Business and Cost of Maintenance of Radiotelegraph Stations, for the fiscal years 
1922 and 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 
73. 'Wireless and Radio Stations in operation in Canada, as at March 31, 1923.. . . . 685 
Telephones... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 686-688 
74. Progress of Telephones in Canada for years ended June 30,1917-1919 and for the 
calpndar years HH9-1921. . _ . . _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
75. Number of Telephone Companies in Canada, by Pro\inces, December 31, 1921. 
76. Number of Tell'phone Companies in Canada, 1911-1921.......... .... ........ 
77. Telephones in use, :\Iileage of 'Wire and number of Employees, by Provinces, 
December 31, 1921...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
78. Telephones in use, l\lileage of 'Wire and Number of Employees, 1911-1921...... 
79. Financial Statistics of Telephone Companil's, by Provinces, for the calendar 
year 1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 688 
80. Financial Statistics of Canadian Telephone Companies for the years 1912-1921. 688 
The Post Office......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . _ ........ ................ 689-696 
81. 1'-i umber of Post Offices in Operation in the several Provinces of Canada, 
:\Iarch 31, 1922..... ... _............................................. 
82. Statistics of Gross Postal Revenue of Offices collecting $10,000 and upwards, for 
the fiscal years 1921 and 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 691-692 
83. Revenue and Expenditure of the Post Office Department for the quinquennial 
years 1890 to 1910, and for the fiscal years 1911-1922.. .................... 692-693 
84. Operation of the Money Order System in Canada, fiscal years 1901-1922. . . . 693 
85. l\Ioney Orders by Provinces, fisC'al years 1918-1922.................... .... 694 
86. Number and Total Values of Postal Notes, fiscal years 1917-1922.. _.......... 695 
87. Issue of Postage Stamps, etc., fiscal years 1921 and 1922.... . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . 695 
88. Mail Subsidies and Steamship Subventions, fiscal years 1920-1922........... .. 696 


10. 


11. 


12. 


X. LABOUR, WAGES AND PRICES. 
1. Labour.......... ............. .... ......... .... .... ........ ................... 697-732 
1. Occupations of the People. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 697-701 
1. Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations in Canada, by Ages, 1911.......... . . . 698 
2. N umber of l\Ialt's and Females ten years of age and over engaged in Gainful 
Occupations, by Provinces, 1881-1911... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .' ... . . .. . . 698 
3. Numbers and Percentage Distribution by Industries of Persons engaged in 
Gainful Occupations, 1881-1911. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 699 
4. Percentage Distribution by Sexes of the Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations. 
by Industries and Provinces, 1911........ . . .. .... ...................... 700 
5. Numbers and Percentage Distribution by Nativity, Sex and Industries, of 
Persons engaged in Gainful Occupations, 1911.... . . . .. . . . ... .... ... .. .. . . . 701 
2. Dominion Department of Labour... .... ................. .... ... ........ 701-704 
3. Canada and the International Labour Organization. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 704-707 
Dominion-Provincial Conference relative to obligations of Canada under Labour 
Sections of Peace Treaties. . . . . . . _ _ . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . _ .. 706-707 
4. Organized Labour in Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 707-715 
6. Membership of Trade UniOlli! in Canada, 1911-1922.... ., . . . . ... . .. . . ..... . . 713 
7. International Trade Unions operating in Canada... . .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . .. ... 713-714 
8. Non-international Trade Unions operating in Canada..... . . . . . . .. .. . .... .... 715 
5. Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 715--716 
9. Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada, 1922-23...... .... .... .. . .. .... . .. ... . 716 
6. Employers'Liability and Workmen's Compensation in Canada...................... 716-721 
10. Provisions of Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Laws in the 
various Provinces in 1923.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. 718-721 
7. Trade Dispute$-Strikes and Lockouts ....................... ..................... 722-727 
11. Record of Trade Disputes by years, 1901-1922..... . . . ... . _ . ............ .... 722 
12. Trade Disputes by Industries, 1922. ......... . .. ........ _ . ....... ........ 724 
13. Trade Disputes by Causes and Results, 1922. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . 725 
14. Trade Disputes by Months, 1920, 1921, and 1922. .......................... 726 
15. Trade Disputes by Methods of Settlement, 1922. . .. ........................ 726-727 


PAG!:. 


677 
678 


679 


679 
679 
680 
680-68.'> 
681 


685 


686 
687 
687 


687 
688 


690 



xvi 


x. LABOUR, WAGES AND PRICES-concluded. PAGE. 
. Labour-concluded. 
8 Employment and Unemployment............................................... 728-732 
16. Index Numbers of Employment as reported by Employers, by Industries, as 
at the end of each month, January, 1921 to October, 1923........ . . . ... . . . .. 730 
17. Percentages by Provinces of t:"nemployment in Trade Unions, 1915-1923...... . 732 
2. \Vages.................. . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 732-743 
18. Index Numbers of Rates of Wages for Various Classes of Labour in Canada, 
1901-1923......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 
19. Rates of Wages and Hours of Labour of Employees of Steam Railways in 
Canada, HJ21, 19:!2 and 1923. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 
20. '" agrs and Hours of Labour of Employees in and about Coal Mines in Canada, 
1921, 1922 and 1!"1:!3......... .... .... ......... .... .... ........ ........ 734-735 
21. Samples of Wagt J and Hours of Labour for Various Factory Trades in Canada, 
1!J21, 1922 and 1923... . . . ... _........................................ 735-736 
22. Samph..3 of Wages and Hours of Labour for Unsh.iUed Factory Labour in Canada, 
1921, 1922 and 1923.. ...... ........................................... 737 
23. "" ages per Hour and Hours "orked pcr Week in Leading Trades in Canadian 
Cities, 1921, 1922 and Inn.... ................................ 737-738 
2-1. :\leùian 'Weekly \\agrs in :\Ianufacturing Indu'itries, 1915-1!J21............... 739 
25. 'Weekly "-ages of I:mployc s in Canadian Manufacturing Industries, 1920 and 
19:!1... .... . . . . .. ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ 739-740 
26. 'Wage Earncrs Classified by Groups of Industries and of \Vages, 1920 and 1921. 740 
Minimum WagesofFemaleEmployec8.... ....... .., .... ..........741-743 
27. Minimum" eekly ",Vages for Experienced Female Adults....... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 742-743 
3. Prices................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . .. .. .. 743-736 
1. JVhole.sale Prices........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7-14-751 
28. Index Kumbers of Wholesale PricI 3 in Canada, 1890-1921........ . . . . . . . . . . .. 746-748 
29. Index Numbers of Whole....ale Prict I by Groups of Commodities and by Months, 
1!119-1921. ..... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 
30. Weil!:htcd General Index 
umbers, Hil9-1922....... ..... 749 
31. 'Weighted Index Numbers b) Groups, If122........................... ..... 749 
32. Iudex Numbers of "holesale Prices by Origins and Degree of :\Ianufacture, by 

Iontbs, 1919-1921........ . . . . . .. . .. 749-750 
2. Retail Prices...... . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .., . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752-756 
33. Index Numbers of ChanS!:ps in the Cost of Living in Canada, Based upon Weighted 
Retail Prices, 1910-1923... ............. ............................... 752-753 
34. Prices and Index N umbprs of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fuel, Lighting 
and Rent in 60 Cities in Canada, 1913-1921, and by Months for 1922...... . .. 7.54-755 
35. Index Numbers of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fupl, Lighting, and 
Rent, in Canada, by Provinces and i\lonths, ]!J22...... 756 


XI. FI
ANCE. 
1. Public Finance.. ........ _... ......... .... .... ......... .... .... ...... 
1. Dominion Public Finance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................... 
1. Balance Sheet of the Dominion of Canada, as at Ma.rch 31, 1923..... . . . . .. . . . 
2. Receipts and Disbursements, fiscal years ended Ma,;rch 31,1919-1923. .......... 
3. Detailed Receipts on Consolidated Funri Account, 1919-1923.... . ., . .. 
4. Detailed Expenditure on Consolidated Fund Account, 1919-1923...... . . . . . . . . 
5. Principal Items of Hpceipts of Canada on Consolidated Fund Account, 1868-1923 
6. Principal Items of Dommion Expenditure, 1861:;-1923..... . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . . 
7. Population and Revenue and Expenditure per head, 1868-1923................ 
War Tar Revenue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
B. War Tax Revenue during the fiscal years ended 
Iarch 31, 1915-1923......... 
9. War Tax Revenue collected by the Customs and Excise Department, 
by Provinces. during the fidcal years ended March 31, 1922 and HJ23.. . . . . . .. 771-772 
10. Statement showing Amounts Collected under the Income War Tax Act and the 
Business Profits ",Var Tax Act, by provinces, for the fiscal years ended l\Iarch 31, 
1922 and 1923.... . . .. ................................................ 
Inland Revenue.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . _ .................................. 
11. Excise and Other Inland Revenues {or the fiscal years 1918-1923....... .. . .. .. 
12. Numbcr of Excise Licpnses issued during the fiscal years 1918-1923... ......... 
13. Statistics of Distillation for the fiscal years 1919-1923..... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . 
14. Quantities of Spirits, Malt Liquor, l\Ialt and Tobacco taken out of Bond for 
Consumption, in fiscal years 1918-1!J2J... ................................ 
15. Consumption per head of Spirits, Wine, Beer and Tobacco, and amount of 
Excise and Customs Duties per head, in the fiscal years 1918-1923............ 
Provincial Subsides............. . . . . " ..................................... .. 
16. Subsidies and Other Payments of Dominion to Provincia.l Governments i9i
 
1!J23..... ... ' 
17. Total of Subsidÿ' ÀÌI





 f


' j ciÿ ï, . i.süi t
' 
i

ch 3i; Ï923.'. '. : : : : : : : : : : 
National Debt............ ........................................................ 
18. Sumçmry of the Public Debt of Canada, March 31, 1917-1923....... . . . . . . . . . 
19. Deta!ls of the Assets of the Public Debt of Canada, March 31, 1920-1923...... 
20. DetaIls of the GroBS Liabilities of Canada, March 31, 1920-1923. ". . . .. .. . . . . 
21. Funded Debt Payable in London, New York and Canada, together with tempo- 
rarr loans 88 at March 31, 1923........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ,.... ........... 778--779 
22. Public Debt of Canada, July I, 1867 to :\farch 31, 1923....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7bO 


757-808 
757-780 
762 
763-764 
764 
76.3 
766 
767-769 
770 
770-772 
770 


772 
773-775 
774 
77-1 
774 


775 


775 
775-776 
776 
776 
776-7hO 
778 
778 
778 



xvii 


XI. l"INANCE-continued. 


PAGE. 


1. Public Finance--ooncluded. 
2. Provincial Public Finance...... . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 781-793 
23. Statement sho\\ing the or.linary Revenues and Expenditures of the Provincial 
Governments, for their respective fiscal years ending 1869-1922......... '.' .. 783-785 
24. Annual Ordinary Receipts and Expenditurcsof the Provincial Governments, per 
head of population, 1919-1921...... . . .. ................................ 785 
25. Classified Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts of Provincial Governments 
for their respective fiscal years 1917-1921..... .............. ......... ..... 786-787 
26. Classified Summary Statemen' <)f Ordinary Expenditures of Provincial Govern- 
ments for their respective fis' ""I years 1917-1921.... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 788-791 
27. Combined Itemized Summary Statement of Ordinary Receipts and Expenditures 
of all Provincial Government:!, for their respective fiscal years 1917-1921..... 790 -791 
28. A:ssets and Liabilities of the Provincial Governments at the close of their respect- 
ive fiscal years ended in 1921.. . . . ... . . " ............... 792-793 
3. .M unicipul Public Finance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 794 SO;; 
29. Summary, by Provinces, of M ullicipal Statistics of Principal Interest of Cities of 
10,000 population and over, for the calendar year 1920. . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . .. 796-797 
30. Expenditures, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities of 10,000 population and 
over, for the calendar year 1920......... . . ... .,. '" . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 798-799 
31. Receipts, Ordinary and Extraordinary, of Cities of 10,000 population and 
over for the calendar year 1920.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . '. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 800 
32. Assets and Liabilities of Cities of 10,000 population and over for the calendar 
year 1920.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ... . . ., .... . . ., . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 801 
33. Summary, by Provinces, of Statistics of Principal Interest of Urban Municipali- 
ties of 3,000 to 10,000 population, for the calendar year 1919.... . . . . . . .... '. 802-803 
34. Summary, by Provinces, of Stati:stics o
 Principal Interest, of Urban 
Iunicipali- 
ties of 1,000 to 3,000 population, for the calendar year 1920.. .., . _.... _.. 804-805' 
4. National Wealth and Income. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 806-808 
35. Estimated National Wealth of Canada, 1920................................ 806-807 
36. Amount of Income Assessed for the purposes of Income War Tax, by Provinces, 
for the fiscal years ended March 31, 192
 1923............................ 808 
37. Number of Individual and Corporate Tax l- 
yers, by size of Incomes and amount 
of Taxes paid under the Income War TaJl: Act, fiscal years ended March 31, 
1922 and 1923.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .. ............ 808 


2. Currency and BankiD
, Loan and Trust Companies................... . . . . . . . . . . . .. 808-835 
1. Canada's MonetaTJI Sll8tem. ............................. .............. ................... 888-814 
38. Coinage at tbe Ottawa BrùIlch of the Royal ),[int in the calendar years 1920-1922. . . 810 
39. Gold Coinages of the Otta\\a Branch of the Royal Mint, 19:18-19:32.... ............. 810 
40. Composition of Canadian Gold Reserves, December, 31, 1905-1922............. .... 810 
41. Circulation in Canada of Silver and Bronze Coin, December 31, 1901-1922.... ..... 811 
42. Dominion Notes Circulation and Reserves at JU'le 30, 1890-192:!....... _" ., 812 
43. Denominations of Dominion Notes in Circulation, Marcb 31, 1918-1923...... 812 
44. Statistics of Bank Note Circwation, 1892-1922..... . .. _ . . . . _ . . . . . . . .. . . .. 813 
45. Circulating l\Iedium in hands of the Public, 1900-1922........ .... . . .. .. . . . . . 814 
2. Banking in Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 815-833 
46. Historical Summary showing Development of the Sanadian Banking Business, 
calendar years 1867-1922.. . .. . . . . . . .. . . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . ". . . . . . . . . 
47. Assets of Chartered Banks, for calendar years 1919-1922.... . . . . . . . . . . 
48. Liabilities of Chartered Banks, for calendar years 1919-1922. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
49. Assets of each of the Chartered Banks of Canada, December 30, 1922..... _ .... 
50. Liabilities of each of the Chartered Banks of Canada, Dccember 30, 1922....... 
51. Deposits in -Chartered Banks in Canada and else", here, for the calendar years, 
1918-1922......... . . . . " . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . .. . . . 
52. Loans of Chartered Banks in Canada and elsewhere, for the calendar years 
1918-1922......... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... 824 
53. Bank Reserves, with Liabilities, 1892-1922..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... .... 825-826 
54. Ratio of Bank Reserves to Net Liabilities, 1892-1922... .. _ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 826-827 
55. Number of Branches of Banks in Canada, by Provinces, 1868, 1902, 1905, 
1915-1922.......... . .,. . .. . '. . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . '. 
56. Number and Location of Branches of Chartered Banks, as at December 30,1922 
57. Number of Branches of Canadian Chartered Banks in other countries, with their 
Location, December 30, 1922.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
58. Amount of Exchanges of the Clearing Houses of Chartered Banks in 16 leading 
cities, for the calendar years 1918-1922.... . . .. . . .. . .. . . ...... .. . .... .. . . . 829 
59. Canadian Bank Insolvencies since 1867. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830 
60. Bank Absorptions in Canada since 1867....... ............................ 830-831 
61. Deposits with Government and other Savings Banks, as at June 30,1868- 
1906, and March 31,1907-1923.......................................... 
62. Business of the Post Office Savings Banks, March 31, 1918-1923... . . . . . . . . . .. 
63. Business of the Dominion Government Savings Banks, March 31, 1918-1923... 
64. Total Business of Post Office and Dominion Government Savings Banks, March 
31, 1918-1923... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83& 
3. Loan and Trust Companies. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 833-835 
65. Liabilities and Assets of Loan Companies, 1914-1922.. . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 
66. Liabilities and Assets of Trust Companies, 1914-1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 834-835 
62373--B 


818-819 
820 
821 
822 
823 


824 


827 
828 


829 


832 
833 
833 



3. Insurance...... .................... 
1. Fire Insurance............ . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....................... 
67. Fire Insurance in Force, Premiums Reccived, Lo::;ses Paid anù Percentage of 

osses to Premiums, Ib(j!)-1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 838 
68. Fire Insurance Business transacted in Canada, 1921...................... 83ð-
41 
69. Fire Insurance Business transacted in Canada, 1922......................... 841-844 
70. Assets of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance, or Fire Insurance and other 
... _ classes of Insurance, and Assets in Canada of Companies other than Canadian 
I transacting such busincss in Canada, 1918-1922......... . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . ., 844-84.5 
71. Liabilities of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance, or Fire Insur:lIlcf' and 
other classes of Iusurance, and Liabilitips in Canada of Companie:s other than 
Canadian transacting such business in Canada, 1918-1922........ . . . . . .. . 
72. Cash Income and Expenditure of Canadian Companies doing Fire Insurance or 
Ko.. Fire Insurance and other classes of Insurance, and Cash Income and Expendi- 

ure in Canada of Companies other than Canadian transacting such blli>inc
::. 
In Canada, 1918-1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . .. . . . . .. ........ . 
.73. Amount of Net Premiums \\ritten and Xet Losses incurred in Canada, h
 
Provinces, by. Canadian. Hriti
h and Foreign Companies tran::.acting Fire 
In
urance Busmess, 1921 and 19:12.. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . 
74. Dominion and Provincial Fire Insurance in Canada, 1\.121 and 1\.122..... - - . . 
75. Fire Insurance carried on property in Canada in 1921 under section 129 of the 
Insurance Act, 1917, by Companies, Assoc.iations or Under\\riters not licen::.ed 
to transact busines:s in Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Life Insurance........ .... . . .. ...... .. .. . . . . . . .. .. ., ... .. . . . ... . . . .. 
76. Life Insurance in Force and Effected in Canada, 1869-1922.... 
77. Life Insurance in J!'orce and Effected in Canada, 1921........ . . . 
78. Life Insurance in Force and Effected in Canada, 1!:J22......... . . 
79. Progress of Life Insurance in Canada, 1918-1922..... . . .. .. . ." .. 
80. Insurance Death-rate in Canada, 1918-1921... . . ..... . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
81. Assets of Canadian Life Companies and Assets in Canada of Life Companies other 
than Canadian Companies, 1918-1922. -....... .......................... 
82. Liabilities of Canadian Life Companies and Liabilities in Canada of Life Com- 
panies other than Canadian Companies, 1918-1922........ . . . . . . .. .. .,... 
83. Cash Income and Expenditure of Canadian Life Companies and Cash Income and 
Expenditure in Canada of Life Companies other than Canadian Companies, 
191
1922. .................................... ............. ........ 
84. Life Insurance on the Assessment Plan, 1918-1922.......................... 
85. Dominion and Provincial Life Insurance in Canada, 1921 and 1922.. 
3. Miscellaneous Insu.rance.. .. ..' ..,........................... 
86. Insurance Other than Fire and Life, 1922........ . . . .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
87. Income and Expenditure, and Assets and Liabilities of Canadian Companies 
doing only In:surance Business other than Fire and Life, 1922... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
88. Income and Expenditure in Canada of C<UD-pal1ies other than Canadian doing 
only Insurance business other than .Fire !ind Life, 1922... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
89. Dominion and Provincial Insurance in Canada, other than Fire and Life. 1922. 
90. Dominion and Provincial Insurance in Canada, other than }<íre and Life, 19:11 and 
1!:J22..... .............................................. 
4. Government Annuities......... . .,. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . 
91. Government Annuities Fund Statemcnt, l\1arch 31, 1922 and 1923... .. ....... 
92. Valuation on l\1arch 31, 19:12 and lU23, of Annuity Contracts issucd pursuant 
to the Governmcnt Annuities Act, 19Ob....... 867 
4. Commercial Failures...................:.......... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8ü7-873 
93. Commercial .Failures in Canada, by Province!:>, and in Newfouudland for the 
calendar years 1921 and 1922....... . . , . . . . . . . . '. . ... . . . . . .. . . 
94. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Branches of Business, 1920--1922. . .. ., 
95. Commercial Failures in Canada, by Provinces and Classes, for 1922, with total:; 
for 1901 to 1921....................................................... 
96. Causes of Failures in Canada and the United States, by numbers and pcrcentages, 
years ended December 31, 1921 anù 1922.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
97. Commercial }<'ailures and Business Confidence in Canaùa, 190D--1922. (Brad- 
street). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................. ., 
98. Commercial Failures and Business Confidence in Canada, 1900-192:l. (Dun).. 
99. Assignments under the Bankruptcy Act, by Months, lU:lO-1923....... . . . . . . . . 


xviii 


XI. FlNANCE-concluded. 


PAGE. 
835-867 
836-84S 



-t5 


b-lG 


f'H 
8..J.S 


848 
849-862 
854. 
855 
856 
857 
h58 


858 


859 


859-860 
8tjl 
862 
862-866 
8ü3 


864. 


864 
865 


866 
866-867 
867 


868 
868 


8û9 


8iO 


871 
872 
873 


XII. EUUCA TION. 
J. General Education... ..................................... - . ........... 874-887 
1. Statistical Summary of Education in Canada, by Provinces. lU22, or Latest "\ ear 
Reported. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . - . . . . . .. 876-877 
2. Nunlber of Schools, Teachers and Pupils m Canada, by Provmces, 1901, lU06, 
1911 and 1916-1922, or latest year reported..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. R78-8RU 
3. Teachers in Training in Nova Scotia, New Hruns\\ick. Quebec, Ontario and 

lanitoba, 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916---1922, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 1906, 
1911, 1916---1922.. ... .. ,.. ..... . .. . . . . . . . '.' . . .. . .,. .. .. . . '" . . . . . . . . .. 
",,1}-882 
4. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Roman Catholic Classical Collpges in Quebec, 
1\.101 1906. 1911, 1916---1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882 
5. N umb'er of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools. in 
Ontario. 1901, 1906, 1911, HH6-1922... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ., . . . . . . . . . 88
 
6. Number of Teachers and Pupils in Continuation Schools in Ontario 1911, 1916- 
1922......... . . ., . . . ..... . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883 



I. General Education--concluded. 
7. i\umber of Teachers and Pupils in Collegiate Institutes and High Schools in 
f:askatchewan, 1908, HIll, 1916-1922........ . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
R. Xumber of Tea('hers and Pupils in High Schools in British Columbia, 1901, 1906, 
l!Hl, 1916-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . : . . 
9. ReC'eipts and Expenditure for Publie Education in Canada, by Provinces, 1901, 
1906, 1911, 1916-1922. _.. . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., 883-887 
10. .\verage Annual Salaries of School Teachers, by Provinces, 1921-1922, or latest 
'Year Reported......................... ............. .... .... 
2. Vocational and Technical Education.. 
........... '........ .... .... ........... 
11. Vocational Schools, Teachers and Pupils in Canada, year ended June 30, 1922.. 
3. Iligher Education.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12. rniversities of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees........ . 
13. rniver!'itie!' of Canada: Number of Teachin
 Staff in the Various Faculties, 
lÇ121-1Ç122...... ...................................................... 893 
14. rniversities of Canada: Number of Students in the Varion."! Faculties, 1921-1922 894-895 
15. rniversities of Canada: Number of Students by Academic Years and Number 
of Degrees Conferred. HI21-1922. ...... . . . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . 896 
16. rniversities of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1921-1922.... . . . .. . . . . . . ., 897-898 
17. Colleges of Canada: Foundation, Affiliation, Faculties and Degrees. ..... . .. .. 898-900 
I 18. Prpfessional and Affiliated Colleges of Canada: Number of Teaching Staff and 

 f'tudents, 1921-1922........... ........ .... , . ............ ..... .... ....... 900-901 
19. Colleges of Canada: Financial Statistics, 1921-1922.......... .... ........... 902-903 


xix 


XII. EDUCA TION-concluded. 


XIII. ADMINISTRA nON. 


I. Public Lands........ . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ............... 
1. Dominion Lands...... .. . . . . ... . . . .. . ...... .. . . .. . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 
I. Disposition of the Surveyed Area."! in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, 
Jan. 1, 1923..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Homestead entries on Dominion Lands in l\lanitoba, Saskatchewan. Alberta 
and British Columbia. . . . . . . .. ......................................... 
3. Homestead entries in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, 
by '\ationalities. made during the fiscal years 1917-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Receipts of Patents and Homestead entries in the fiscal years 1917-1922....... 
5. Land Sales by Rail\\ay Companies having Government Land Grants, and by 
the Hudson's Ba) Company, in the fiscal years 1921-23................. :.. 
2. PrO! incial Public Lands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............... 
2. Public Defence...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
L AI ilitia Forces. . . .. . . _ .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6. Permanent and Non-permanent Active Militia in Canada, 1923............... 
7. l\loney voted by Parliament for the Militia, for the fiscal years ended March 31. 
1921-24........ . . . ... ... . _ . . . . . . . . ........ . . ....... ............... 
2. The Jíatal Service......... .'" _ ., . . . . . . , . ... ..... . . . . . ....... . .... .. . ..... .. 
3. The Air Board......... ...,................................................. 
4. The Royal J.lilitary College... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 
3. Public Health and Public Benevolence........ .... .... ....... .... 
1. Dominion Department of Health. .... ...... ... ... . .. ... . . . . . .. .. . .. 
2. Other Public Health Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Prince Edward Island... ........................................................ 
2. Nova Scotia Department of Health. ............................................... 
3. New Brunswick Department of Health..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Quebec Bureau of Health.. _..... ..,............. .......... ........... 
5. Ontario Board of Health. . _ . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . 

: 


k
\

:
o:



e
lt


"th::::::::: :::.:::::: : : : : : ::: ::: :::: :: :: : :: : :: : :::: .. . 
8. Alberta Department of Health.. . . . . . . .. .............................. . . . . . . . 
9. British Columbia Board of Health.. . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
10. Tt.e Canadian Red Cross Society. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
11. Victorian Order of Nurses.. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12. l\lothers' Allowances.. . .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . 
B. Mothers' Allowances in Canada, 1922-23. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. PuhJic \Vorks............ ........' .... ......... .... ....... ...... ............. .. 
9. Dimen:-ions of Graving Dock"! owned by the Dominion Government..... .... . 
10. Dimpw,ions and Cost of Graving Docks subsidized under the Dry Dock Subsidies 
.-\ f't. 1!1l0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
II. Expenrliture and Revenue of Public Works Department, for the fiscal yearfl 
Harbour Com
i

i;:'
.'. ',' ........ . . : : :: ............ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
5. The Indians of Canada..................... ............................... 
12. Indian Population of Canada, 1871-1921..... . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
13. Attendance of Pupils at Indian Schools. by Provinces, fiscal year ended March 
31, 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............................................. 
14. Acreage and Value of Indian Lands, by Provinces, 1922..... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 
15. Area and Yield of Field Crops of Indians, by Provinces, 1922. ............... 
16. Numbers of Farm Live Stock of Indians, with Total Values, by Provinces. 1922 
17. Sourcps and Values of In('ome of Indian!'!. HI22....... . . . . .. ............. .. 


PAGE. 


883 


883 


887 
888-889 
889 
889-903 
891-893 


904-910 
904-907 


90
 
906 
906 
907 
907 
907-910 
911-915 
911-913 
912 
913 
913 
914 
914 
915--925 
917-919 
919-925 
919 
920 
920 
920 
921 
921 
922 
922 
923 
923 
923 
924 
924 
!)2,j-928 
Çl26 


Çl26 
927 
927 
928-931 
930 
930 
930 
931 
931 
931 



xx 


XIII. ADMINISTRATION-concluded. 
6. Department of Soldiers Civil Re-estab1lshment.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ..... _ _ 
18. Number of Pensions in Force on March 31, 1923, by relationship of Dependants 
and Rank of Disabled, and Annual Liability Incurred thereon..... . . . . . . . .. . 
19. Scale of Annual Pensions Granted to Dependants of deceased Sailors and Soldiers 
of the Canadian Naval Forces and Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective 
20. S

eS
r
:

1 
e
I:
 't"o' Dis
bl
d 'S
iÏ
;s' ;
d' s
icii


 
f 'th
' c


i

 'Ñ


i 
Forces and Canadian Expeditionary Force, as effective for years commf'ncing 
Sept. I, 1921, 1922 and 1923, under the Pension Act... .. . . ._ 
7. IHlscellaneous Administration..... . . ... . . . . . . . ... . . . .... , " . . . . . . ,. . . . . . ... 
1. The Soldiers Settlement Board.... . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Scientific and Industrial Research in Canada.,. _ _ . ... . . ..... _ _ _ . . . 
The Research Council of Canada. . . . . .. ................... . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 
The National Research Institute... _" _ 
3. Department of Secretary 0/ State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 
21. Number of Companies Incorporated under the Companies Act and the nmending 
Acts during the calendar years 1900-07, and for the fiscal years ended Mt1rch 
31, 1908-1922.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12. Naturalizationd in Canada. by Principal Nationalities, effected under the Natural- 
ization Acts 1914-1920, during calendar years 1916-22......... ........ ... .. 
,I. .\' ational Gallery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .. _. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
;}. ROllal Canadian Mounted Police.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
23. Strength and Distribution of Royal Canadian Mounted Police on Scptf'mher 3U, 
1922.... ....................... ................................. 
ü. The Civil Serrice 0/ Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................................. 
24. Employees of the Civil Service of Canada in Ottawa and outside of Ottawa,.as 
at December 31, 1921. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ........... 
7. Judicial and Penitentiary Stat.istics.... . . . . . . . . ..... . . . ., ... . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
25. Convictions by Groups of Criminal Offencf's, and Total Convictions for :\Iil\or 
Offences, 187ü-1922, with proportion to Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 
26. Charges, Convictions and Percf'ntagps of Acquittals for Indictable OffpnC'es, hy 
Provinces, 1920, 1921 and 1922. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., ... 
27. Indictable Offences by Classes, during years endeù Septf'mber 3U, HJ20, H)::!l, 
1922.... .................................... ..................... .,. 
28. Charges, Acquittals, Convictions and Sentences in respect of Indictable Offences 
1915-22........ . . . . . . . . ... ........ .. ....................... _. 
29. Classification of Persons Convicted of Indictable Offences, 1916-1922... . . . . . . . 
30. Convictions and Sentences for all Offences, by Provinces, 1911-1922.. " . . . . . . . 
31. Indictable and Summary Convictions, by. Classes of OffenCf'!I, 1918-1920.. " .. 
32. ConviC'tions for Drunkenness for the five
eßrs 1918-1922..... . .. . . . . . . .. ... 
33. Juvenile Criminals Convicted of Major Offences, by Classes of Offence, HI:!:!, 
with Total and Yearly Average for the Period 1885--1922. . .. . .. " . . . . . 
34. P<;>pul
ti
n of Penal Institutions, 1918-1922..". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Penltentlanes. .. . . . .. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .................... ........ 
35. Movements of Convicts, 1916-1922....... . . . . . .. ............. ... _ 
36. Number of Deaths, Escapes, Pardons and Paroles, HH6-1922.......... .... ... 
37. Age of Convicts, 1915-1922........ . . . .. . .. ... ... .. . .. .... ... . .. . . .. .. ... 
38. Classification of Convicts, 1916-1922.......... . . . . .. . .. .. ... . .. . . . . .. ... . .. 
8. DiTJoTce8 in Canada....... _. . . . . .... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .......... _...... _. 
39. Statistics of Divorces GrantC'd in Canada, 1901-1922.............. .......... 


XIV. SOURCES OF STATISTICAL AND OTHER INFORMATION RELATIVE TO 
CANADA. 


I. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics .................. .". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 
2. Acts administered by Dominion Departments............................... 
3. Publications of Dominion Departments...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Publications of Provincial Departments...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1. Prince Edward Island.. _ .' -. _ _ _ . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2. Nova Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . 
3. New Brunswick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4. Quebec.......... . . ... .. . . . '.' . .. . . . . . . . . .... . . ........ . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. 
á. Ontario...................... .... .. ... . . . . ... . .. . . ..... .. . ... ... .. .. . . . . . . . . 
6. J\[ anitoba. ......... . . . . . - . . . - . - . . . 
7. Saskatchewan........ .... . .. . . . . .. . ... 
8. Alberta..................................................................... 
9. British Columbia......... . ........ .. . ... ... .. . . . . . . ..... . . .. . . .... . . ... ... .' . 
10. Yukon Territory..... . . . ... . .. .. .. . ... .,. .. . . . . . . . . . .... .. . ...... ......... . '. 


932-9
8 
934 


935 


936-9:n 
938-960 
938-9:m 
939-!l42 
940-941 
941-942 
!l42-945 


94:i 


941, 
94.;-!}4Ij 
9 Hi-fl-t7 


947 
94 7 -94
 


948 
948-959 


95!! 


!I.í 1 


951-95l 


9,j2 
9;')3 
!I.'){ 
!l55 
!l56 


!/56 
957 
957-959 
95S 
!l5H 
!l5H 
959 


960 


961-969 
969-971 
971-979 
979-98/) 
979 
979 
979 
979-981 
981-983 
983 
984 
!lð-t 
9b4-986 
98G 


5. Select BibJlolÞ"aphy of the History of Canada................................. 9k6-989 



xxi 


xv. THE ANNUAL REGISTER. 1922-23. 
1. Dominion Legislation............ .... ........ ................................ 990-995 
1. 1922................. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . .. . ... . ... . . '" 990-993 
2. 1923..................... ............ . . . . . . .. .., 993-995 
2. Provincial Legislation. 1922..... _ . . . .. ........................................995-1006 
Prince Edward Island. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 995-996 
Nova Scotia.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . .. ........ . . . , . . . . . .. 996-Ð97 
New Brunsu'ick.. .... ..................... ..................... ............. ... 997-Ð!:I8 
Quebec... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9!J8-9Ð!J 
Ontario........ ......... .... ............. .... ................. ............. .. .999-1001 
Manitoba. . . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . . , . . . '.' . . . . . ..... . . . . . . ..... . . . . . .1001-1002 
Saskatchewan... . . . . _ . .. _. . . . . . . . .... .... . . ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. . .. . . .1002-1003 
4.lberta. . . . . . . . _ _ . _ _ . _ _ . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1003-1004 
British Columbia.. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. _..... . _. _................ ..1005-1006 
3. Principal Events of the Years 1922-1923......................................1006-1010 
General Economic Conference. . . . . . . . _ . . ... . ... . . .. . _ . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . .... .... . ., . . . 1006 
Conference at Washingwn re Rush-Bagot Treaty.. _. . . .. . . . . .... . .... .... '.' . .1006-1007 
Signing of Trade Agreement between Canada and France...... . . . . . . . _ . . . ... ...... .... 1007 
Third Assembly of the League of Nations........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . . . _ . . 1007 
Fourth A.sl'embly of the League of Nations.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007 
Imperial Conference......... . . . .... . . . . . ., . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . ... .. . . 1008 
Provincial General Elections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008 
The Economic and Financial Years 1922 and 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .loo8-100fI 
Obituary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .' ......1809-1010 
4. Extracts from the Canada Gazette............... .... ...... .1011-1015 
Privy Councillors, 1923. . . . . .. . . _. _ ... . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . ............. . . . . -1011 
Lieutenant-Governors, 1923.. ....... . .' ............ .......... _.... ........ ... -1011 
New Members of the House of Commons, 1922-23.................. _ _ __ .... ........... -1011 
C'abinet }'[inisÚ'rs, 1923................................................... . . .......... -1011 
Judicial Appointments, 1922-23.............. ............ . . . . . .........................1011-1012 
Commissions, 1922-23.............. ............... . ........... ............ ........ 1012-1015 
I mperial Honours and Decorations.............. . . . .................. ...... ............ -1015 
Day (>f General Thanksgiving.. ......... ... ............ ............ ........... ............ -1015 


SPECIAL ARTICLES IN CANAI)A \ EAR BOOK 1<)13-1<)21. 


(Not repeated in this Edition). 


Fifty \ ears of Canadian Progre
s, 1867 to 1917. By ERNEST H. GODFREY, F .S.S., 
Editor, Dominion Bure"lu of Statistics, Ottawa..... ............................ 
lIi,.toryof the Grelt War. By Brig.-General E. A. CRrIKSHANK, LL.D., F.R.S.C., 
Director of the Historical 
ection, General Staff, Department of Militia and 
Defence, Ottawa. With appendices. ....... _'" . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ., ........... 
Reconstruction in C:mada. By
. A. CUDMORE, B.A. (ToL),. M.A. COxon.), F.S.S., 
F.R. Econ. Soc., Editor Canada Year Book, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 
Ottawa..... . 


1918 23-72 
1!JI9 1 73 
1920 1-64 


LIST OF MAPS AND DIAGRA'iS. 



lap of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Facing Preface 

lap: Geology of Eastern Canada......... .... ............. ...................... 14 
:\Iap: Geology of Western Canada.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . . . . 16 

Iap of Canada showing Normal }'Iean Temperature and Precipitation in January. '" . Facing p. 40 
:\Iap of Canada sho\\ ing N ormal 
Iean Temperature and Precipitation in July. . . . . . . . Facing p. 40 
:\Iap: The Two Canadas in 17!Jl .... _'.. ............. .... ......... ..... 66 
:\lap: Canada at Confederation, 1807 '" . _ _ . . .' '" .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73 
:\Iap: Canaùa in 1870... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Iap: Canada in 1872......... ......... .... ............. ......... ...... _ _ 74 
ì\lap: Canada in 1905... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... .. . . . . . 74 
Diagram: Index Numbers of Average Prices of Field Crops, 1909-1
22.... . . . . . . . . . . . 293 
Diagram: Variation in Production and Average Valu!' of Lumber, lUOS-1921... ..... 324 
Diagram: Pulpwood Production, l\1anufacture and Export.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 
Diagram: Pulpwood Consumption, by Provinces, 1920-1921. ............. .... ...... 333 
Diagram: Pulp Manufactured, by Provinces, 1920-1921..... .. _.......... ......... . 333 
Diagram: Paper Produced, by Provinces, 1920-1921............ ....... _. .... ...... 33:3 
:\lap: Domimon of Canada (::;outhern) Showing Origin of Coal Supply, 1922... . 386 
Diagram: Annual Consumption of Coal in Canada, 1901-1!J21.......... . . . . . . ., 3RfI 
Diagram: Aggregate External Trade of Canada, H)01-1923......................... . Facing p. 470 
Diagram: Movement of Canadian \Vheat Crop, 1!J21-1922...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5S5 
Diagram: Cattle Receipts and Prices at Toronto, Montreal, and Winnip!'g, 1920-1921- 
1 !J22. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ................. !)U!) 
Diagram: Twelve Years of frade Unionism in Canada.. .... .... .. .. ............ . 712 
Diagram: Estimated Time Los", in Working Days, by Groups of Industrif's, 1901-1922. 7:!3 
Diagram: Index Numbers of Employment as reported by Employers and Trade Unions, 
1920-1923. . ..... ., . . . . . . . . ... .. .. ........... ...... .. . ..... ...........,.. 731 
Diagram: The Course of Wholesale Prices in Canada, 1890-1921. ........ . . . . 747 
Diagram: Prices of Raw anù Finished l\laterials, 1919-1921..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 
Diagram: Weighted and Unweighted Index Numbers of Prices, 1919-1921........... ., 751 
Diagram: Organization ùf the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962 



xxü 


STATISTICAL SU}(}I.\UY OF THE PROGUESS OF C.\XADA. 
<\rea of the Dominion of Canada in square miles:-Land, 3,603,9CII; Water, 125,756; Total, 3,729,665. 


Items. 1811. 1881. 1891. 18!J1i. 1901. 
I Estimated population 1\0. 3,689,287 4,324,810 4,833,239 5,086,000 5,371,315 
.,1 Immigration No. 27,773 47,991 82,165 16,835 49,149 
.\!!;riculture 1 - 
3 Wh('at. ....... .acreE I.ß4ß,781 2,363,554 2,701,213 - 4,224,542 
bush. 16,723,873 32,350,269 42,223,372 - 55,572,368 
$ lli,993,2ß5 38,820,223 31,667,.')29 - 36, 122,03!1 
4 Oats. ... .acre
 - - 3,961,356 - 5,367,655 
bush. 4'2,489,4')3 70,493,131 83,428,202 - 151.497,407 
$ 1.'),966,3J() 23,967,655 31,702,717 - 51,509,118 
5 Barley . acre' - - 868,464 - 871,800 
bush. 11.496,m
 16,8H,86b 17,222,795 - 22,224.366 
g 8.170,735 11. 791.408 8,611,397 - 8,h!-:9,746 
II rorn a'ns - - 195,101 - 360,758 
bush 3,/im.83C 9,025,142 10,711,380 - 25.875,919 
S 2.8X3,14
 5,415,085 5,034.34!-- - 11,902,923 
71 PotaÌf)(>s .acre
 4113, 102 464,28:1 450,1\10 - 448,743 
bush. 47,3:30,187 55.268,227 53,490,857 - 55.362,635 
f.1 S 15,21l,774 U,2f\8,510 21,396,34? - 13,1'42,658 
llny und C'low'r . acre
 3,tiãO,41!J 4,4ã8,349 5,9:$1,548 - 6,543,423 
ton:" 3,818,641 5.115:>,811' 7,69:3,733 - 7 ,S52, 731 
$ 38.869,900 4:1.4-16.480 69,24:l,59; - 85,625,315 
I 
I i.old ('rops- 
I Total Area. Acrc
 - - - - - 
$ - - - - 19J, 953, 420 
Live Sto(>k- 
P- HorR's. 
o 836,74:3 1,059,358 1,470,572 - 1,577 ,493 
$ - - - - 118,279,419 
IO 'filch CO"" Ko. l,251,20!1 1,595,800 1,"57,l1
 - 2,408,677 
$ - - - - 69,237,970 
11 Other CattIe Ko. 1,373.081 1,919,189 2,263,474 - 3.167,174 
$ - - - - 54,197,341 
12 Sheep... No. 3,155,509 3,048,678 2,562,781 - 2.510.239 
$ - - - - 10.4!IO,,')!).J 
13 f;\\ ille !\o. 1,:361\,083 l,207,6H 1,733,85(j - 2,3,j3,b28 
S - - - - 16,445,702 
Total \3lue . S - - - - "!6S, 6;'it, 026 
Dairying- 
14 Cheese, factory.. lb. - - - - 220,8.13,469 
S l,fiOl,738 5,464,41>4 9,784,28
 - 22,221,430 
15 Butt.er, creamery lb. - - - - 36,066,739 
$ - 341,47b 913,591 - 7,240,972 
1 fi 'liscellanec,us dairy products. . $ - - - - 269,520 
Total \alue of dalr) produrt.. S - - - - 29,i31,922 
I ï.sherie!"- 
Total \alfl(
 S 1,.>>'13,199 l.i, SIì, 162 18,!lii,8it 20,107,,12,1 2:>>,737,153 
\Jinerals- 
17 Gold.. oz. 1O.1,18ì fì
,524 4.'),OI
 133,262 1.167,2111 
S 2,174,412 1.313.153 
'10.614 2,754,774 24,128,503 
I
 
il vcr oz. - 3:'i5.IIS3' 414 . ã2:3 3,205.
4: 5,539.192 
S - :i47,271 2 409,54\1 2,149,503 3,2ß5,354 
19 COPP<'r. Ih. - 3.260,4:W 9,5
!I,4(11 9.3!13.0I2 37.R
7.0I9 
S - :1fi6, 79b' 1,226,703 1.0
I, !160 6,O!JIi,áRI 

O TRarl. lb. - 204, 8fiO ' 88,665 24 Iml,!!7; 5I,900.9.;R 
$ - 9.216 2 3,857 71,15\1 :?24!I,387 
1 Xickel Ih. - 8:39,47; 4,035,347 3 . 397 , 113 !I.I
!I,047 
S - 4!J8,2,1;fi 2,4!1.20f. I,ll'S, !I!ln 4.:.!14.,)23 
2 Pi
 imn. ton" - "4,R
7 n.:o.!11 fi7,2l1h 
7i .:17fì 
8 - 3".,1'12- 3 i!>' !IIII 9:?4. I":! 3,512.923 
"? Coal tons 1. Ofi3. 742 3 1,5:r; ,106 3.577,74\J 3,745.711' 6,4ht\.325 
S 1,763,423 3 2,68R,621 7.019,425 7,22/;,462 12,699.24:1 
4 CC'ment brI. - 69,843 2 93,4ì!J 14!I.o:1f' 450,3H4 
S - 81 ,90!1
 108,561 201,651 fi/ìO, 030 
Total value S - 10, 22I,2.'i5 4 18,976,616 %2,-ii-i,2.'i6 G.i, 797,911 
- - 


I 1'1l<' figl!rl'!j of field crops (1.';71-1911), arc for the precpding year!:. 2 I
S7. a Ib74. 4 I&
fì. 



xxiii 


STATISTICAL SU1UIARY 01'-' THE PROGRESS OF CAXADA. 


\reu of the Donlinion of Canada in square miles:-Land, 3,603,9C9; Water, ]2.j,7':6; Total. 3,729,665. 


1906. 1911. 1916. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. 1 
-- - 
6,171,000 7,206,643 8,03,j,584 8,478,546 8,631,475 8,788,483 8,966,834 9,146,4,j(, 1 
18H,064 311,084 48,537 57,702 117,336 148,4ïí 89,999 72,887 2 
- 8,864,1,j4 ],j,369,70!J ]9,125,968 18,232,374 23,261,224 22,422,693 22,671,864 3 
- 132,0ì7 ,54i 2ñ2, 781, 000 l!1:J,260,400 263, Hi!! ,300 300,858, 100 399,786,40n 474,199,000 
- 104,816,825 344.0116,400 457,722,000 427,357,300 242,936,000 3:W,4]!!,OOO 316,606, :-00 
- 8,fi56,179 10,996,487 14,952,114 15, !i40 , 92!i Hi,940,029 14,541,22!ì 13,727,067 4 
- 245,393,425 410,211,000 394,387,000 530, 70!J, 70U 426,232,900 4H I. 239 ,000 537,733,300 
- 86,796,130 210,957,500 317,097,000 280,1],5,400 146,395,300 ]85,4.55,000 177,704,400 
- 1,283,094 1,802,996 2,645,509 2,55].919 2,795,665 2 ,5t19, 520 2,784,571 5 
- 28,848,310 42,770,000 56,389,400 63,31O,5,'j0 59,709.100 71,865,300 76,997,800 
- 14,653,697 35,024.000 69,330,300 52,821,400 28,254,150 33,335,300 32,05j,700 
- 293,951 173,000 264,607 291,650 296,866 318,397 317,729 6 
- 14,417,599 1),282,000 16,940,500 14 ,334,800 14,904,000 13,798,000 13,608,000 
- 5,774,039 6,747,000 22,080,000 16,503,400 12,317,000 11,500,700 12,466,000 
- 464,504 472.9!J2 818,767 784.544 701,912 . 68:1, 5tl4 560,942 7 
- 55,461,478 63,297,000 75,344.940 3 80.298.840' M .407 , 600 3 55,745,300" 56,460,OO()3 
- 27,426,765 50,982,300 118,8J4,200 129,I\m,300 82,147,600 50,320,000 57,076,800 
- 8,289,407 7,821,257 10,595,383 10,:170,292 10,614,951 10,001,667 9,725,602 8 
- 10,406,367 14,527,000 16,348,000 13,338,700 11.366,100 14,488,200 14,844,900 
- 90,115,531 168,547,900 338,713,200 348, Hi6,200 267,764,200 104,950,000 162,8!ì:l,OOO 
- - 38.930.333 ,)3,049,6,111 52. S.'JO. 8lj,) 59,63;;,3411 ;;7 .IH9, tiS1 56,569,794 
- 38,1,513,795 88ß,49-t,900 1..'i37.1ì0,100 1,J.'i5,2-J-J,t),jt) 9:U,863.670 96t,293,200 S91.i55,200 
- 2,598,958 3,246,430 3,667,369 3,400,352 3,813,921 3,648,871 3,530,64] 9 
- 381,915,505 418,686,000 435,070,000 361,328,000 314,764,000 264,043,000 223,154,000 
- 2,595,255 2,835,532 3,548,4:l7 3,530,238 3,736,832 3,745,804 3,(\59,36510 
- 109,575, :J26 198,806,000 327,814,000 281,675,000 190,157,000 179,141,OUO 173,015,000 
- 3,930,828 3,763,155 6,536,574 5, 947 ,14
 6,469,373 5,974,Oti5 5,5!i6,86fi 11 
- 86,278,490 204,477,000 381,007,000 279,825 100 ]83,649,000 156,441,000 143,458,000 
- 2,174,300 2,025,030 3,42],958 3,720,783 3,fi75,860 3,;:63,.525 2,75:1,860 12 
- 10,701,691 20,927,000 50,402,000 37,263,000 23,308,000 24,962,000 21,321,000 
- 3,634,778 3,484.<)82 4,040.070 3,516.678 3,904,895 3,9],'j,684 4.40.5,311j 13 
- 26,986,621 60,700.000 102,309,000 81.155,000 54,842,000 5/ ,300,000 52,312,000 
- 615,457,833 903, 6!ì6, 000 1;
96,602,000 1,O,ll,2,11i,000 ì66, i20, 000 681,887,000 6L3, 260, OOU 
204 , 788,583 199,904.205 192,968.597 166.421,8il 149,201,856 lfì2,117,494 135.821,116 - 14 
23,597,6:30 21,587,124 3,'j,512,622 44,586,lIi8 39,100.872 28,710,030 21,824,760 - 
45,930,294 64,698,165 82,564,130 103,899,707 1] 1,691, 718 128,744,610 152,501,900 - l,'j 
10,949,062 15,645,845 20,966,355 56,371,98,,) 63,625,203 48.135,439 ,j3,45:3,282 - 
910,842 1,814,871 - 34,238,440 43,610,416 35,078,548 29,604,004 - I6 
35,457,5,13 39,0,17,840 - 13;;,196,602 1,16,336,,191 111,921,017 10,1,972,0,11; - 
26,279,485 3,1.667,872 3.'i, 860, 708 5Iì,508,,Iì9 2 49,2,11,339" 3-1,931,9.15 2 U,SOO,210 c - 
556,415 473,159 930,492 766,764 765.007 926,32!, 1,263,364 1,17!1.,'S0( 17 
11,502,120 9,781,077 ]9,234,976 ]5,853,478 15,814,098 19, 14S. 9
L 26.116,050 24,382,00( 
8,473,37r 32,559,044 25,459,741 16,020,657 13,330,357 13,543.198 ]8,581,43[, 18,8li4,O(J( I).} 
5,659,455 17,355,272 16,717,121 17,80J,474 13,4:)0,330 8,4
5.3,j5 12,576,758 IO.944,OU( 
55.609,888 55,648,011 117,150,028 75,0;;3,581 81,600,691 47,fì20,820 42,879,8]8 
6,31
,Oo( 19 
10,720,474 6,886,998 :n,867,150 14,02!i,265 14,244,21/ 5,9:>3,555 5,738,177 12,515.000 
54,608,217 23.784,969 41,497,615 43,827,699 35,953,717 66,679,592 93,307.171 112,600.00L 
O 
3,089,187 827,717 3,532,692 3,053,037 3.214,262 3,828,742 5,817,702 7,882,000 
21,490,955 34,098,744 82,958,564 44,544,883 61,335,706 19,293,060 17,597,123 61.444,000 21 
8,948,834 10,229,623 29,035,408 17,817,953 24,534,282 6,752,571 6,158,993 18, 4:
3. 00(1 
598,411 917,535 I,Hi9,257 917,781 1,090.396 665,676 428,923 8
O,018 
2 
7,955,136 12,307,125 16.7:)0,898 24,577,589 30,319,024 17,307,576 8,819,242 - 
9,762,601 11,323,388 14, 48J, 395 13,681,218 16,631,954 1,'j, 0,'j7, 495 15, 1,'j7 .4:
1 17,131, 531' 
3 
19,732,019 26,467,646 38,817,481 54,413,349 80,603,723 72 ,451,656 65,518,4\17 74.2ti9,OUO 
2,128,374 5,692,915 5,369,560 4,405,2,'j7 6,6:>1. 980 5,752,88.5 6,943,372 7.6,j2.001 24 
3,170,859 7,644,537 6,547,728 9,802,433 14,798,070 14,195,143 15,438.48] 14,201,OUU 
79,286,697 103, 2'!0, 99,1 177,201,53,1 176,686,390 277,8.)9,665 lil,923, 342 1 1R ,I,297,24'! 21,1,102,000 


1 The figures for 1923 are subject to revision. 2 Calendar years. 3 Cwt. 



xxiv 


STATISTICAL SU\UIARY Ot' THE PROGRESS Of' C.-\
ADA-continued. 


Items. 1871. Ibl)l. Hs91. 1896. 1\101 
--- 

Ianufacturesl- 
1 Employees............. . No. IS7,942 254,894 272,033 339,173 
2 Capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77,964,020 164.11.;7,423 :J53 , 213,000 - 445,916,487 
3 
alaries and wages... . 40,851,00!' .')9.40] . 70
 79,234,311 - 1I3,249,3.iO 
4 Products. . . _ .. _ . . . . . . . . _ $ 221,617,773 30:1, 7:n , X6i 368,696,723 - 481,0.')3,37.'; 
Trade- 
5 Exports'.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 57,630,024 83,!I-l4.701 8x.671,i38 109,707,80f, 177,431,386 
Ij Import!,,3. . .. . . . . . . . . . . S 84,214,3Sb 90.4158.329 111.533,954 105,361.16] 177. 9:JO, 9111 
Total ............ S l-11,S.U,-I12 I H. t:
:I, o.'lfi 200, 
O,;, 692 215,OGS,9t.6 3';';,362,305 
Exports, domestic- 9, 73
), 75X 
7 Wheat. _ . . . ....a.......... . b:Ish. 1. 748. 977 2,5:!3,6i:1 2,I08,21tJ 
), 91!1,.j4: 
$ 1,981,917 2,593,8:?C 1.583,OM 5,771,521 6,871,93!1 
b Wheat flour.. . . . . .. _ . _ . brI. 306,339 439,72b 296, 71'4 186,711 1,118,700 
. l,ü09,84t :!.173,lOb 1.388,578 71X ,133 4,015,226 
9 Uats................. . ...... bush. 542,386 2,926,53: ::60,560 968,13. 8,15,'),063 
S 231,227 1,791,Sn 1211,917 2ï3,h61 2,490,521 
10 IIay. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tons 23,487 Jtj8,3S1 65,083 214,640 252,97; 
$ 290,217 1,813,208 .i.,)9,4St 1,976,431 2,097,S8:? 
11 Bacon and hams, shoulders c"\\ t. 103,444 10:1,547 7.').541 537,361 1,055,495 
and sides. . . . . .. _. . _ _ . _ . _ _ $ 1,018,918 758.3:J4 1.i:?8.41i!, 4,3SI,96S 11,778.44Ii 
12 Butter lb. 15,439,266 17 , 6411.4!1] 3,7(i$,101 5,889,241 ]6.3:J5,5
X 
$ 3,065,234 3,573,m4 6112 ,I 75 1,052,08!. 3,2!ì5,6ti3 
13 Cheese...... lb. 8,271,439 49,255,52
 106,202,140 IG4,6S9,123 H).'), 926, 697 
$ 1,109,906 5,510,44:J 9, 501:i, 800 13,95ti,571 20,696,951 
]4 Gold 4 .......... ..... ...... $ 163,037 767,31b 554,1213 1,099,053 24,44.'),156 
15 Silver. ............... ..... oz. - - - 2,508,233 4,022,019 
. 595,261 34,494 238,367 1,595,548 2,420.750 
16 Copper fi ...... -...... ........ lb. 6,246,000 39,604,000 10,994,4118 3,575,482 26,345,7ïli 
. 120,121 150,412 505,196 194.771 2,659.261 
17 Nickel.. _ .....-.-..... lb. - - 5,352,043 fi,996,540 9,537,5513 
$ - - 240,49\1 486,65] 958,365 
18 Coal......................... . toM 318,287 420,055 833,684 1,025,060 1,888,53 
$ 662,451 <\1-.123,091 2,916,465 3,249,069 5,307,06 
1\1 Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wood) . - - 13,742,557 14,606,735 25,541,56/ 
20 Animals and their products 
(except chemicals and fibres) $ - - 36,399,140 48,763,906 68,465,332 
21 Fibres, textiltJs and textile pro- 
ducts.. .. . . ....._ $ - - 872,628 2,104,013 1,11130,.')39 
22 Wood, Yo ood products Md' p


 $ - - 25,351,085 28,772,187 33,099,91- 
23 Iron and its products.... . . . . . . $ - 556,527 1,188,254 3,778,897 
24 Non-ferrous metals and their 
products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ - 1,618,95.5 3,843,475 33,395,09 . 
25 Non-metallic minerals and their 
products................... . $ - 3,m
x,584 4,368,013 7,356,32 
:!6 Chemicals and allied products $ - - S31.211 481,66] 791,97: 
"27 All other commodities.. . . . _ . . $ - - 5,291,051 5,5ï9,561 3,121,7-11 
Total exports, domestic... . $ 57,630,02,1 S3, DU, 701 8S,671,731\ 109,707,805 177,431,38 
Imports for consumption- 
28 Vegetable products (except 
chemicals, fibres and wood). $ - - 24,212,140 22,742,835 38,036,75, 
29 Animal5 and their products 
(exeept chemicals and fibres) . - - 8,080,862 7,599,802 H,022,S9 
30 Fibres, textiles and textile pro- 
ducts............. . .$ - - 28,670,141 27,421,51!J 37,284,75 
31 Wooù, wood products 
d 


 $ - - 5,203,490 4,787,281-. 8,196,901 
:J2 Iron and its products. . . . . . . . . . $ - - 15,142,615 13,393,762 29.9.')5,93 
33 Non-ferrous metals and their 
products.............. ...... $ - - 3,810,626 2,967,439 7,159,14 
34 :Kon-metallic minerals and 
their products (except chemi- 
cal.,).. ................. .... $ - - 14,139,024 13,736,879 21,25.'),40. 
35 Chemicals and allied products. . - - 3, 6!ì7, 810 3,840,800 5,69:?,:,(j 
3tJ All other commodities.. . _ . _ . . . - - 8,577,24fì 8,870,831 16.32b,56 
Total Imports .,. $ 8-1,2U,a'lS DO, t"",3
9 IU,533,9.i-l 10.'i,361,161 177,930,91 
Steam Railways- 
37 Mile.. in operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . No 2,695 7,331 13,838 16,270 18,14 
38 Capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257,035,188' 2S4,419, :?93 632,O(jI,440 697,212,941 8i6, 110,1S3/ 
39 Passengers.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No. 5,190,4167 6,943,67] l:l, 2:?2 ,56S 13,059,023 18,385,72 
40 Freight.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... tons 5,fi70,836 7 12,065,32:J 21.753,021 24,248,2!1-1 36,999,371 
41 Earnings. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 19,470,539 7 27,987, .')00 48,192,099 50,374,295 72,898,74 
42 Expenses........ .. $ 15,775,532 7 20,121.418 34.960,44\1 34,893,337 50,36
, 72 . 


8 
o 


4 


6 


2 


:l 
4 
8 
9 


Q 
2 


9 
6 


1 The statistics of manufactures in 1871, 1881, 19111, 1920 and 1921, include works employing fewer 
than five hands, while those of 1891, 1901 and 1911 are for works employing five hands and over, except 
in the case of butter and cheeee factories, flour and iI'ÎBt mills. electric liiht plants, lumber, lath and 



xxv 


STATISTICAL SmOIARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA-continued. 


1906. Hill. 1916. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923.8 
383,920 515,203 - 682,483 685,349 517,141 - - 1 
833,916,155 1,247,583,609 - 3,230.686,3\)8 3,443,276,053 3,210,709,288 - - '2 
162,155,578 241,008,416 - 689,435,709 816,055,139 581,402,3S5 - - 3 
706,446,578 1,165,975,639 - 3,520,731,589 4.024,739,463 2,747,92\),675 - - 4 
235,483,956 274,316,553 741,610,638 1,216,443,806 1,239,492,098 1,189,163,701 740,240,680 931,451,443 5 
283,740,280 452,724,603 508,201,134 919,711,705 1,064,528,123 1,240,158,882 747,804,332 802,465,043 6 
519,220&,236 727,041,156 1,249,811,172 2,136,153,å11 
,30:l,020,221 2,0&29,322,383 1,488,0:13,012 1,733,916,486 
40,399.402 45,802,115 157,745,469 41,808,897 77,978,037 129,215,157 136,489,238 215,074,566 7 
33,M8,391 45,521,134 172,896,445 96,985,056 185,044,806 310,952,138 179,990,730 252,145,805 
1,532,014 3,049,046 6,400,214 9,205,439 8,863,0\)& 6,017,032 7,414,282 10,227,060 8 
6,179,825 13,854,790 35,767,044 99,931,659 94,262,928 66,520,490 53,478,150 60,075,426 
2,700,303 5,431,662 26,816,322 17,879,783 10,768,872 14,321,048 36,195,127 29,022,347 9 
1,083,347 2,144,846 14,637,849 15,193,527 9,349,455 14,152,033 18,717,105 14,533,015 
206,714 326,132 255,407 492,208 218,561 179,398 31 ,287 58,300 10 
1,529,941 2,723,291 5,849,426 7,666,491 4,087,670 4,210,594 650,379 927,143 
1,029,079 598,745 1,536,517 1,246,888 2,236,426 982,338 992,080 1,015,901 11 
12,086,868 8,526,332 27,090,113 40,242,175 70,123,580 31,492,407 23,012,480 22,536,397 
34,O:n ,525 3,142,682 3,441,183 13,659,157 17,612,605 9,739,414 8,430,591 21.994,578 12 
7,075,539 744,288 1,018,769 6,140,864 9,844,359 5,128,831 3,224,390 8,243,138 
215,834,543 181,895,724 168,961,583 152,207,037 126,395,777 133,
20,340 133,849,800 114,549,900 13 
24,433,169 20,739,507 26,690,500 35,223,983 36,336,863 37,146,722 25,440,322 20,828,234 
12,991,916 5,344,465 16,870,394 9,202,033 5,974,334 3,m8,779 2,532,050 5,449,469 14 
7,261,527 33,731,010 27,794,566 19,759,478 12,379,642 13,331,050 13,601,420 17,111,416 
4,310,528 17,269,168 14,298,351 19,519,642 14,255,601 11,127,432 8,711,304 11,4S8,992 15 
44,282,348 55,005,342 111,046,300 65,612,400 42,003,300 36,167,900 10,333,900 21,451,30016 
7,148,633 5,575,033 14,670,073 8,684,191 5,253,218 4,336,972 1,029,417 2,035,511 
23,959,841 34,767,523 70,443,000 79,164,400 44,140,700 47,018,300 10,904,700 42,628,500 17 
2,166,936 3,842,332 7,714,769 11,170,359 9,039,221 9,405,291 2,689,702 8,880,641 
1,820,511 2,315,171 1,971,124 1,8...;,639 2,120,138 2,277 , 202 1,953,053 2,089,43818 
4,643,198 6,014,095 6,032,765 10,169,722 13,183,666 16,501,478 13,182,440 12,956,615 
55,828,252 84,556,886 257,249,193 288,893,218 416,122,771 482,924,672 317,578,963 407,760,092 19 
84,570,644 69,693,263 138,375,083 244,990,826 314,017,944 188,359,937 135,798,720 135,841,64220 
2,602,903 1,818,931 15,097,691 28,030,381 34,028,314 18,783,884 4,585,987 7,850,843 21 
45,716,762 56,334,695 83,116,282 154,5[9,154 213,913,944 284,561,478 179,925,887 228,756,205 22 
4,705,296 9,884,346 66,127,099 81,910,926 81,785,829 76,500,741 28,312,272 51,137,912 2 3 
28,455.786 34,000,996 66,036,542 79,260,732 54,976,413 45,939,377 2; .885,996 44,358,03724 
7,817,475 10,038,493 11 ,879,741 26,662,304 30,342,926 40,121.892 22,616,684 27,646,704 25 
1, 784,1\00 2,900,379 15,948,480 56,799,799 22,581,049 19,582,051 9,506,170 14,046,94026 
4,002,038 5,088,564 87,780,527 255,326,466 71,722,908 32,389,669 14,030,001 14,053,068 27 
235,483,956 274,316,553 741,610,638 l,216,U3,806 1,239,492,098 1,189,163,701 740,20&0 680 931,451,443 
60,330,667 79,214,342 95,426,024 157,506,654 242,075,389 261,081,364 172,665,523 161,669,784 28 
23,616,835 30,671,908 38,657,514 41,505,094 95,098,743 61,722,390 46,645,789 46,736,77429 
59,292,868 87,916,282 96,191,485 178,190,241 231,559,877 243,608,342 139,997,137 170,146,95830 
14,341,947 26,851,936 18,277,420 35,399,852 43,183,267 57,449,384 35,791,487 35,845,544 31 
49,436,840 91,968,180 92,065,895 192,527,377 186,319,876 245,625,703 110,210,539 138,724,45532 
17,527,922 2'i ,655,874 29,448,661 41,649,431 52,103,913 55,553,902 29,773,413 37,492,604 33 
33,757,284 53,335,826 53,427,531 135;250,417 121,956,176 206,095,113 137,604,140 139,919,01234 
8,251,378 12,489,776 19,258,326 34,282,647 29,886,102 36,334,612 24,630,333 25,793,10135 
27,184,539 42,620,479 65,448,278 103,399,992 62,344,780 72,688,072 50,485,971 46,136,811 36 
283,7:10,280 ß2, 724, 603 508,201,134 919,711,70,} 1,064,528,123 1,210,158,882 747,804,332 802,465,043 
21,353 2:>,400 37,434 38,896 39,384 39,771 39,773 - 37 
1,065,881,629 1,528,689,201 1,893,125,774 2,036,165,606 2,170,030,128 2,164,687,636 2,159,277,131 - 38 
27,989,782 37,097,718 43,503,459 43,754,194 51,318,422 46,793,251 44,383,620 - 39 
57,966,713 79,884,282 109,659,088 116,699,572 127,429,154 103,131,132 108,530,518 - 40 
125,322,865 188,733,494 261,888,654 382,976,901 492,101,104 458,008,891 440,687,128 - 41 
87,129,434 131,034,785 180,542,259 341,866,509 478,248,154 422,581,205 393,927,406 - 42 


shingle mills, lime kilns, brick and tile works and fish canneries. 2ExportB of domestic merchandise only. 
I Imports of merchandise for home consumption. . The figures for 1919 are for gold exported to foreIgn 
countries only. 'Copper, fine, contained in ore, matte, regulus, etc. 6 Year 1876. 7 Year 1875. 
IThe figures for 1923 are subject to rpvision. 
62373-c 



xxvi 


Items. 


STATISTICAL SUIUJIARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA-concluded. 


1901. 


Electric Railways"- 
1 Miles in operation............. 
2 Capital. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3 Pa<;sengers.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4 Freight. .,. .. . . .... 
5 Earnings..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6 Expenses. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Canals- 
7 Passengers carried............ No. 
S Freight. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., tons 
Shipping (sea-going)- 
9 Entered. . .,. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., tons 
10 Clearecl....................... " 
Total. ...... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 


11 Telegraphs, Government, miles of line 
12 Tplegmphi;, othl-r, miles of line........ 
13Telephonei;........... .......... No. 
14 
Iotor "ehicles. _ _ .. 


Postal- 
15 Money orders i,sued... . . . . . . . S 
16 Revenue......... ....... $ 
17 Expenditure................... S 


Dominion Finance- 
18 Revenul'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . S 
111 Expenditure... .. .. .. .. . . . . 
20 Gross debt.... ............. S 
21 Assets...... ............. .., S 
Netdebt................ . 


Chartered Banks- 
22 Capital paid up............... S 
2
 Assets... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 
24 Liabilities (excluding capital 
andrescrves). ... ....... S 
25 Deposit<;2.. ................... S 
Savings Banks- 
211 Deposits in Post Office.... . .. . S 
27 Government. .. .. .....'....... S 
28 Special.. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . s 


Loan Companies"- 
2!! A<;sets... ... ... 
30 I,iabiliti""i;. .. . . . .. . .. .. ... .. . 
31 Deposits...................... 
Trust Companies- 
32 Shareholders' assets....... . . . . 
33 Investments On trnst RcCOunt.. 
Dominion ]'ire Insurance- 
34 Amount at risk, Dec. 31.... . . . 
35 Premium income for year. . . . . 
Provincial Fire Insurance-- 
36 Amount at risk Dec. 31.. . 
37 Premium income for YE:ar. . . . . 
Dominion J-ifc Insurance- 
38 Amount at risk Dec. 31.... 
39 Premium income for year. . . . . 
Prm. incial Life Insurance- 
40 Amount at risk Dec. 31..... .. . 
41 Premium income for year. . . . . 
Educa.tion- 
42 Enrolment... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
43 No. of Teachers.............. 
44 Total Public Expenditure..... $ 


1871. 


No. 
S 
No. 
tons 
S 
S 


100,377 
3,955,621 


2,521,573 
2,594,460 
5,116,033 


4,546,434 
803 . 637 
994,876 


1881. 


118,136 
2,853,230 


4,032,946 
4,071,391 
8,104,337 
1,947 


7,725,212 
1.344,970 
1,876,658 


1891. 


146,336 
2,902,526 


5,273,935 
5,421,261 
10,695,196 
2,699 
27,866 


12,478,178 
2,515,823 
3,161,676 


1896. 


151,342 
7,991,073 


5,895,360 
5,563,464 
11,458,824 
2,786 
28,949 


13,081,861 
2,971,653 
3,752,805 


675 


120,934,656 
287,926 
5,768,283 
3,435,162 


190,428 
5,665,259 


7,514,732 
7,028,330 
14,543,062 
5,744 
30,194 
63,192 


17,956,258 
3,421,192 
3,837,376 


19,335,561 21,635,218 38,579,311 36,618,591 5
,ÓU, 701 
15,623,08
 25.102,654 36.3,13.568 36.9-19, U2 46,866.368 
115,4!!2,61:!3 199,861,537 289,899,230 325,717,537 354,732,433 
37,7R6,165 4-1,465,757 52,090,199 67,220,104 86,252,429 
77,707,618 155,395,780 237,809,031 258.487.433 268.480.004 


37,095,340 59,534,977 60,700,697 62,043,173 67,035,615 
125,273,631 200,613,879 269,307,032 320,937,643 531.829,324 

O,250,9'j4 127,176,249 187,332,325 232,338,086 420,003,743 
56,287,391 94,346,481 148,396,968 193,616,049 349,573,327 
2,497,260 6,208,227 21,738,6-18 28,932,930 39,950,813 
2,072,037 9,6:!S,44,j 17,661,378 17,866,389 16,098,144 
5,766,712 7,685,888 10,982,232 14,459,833 19,125,097 


s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
. 
.. 


8,392,464 
8,392,464 
2,399,136 


73,906,6
8 12/i,041,146 143,887,377 IS8,523.307 
71,965,017 123,915,704 143,296,284 158,.,):!3,307 
13,460,268 18,482,959 19,404,878 20,756 910 


13.55g 


8g 1. 000 
18,016 


995,000 
23.718 


228,453,784 462,210,1168 759,602,191 845,574,352 1,038,687,619 
2,321,716 3,827,116 6,168,7Hi 7,075,850 9,650,348 


s 
. 
s 
s 
s 
s 


45,825,935 103,290,932 261,475,229 327,814,465 463,769.0
4 
1,852,974 3,094,689 8,417,702 10,604,57? 15,189,854 


- 1,083,000 
- 27.126 
- 11,044.925 


1 Calendar years 1920-1922. 2 Including amounts deposited elsew here than in Canada from 1901-1922. 
'.Active assets only. . Including Building Societies and Trust Companies (1871-1911). · Motor 
vehicles in 6 provinces numbered 2,130 in 1907. IThe figures for 11123 are subject to revision. 


No. 
eI 



xxvü 


STA.TISTICAL SU)I}IARY OF THE PROGRESS OF CANADA-concluded. 


1906. 1911. 1916. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923 8 
814 1,224 1,674 1,696 1,699 1,687 1,724 - 1 
- 111,532,347 154,895,584 171,894,556 170,826,404 177,187,436 188,258,974 - 2 
237,655,074 426,296,792 580,094,167 686,124,263 804,711,333 719,305,441 738,908,949 - 3 
506,024 1,228,362 1,936,674 2,474,892 2,691,]50 2,285,886 2,445,425 - 4 
10,966,871 20,356,952 27,416,285 35,696,532 47,047,246 44,536,833 49,660,485 - ð 
6,675,037 12,096,134 18,099,906 26,839,070 37,242,483 35,945,316 35,986,872 - 6 
256,500 304,904 263,648 262,056 230,468 230,129 219,519 220.592 7 
10,523,185 38,030,353 23,583,491 9,995,266 8,735,383 9,407,021 10,026,055 11.199,434 8 
8,895,353 11,919,339 12,616,927 11,694,613 12,010,374 12,516,503 13,620,183 17,095,883 9 
7,948,076 10,377,847 12,210,723 13,566,780 13,234,380 12,400,226 13,974,287 17,182,454 10 
16,843,429 22,297,186 24,827,656 25,261,393 25,244,754 24,916,729 27,594,470 34,278,337 
6,829 8,446 10,699 11,428 ll,454 11,207 11,455 - II 
31,506 33,905 38,552 37,771 40,939 4 t ,577 41,641 - 12 
- 302, 7.59 548,421 724,500 856,266 902,090 944, 029 - 13 
L 21,519 123,464 341,316 407 , 06-1 465,378 513,821 - 14 
37,355,673 70,614,862 94,469,871 142,375,809 159,224,937 173,523,322 139,914,186 143,055,120 15 
5,993,343 9,146,952 18,858,410 21,602,713 24,449,917 26,331,119 26,554,538 29,262,233 16 
4,921,577 7,954,223 16,009,139 19,273,584 20,774,385 24,661,262 28,121,425 27,794,502 17 
80,139,360 117,780.410 172,1-17,838 31
,946. 747 319,7,16,335 43,1.386,537 381,952,387 39,1,614,900 18 
17,240,641 87,77-1,188 130,350,727 23
, 731,283 303,843,830 361,118,145 347,560,691 332,293,732 19 
392,269,680 474,941,487 936,987,802 2,41\0,183,021 3,041,529,587 2,902,482,117 2,902,347,137 2,888,827,237 20 
12,'),226,702 134,899,435 321,831,631 647,598.202 3 792,660.9633 561,603,133 3 480,21I,336 3 435,050,368 3 21 
267,O,l
,978 3,10,0,12,052 615,156,171 1,8H,58.J,819 2,248,868,624 2,340,878,883 2,422,135,801 2,453,776.869 
91,035,604 103,009,256 113,175,353 115,004,960 123,617,120 129,096,339 125,456,485 124,373,293 22 
878,512,076 1,303,131,260 1,839,286,709 2,754,568,118 3,064,133,843 2,841,782,079 2,638,776,483 2,643,773.986 23 
713,790,553 l,097,b61,393 1,596,905,337 2,495,582,568 2,784,068,698 2,556,454,190 2,364,822,657 2,436,587,628 24 
605.968,513 980,433,788 1,418,035,429 2,189,428,885 '2,438,079,792 2,264,586,736 2,120,997,030 2,107,606,111 25 
45,736.488 43,330,579 40,008,418 41,654,920 31,605,594 29,010,619 24,837,181 22,357,268 26 
16,174,134 14,655,5fi4 13,520,009 l1,402,09b 10,729,218 10,150,189 9,829,653 9,247,12127 
27,39;),194 34,770,386 40,405,037 46,799,877 53,118,053 58,576,775 58,292,920 59,327.961 28 
232,076,447 389,701,988 70,872,297 74,520,021 90,413,261 96,698,809 102,493,145 - 29 
232,076,447 389,701,988 70,872,297 74,520,021 90,413,261 96,698,809 100,403,652 - 30 
23,046,194 33,742,513 8,987,720 9,347,096 15,257,840 15,868,926 16,910,558 - 31 
- - 7,826,943 10,007,941 10,224,252 10,238,236 10,353 , 24;j - 32 
- - 47,669,243 73,133,017 73,704,706 88,036,507 101,078,205 - 33 
1,443,902,244 2,279,8fi8,346 3,720,058,236 4,923,024,381 5,969,872,278 6,020,513,832 6,348,637.436 - 34 
14,687,963 20,575,255 27,783,852 40,031,474 50,527,937 312,564 48,168,310 - 35 
- - 849,915,678 1,004,942,977 1,054,105,011 1,269,764,435 1,036,200,959 - 36 
- - 3,902,504 4,302,492 5,216,795 5,545,549 4,890,627 - 37 
656,260,900 950,220,771 1,422,179,632 2,187,837,317 2,657,O?5,493 2,934,843,848 3,171,388,996 - 38 
22,364,456 31,619,626 48,093,105 74,708,509 90,218,047 99,01,3,081 107,104,091 - 39 
- - 348,097,229 223,853,792 174,740,215 222,871,178 175,380,201 - 40 
- - 5,311,003 4,407,833 3,282,669 4,389,008 4,329,716 - 41 
1,173,009 1,356,879 1,622,351 1,738,977 1,812,618 1,869,6i3 1,950,000 - 42 
32,250 40,516 50,307 53.990 55,733 56,607 59,312 -43 
16,368,244 37,971,374 57,362.734 74,843,138 76,835,089 112.976.543 114, 7n ,249 -44 


NOTE. 
In the foregoing Summary the statistics of immigration, fisheries (1871-1916), trade, shipping, the 
Post Office, the public debt, re\"enue and expenditure and the Post Office and Government Savings Banks 
relate to the fiscal years ended June 30 up to 1906, and from that on to tbe years ended Marcb 31. Agricul- 
tural, dairying, fisheries (1918-22), minerDI, manufacturing, banking, insurance, loan and trust companies' 
statistics relate to the calendar years and railway statistics to the yea.rs ended June 30, 1871-1919, and to 
the calendar years 1920-1922. . Canal statistics are those of the navigation seasons. The telegraph statistics 
relate to the fiscal years for Government lines and to the calendar years for other lines. 



ERRATA. 


P. 5. Table 1. The land and water areas of Saskatchewan are 243,381 and 8,319 sq. 
miles respectively, instead of 242,808 and 8,892. The corresponding areas of 
Canada are 3.603,909 and 125,756 instead of 3,603,336 and 126,329, as given 
in the table. 
P. 25. The longitude of Saskatoon seismological station should be 106 0 30' W. instead 
of 106 0 40' W. 
The registration of the Victoria Station should be correct to:l: .1 sec. instead of 
correct to:l: 1 sec. 
P. 171. Table 30. The urban population of Canada in 1921 should be 4,352,442 
instead of 4,352,402. 


x'l:vi.i 



I.-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 
I.-GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 
I.-General Description. 
Situation.-The Dominion of Canada comprises the whole northern half of 
the North American continent except the United States territory of Alaska, and 
J__abrador, a dependency of the island colony of Newfoundland. It is bounded ôn 
the west by the Pacific ocean and Alaska, the boundary with which was in part 
determined by the award of the Alaska Boundary Tribunal signed at Washington, 
Oct. 20, 1903; on the south by the 49th parallel, the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence 
river and additional lines set am; by the Ashburton Treaty, signed Aug. 9, 1842; 
and on the east by the Atlantic ocean, the gulf of St. Lawrence, the undefined 
Labrador boundary and Davis strait. Northern bOW1daries have yet to be fixed 
by further exploration, but cape Columbia in north latitude 83 0 5' is the most 
northerly known point of land in the Dominion. The southernmost point is Middle 
if'hnd in lake Erie, in north latitude 41 0 41', while from east to west the Dominion 
extends from about west longitude 57 0 -the approximate bOW1dary with N ew- 
foundland-to west longitude 141 0 , the boundary with Alaska. Canadian territory 
thus e
tends over about 84 0 of longitude and 42 0 of latitude. 
Area.-The area of the Dominion (including an estimate of 500,000 square 
miles for the provisional district of FrankJin) is 3,729,665 square miles, a figure 
which may be compared with that of 3,743,529 for the United States and its depen- 
dent territories, 3,800,000 the total area of Europe, 2,974,581 the total area of 
Australia, 3,913,560 the total area of China inclusive of dependencies, 3,275,510 
the area of Brazil, 1,802,577 the area of India, 121,633 the area of the United King- 
dom and 13,419,046, the total area of the British Empire. By comparison with 
the last two figures Canada is seen to be over 30 times as large as the United King- 
dom and to comprise almost 28 p.c. of the total area of the British Empire. 
Political Subdivisions.-Ümada is divided from east to west into the follow- 
ing provin('es:-the Atlantic Maritime provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, all three comparatively small in area; Quebec, covering 
a strip south of the St. Lawrence and the whole territory north of the St. Lawrence 
and east of the Ottawa to Hudson strait; Ontario, extending northward from the 
Great Lakes to Hudson bay; l\Ianitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the provinces 
of the interior continental plain, extending from 49 0 to 60 0 north latitude; and 
British Columbia, the province of the western mountain and Pacific coast region, 
also extending from 49 0 to 60 0 . North of the 60th parallel of latitude the country 
is divided into the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, the latter area 
composed of the provisional districts of Mackenzie, Keewatin and Franklin. In 
actual area the three Maritime provinces, covering a total land area of 51,163 
square miles, make up but 1.4 p.c. of the total land area of the country. Quebec, 
the largest in area of all the provinces, and Ontario cover 19. 45 and 10. 15 p.c. 
of the country's aggregate land area rcspectively. The four western provinces, 
taken in order as one proceeds west, constitute 6. 4,6 -7, 7.0 and 9.8 p.c., tþ.e Yukon 
5, 7 p.c., Franklin 13. 8 p.c., Keewatin 5.7 p.c. and Mackenzie 13. 9 p.c. of the land 
area of the Dominion. A brief description of each of the provint'es is appc
doo. 
Prince Edward Island.-This, the smallest province of the Dominion, lies at 
the south of the gulf of St. Lawrence and is separated from the mainland of the 
62373-1 



2 


PHYSICAL CHA.RACTERISTICS OF CA.VAD.l 


continent by X orthumbcrland !'\trait. It is 150 milf's in length and varies from 4 
miles to 30 in width, covering an area of 2,184 squarf'miles, somc 200 squarf' miles 
more than the statp of Delaware and slightly more than half thc area of thf' islam1. 
of Jamaica in thc British \Yest Indies. Its rich rcd soil and red sandstone formations 
make up a distinctive and even topography, no point in the island attaining a 
grcater altitude than 311 feet above sealevC'l. .A dimate tempered by the surround- 
ing watcrs of the gulf and yet free from the rigours of Atlantic storms, combined 
with mmlerous rivers, shdtered harhours and rolling plains, offC'rs great inducf'- 
ments to thc pursuit of agriculture and of fishing. ThC' provinc'e is noted for its 
predominance in the fox-farming industry, its lobster cannC'ries, and its production 
of oats and potatoes. 
!Çova Scotia.-Thc province of Xova Scotia is 3
6 miles in lcngth by from ;")0 
to 100 milcs in width, a long and rather narrow strip of land lying parallel to thc 
l\lainf' and Xew Brunswick coast and joined to thc latter by the isthmus of Chi
- 
nf'cto. It includes at its north thc island of Cape Brcton, which is separated from 
the mainland by thc strait of Canso. The total area of the provincc is 21,4-2R square 
miles, a little ovcr 2,000 square miles less than the combined area of Belgium and 
IIol1and, with 
hich Nova Rcotia may vpry well be compared as to climate, natural 
resources and accessibility. Capc Breton island, at the mouth of thc gulf of Rt. 
Lawrence and sheltering Prince Edward Island from the .Atbntic, is roughly 100 
miles in length with an cxtreme breadth of S7 miles, its area of 3,120 square milcs 
enclosing the salt water lakes of Bras d'Or, conneetC'd with the Se':\ at the north by 
two natural channds and at thc south hy thc :--;t. PC'ter's ship canal. The ridge 
of mmmtainous country running through the centre of the Xova Rcotian mainland 
divides it roughly into two slopes, that facing the Atlantic being g('llcrally rocky, 
barren and open to the sweep of _\.tlantic storms, while the other, fac-ing the' bay of 
Fundy and the gulf of Bt. Lawrence, consists for the most part of m'ahle and fe'rtile 
plains and river v:lIleys, and is noted for its gene'ral farming and fruit farming 
dif'tricts. The A.tbntic coast is deeply indPntC'd with numerous exeell('llt harbours. 
New Bruns1L'ick.-"Ïth a total area of 27,Ð8.'5 square milC's, :Ne'w Brunswick 
may he comp:lre'd to f-;cotland wit h its area of 30,40;") squarC' milf's. The conform- 
ation of the province is alSO mther similar to that of Scotland, for thf' country, 
although not mountainous, is divC'r:-;ified by the occurrence of a great numbf'r of 
low hills amI valleys. While Xew Brunswick is essentially a part. of the mainland, 
the bay of Chalf'ur at the north, the' gulf of 
t. Lawrence and :Northumberlancl 
strait at thf' C3'-'t, the hay of Fundy at the south and Pa
samaquoddy hay at the 
southwest, provide the province with a very C')o,,Je'nsive sea coast. Although 
largf'r in arca than XOVà 
('otia, Xc\\" Brunswick doe's not rover as many de'g;re'C's 
of latitude as dops tht' former, its most southern point ]'C'ing a little' south of 
45 0 north latitude and its most northern a little' north of 48 0 , while XO'/a I-'cotia 
extends roughly from thp 1-3rd to the 47th paral1el. To its southwest is a group 
of islands bdoIll!ing to the provinee, the most important be'inJ:!: Campohpllo with an 
area of 115,000 acrps, Grand :\lanan with an area of 37,000 a('res and the" p:--,t 
Isle's, with an area of R,OOO :.teres. The soil of thesp i:-:lands, similar to much of 
that on the mainlam1, is genprally fertile, but only a :-:mall proportion of it is unùer 
('ultivation. New Brun:--:wick has been well called the best watC'rro country in the 
world; its numcrou::, rivprs provide' ac('c
!--\ to ð.tensive lumbering areas in its interior 
and to many of the most attractive hunting and fi.<;hing Tf--.sorts in the Dominion. 
Qu-ebec.-(
uehpc miJ:!:ht with con:--:idprable accuraey he ineludpd among the 
Maritime provincef', for the gulf of Ht. Lawre'nee' is real1y a part of the' Atlantic, 



GEXERAL DES(,RIPTI().\
 


3 


while salt water wa
hes the ('oasts of the province for many miles on its northern 
and western borders. BC'sides includinf:!. a narrow strip of land between the St.. 
Lawrence and the international and 
ew Brunswick boundariC's, Quebec extends 
northward from the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers to Hudson strait, covering 
over 17 0 of latitude and an area of 706,834 square miles. The combined areas of 
France, Germany, Sweden and Italy are some 7,000 square miles less than the area 
of Quebec. Apart from its importance as the threshold of Canada and the gate- 
way through which ocean navigation must pass on its way to the interior of the 
continent, Quebec is also noted for its natural resources. The untold timber limits 
of its northern an'as form the basis for a great pulp and paper industry of tlw present 
and the future. Its rivers, many of them as yet comparatively unknown, may be 
harnessed to supply over one-third of the electric power available in Canada. Its 
mineral depo
its, particularly tho
e of asbe!"tos, have long bC'en known for their 
quality and extent. and the fisht'rif's of the St. Lawrence river and gulf an' equally 
fam;li:tr. Agricultural1y, the climate and soil of the ::-;t. Lawrence shores and the 
plains of the .Eastern Township'; make the province eminently fitted for general 
farming operations. 
Ontario.-The province of Ontario is the sedion of the Dominion contained 
between the great international lakes and Hudson bay and between the western 
boundary of Quebec and the eastern limits of ::\Ianitoba. Its mo
t southern point 
is in north latitude 41 0 41' and its most northern in north latitudp !)6 0 4-S'. The 
total area comprised \vithin its limits is 407,262 square miles, of which its water 
area of 41,382 square miles forms the unusually large pprcpnÜlge of 10.16. The 
province is a little more than 8,000 square miles less in area than are France and 
Germany together, and when compared with the statf'S to the south Ontario is 
found to be almost equal in extent to the combined area of the six Xew England 
states, Kew York, XC'w Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iichigan, 
and 'Visconsin. :i\Iany varietie:--: of climate and soil are encountered, from the 
distinctively southern conditions found along the shores of lake Erie to the infinitely 
diverse ones of Hudson and James bay. Ontario. of aU the provinces of Canada, 
is the centre of the country's manufacturing life, owing to its abtUldant water power 
resources and its prm.imity to the coal fields of PC'nnsylvania, but the many natural 
resources of its rural districts are not on this account neglected. 
Iining in the 
Sudbury, Cobalt and Porcupine districts is a thriving industry, the nickel coming 
from the Sudbury field amounting t.o three-fourths of the world's consumption; 
fruit farming in the Kiagara district and general farming throughout the entire 
central part of the province are carried on extensively under unusually favourable 
conditions, while timber and furs are the mm-t important products of the far north. 
.,uanitoba.-l\Ianitoba, the most easterly of the prairie provinces and also the 
oldest in point of settlement, extends roughly from a line joining the west coast of 
Hudson bay and the lake of the 'V oods to a line approximating cJosely to the 102nd 
meridian west from Greenwich. On the north and south it is bounded by the GOth 
and 49th paraUels of latitude respectively. The total area of :\Ianitoba is 251,832 
square miles. This arm may he compared to that of the United Kingdom 
with its. area of 121,633 square milcH, and Manitoba is seen to be 8,566 square 
mile,., greater than twice t he total area of the British Isles. The province is typically 
an agricultural one, its southern plains being speciaUy adapted to this form of 
industry. Its northern districts, with a topography very different frem that a 
its prairies, are of importance in the production of copper ore and of timber products 
62373-H 



4 


PHYSICAL ('HARACTb'RISTICS OF CANADA 


Saskatchewan.-The central prairie province, contained within the western 
boundary of Manitoba, the 49th and 60th paralleJs of latitude, and the HOth meri- 
dian, covers an area of 251,700 square miles, but slightly Jess than that of Mani- 
toba, and greater by 5,000 square miles than the combined areas of the r nited 
Kmgdom and Norway. The country consists for the most part of the open rolling 
prairie at an average altitude of 1,500 feet above sea-level, while in the north it 
assumes a more broken aspect and is as yet but slightly developed. The climate 
is quite different from that of eagtern Canada, with less precipitation and perhaps 
slightly more severe features than are encountered in many other parts of the 
country, but it is nevertheless most favourable to plant and animal growth. The 
northern districts are abundantly watered by lakes and rivers and are rich in coal 
and tinIber resources. 
Alberta.-Lying between Saskatchewan on the east and the Rocky mountains 
and the 120th meridian on the west, and bounded on the north and south by the 
Northwest Territories and the 'Cnited States respectively, is the province of Alberta. 
Its area is slightly greater than that of Saskatchewan or Manitoba, comprising a 
total of 255,285 square m;les, a little more than the combined areas of Germany 
and Bulgaria. Formerly an almost exclusively ranching country, it has now become 
a great wheat producing region, the frontier of the grain grO\\ ing area now approx- 
imating to the line of the foot-hills of the Rockies. In the soutll\VP
t, considerable 
coal and oil mining are carried on; lumbering is important in tht' more mountainous 
western parts and in the north, where some ranching is still pursued in the less 
populous sections. The climate of .Alberta is a particularly favourable one, less 
8evcre in summt'r than more eastern parts of the cmmtry and tempt'rcd in winter by 
the "Chinook" winds from the Pacific. 
British Columbia.-The province of British Colunlbia is in some respects the 
most favoured part of Canada. \Yithin its boundarie::i are reproduced all the 
varied climates of the Dominion and almost every natural feature, whiJe some of 
its climatic and geographical conditions ate" peculiar to the province. Extending 
from the Rockies to the Pacific and from the 49th to the 60th parallel of latitude, 
its limits contain an area of 335,855 square miles, more than three times the area 
of Italy, slightly less than thrt'e times the area of the 'Cnited Kingdom and but 
slightly less than the combined area of the United Kingdom, .Ko. wPy and Italy. 
The many islands of the Pacific coast, notably Vancouver islánd with an area of 
about 13,500 square miles and the Queen Charlotte group, are included in the 
province and are remarkable for their temperate climate and abundant natural 
resources. Mention need hardly be made of the mineral resources, the great lumber 
trade, the fisheries and Hie agriculture of British Colwnbia. 
Yukon and Northwest Te1ïitories.-The vast area of 1,449,300 square miles is 
included within the boundaries of Canada'::; northern subdivisions, the Yukon 
Territory and the three provisional districts of the .Korthwest Territories. This is 
almost twelve times the area of the United Kingdom, nearly half the area of the 
United States and more than the combined areas of the Argentine Republic and 
Chile in South America. Much of these northern regions is uninhabited, large 
areas of them even unexplored, but none the less they are of considerable potential 
economic value, owing to their possibilities in agricultural and pastoral production, 
to their mineral deposits such as the Yukon gold fields, as well as to their forest 
resources and their fms. 



PHYSIOGRAPHY 


5 


Summary of Land and Water Area.-For the convenience of the reader, 
the total land and water area of the Dominion, and its distribution into provinces 
and territories, is shown in Table 1. 
t.-Land and \\ater Area of Canada b)' Provinces and Territories as in 1923. 


Total 
Provinces. I,and. Water. Land and 
Water. 
sq. miles. sq. miles. sq. miles. 
Prince Ed"ard Island............ ..................... 2,184 - 2,184 
Nova Rcotia. . .. . . .. . . . . . '. ............................. 21,068 360 21,428 
New Brunswick. .......... ............................... 27,911 74 27,985 
QuebE'C. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ............... ........... 690,865 15,969 706,834 
Ontario........................ . ............................... 365,880 41,382 407,262 
:Manito
a..... . ........... ............. ........ 231,926 19,906 251,832 
Saskatchewan.. _ .. ............... ......... 242,808 8,892 251,700 
Alberta........ . .. .. .... 252,925 2,360 255,285 
British Columbia....... ........... --... 353,416 2,439 355, 8M 
yukon......................... . ....... 206,427 649 207,076 
Korthwest Territories- 
Franklin......... . ........ 500,000 - 500,000 
Kee"atin...... . ......... 205,973 6,851 212,824 
Mackenzie. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. 501,953 27,447 529,400 
Total_ .... .......... 3,603,336 126,329 3,729,66á 


The watcr area is exclusive of Hudson bay, rngava bay, the bay of Fundy, 
the gulf of St. Lawrence and all other tidal waters, excepting t.hat portion of the 
rivcr St. Lawrence which is between Pointe-des-Monts and the foot of lake St. 
Peter, in Quebec. 


2.-Physiog.raphy. 


Topography.-The tope-graphic features of the present surface of the American 
continent admit of its division, in Canada, into several physiographic provinces. 
The exposed surface of the old pre-Cambrian continent forms one of the largest 
divisions and has been called the Canadian Shield, the A.rchæan Pencplain and, in 
its southern portion, thE' Laurentian Highland. The mountainous country of the 
west conf'titutes the Cordilleras, while the mountains of eastern United States, in 
their continuation across the border, form the Appalachian highlands of eastern 
Canada. The Great Plains, with various subdivisions, occupy the area between 
the mountainous area of the west and the great: roughened surface of the Canadian 
Shield. The St. Lawrence lowland lies between the I.aurentian and Appalachian 
highlands. \Yithin the borders of the Canadian Shield an area on the southern 
margin of Hudson bay has been referred to as the U clay belt." It occupies a pari 
of the basin that was submergcd during tht' glacial period and covered wIt h a coating 
of cby which smoothed over its inequalities and concealed most. of the underlying 
rocks. Since its emergcnce the surface has been but slightly altered by drainage 
channels cut across it. 
Canadian Shield.- The portion of the pre-Cambrian continent whose 
exposed surtace still forms a large part of C['.nada, has an area of about two and 
a half million square miles. Its northern border crosses the Arctic archipelago, 
the eastern lies beyond Baffin island and Labrador and reaches the depressed area 
occupied by the St. Lawrence river, a short spur or point crossing this valley at the 
outlet of lake Ontario to join the Adirondack mountains in New York. The south- 
ern boundary runs from the spur west to Georgian bay, skirts the north shore of 



6 


PllrSICAL CHARACTERlSTIrS OF rAX.1D
1 


lake Huron and sweeps almost entirely around the an('ient depre
('d arm occupied 
by lake 
uperior. The western edge, from thC' lake of the 'Yoods and lake'Vinnipeg, 
bears nort.hwest to the westprn end of lake A.thabaska, and passes t.hrough the basins 
occupied by Great Slave and Great Bear lakes, reaching thp Arctic ocmn cast of 
the Mackpnzie River delta. In detail, the surface features of thp Canadian 
hield 
are irreguJar; but, viewed broadly. it has the conformation of a great plain, deprCHsed 
toward the rentrt' and in the north and slightly elevated along the eastern and 
t;outhern borders, where it presents a somewhat steep outward slope. The general 
clt'vation 1n the eastern portion is under 2,000 feet, and Over the larger part of the 
plain is about 1,000 feet. The highest portion is along the northeastern margin 
wlH'rc it pre
ents a stet'p face to the sea, rising to a maximum altitude of ahout 
6.000 feet. 
Appalachian Region.-The continuation of the Green mountains of Vermont 
into Canada may be traced in the Xotre Dame mountains, which approach the 
fo:t. La\\Tence below Quebec and, continuing with more eastf>r1y trend, form the 
highland of the Gaspé peninsula. Over a large pan of the region these hill'5 hardly 
attain the dignity of mountains, but peaks rising 3,500 feet above the nearby coast 
arc found in the Gaspé peninsula. The continuation of the 'Yhite mountains of 
Kew Hampshire is found in the highlands of ::\Iaim' and Xew Brunswick, the conti- 
nuity being shown quite plainly by the rock-folding and other evidences of the 
great earth movements which caused the topography. An additional ridge appar- 
ently forms the present province of Kava Scotia, and although the highlands of 
that province in few places rise to plevations greatpr than 1,500 feet, the rock struc- 
ture indicates that it was a mountainous country at no very remotC' gt'ologieal 
period. 
St. Lawrence Lowlands.-The southern intprior of the continent consists 
of a plain of low relief, bordered on the east by the Appalachian mountains, on 
t1:e west hy the Cordilleran mountai^ systems, and on the north by the 
Laurentian plateau. This plain, i.n its Canadian portion, is kno"n as the St. 
La" renee lowlands, an I extends from a short distance below Quebec city to lake 
Huron, with a length of 600 miles and an area of 33,000 square miles. To the 
northeast it becomes reduced in width, and in the vicinity of Quebec is represented 
by a narrow plateau or shelf on each side of the St. Lawrence river. The triangular 
area bt'yond, in which is the island of Anticosti, is structurally related to the central 
lowlands. The St. Lawrence lowlands may be divided into three sections: (1) the 
St. Lawrence river plain, separated from (2) the Eastern Ontario basin, by a point 
of crystalline rocks, and (3) the Ontario peninsula, a slightly more elevated plain 
whose eastern border is a steep t'scarpment, the eastern outcrop of a heavy lÍIn('- 
stone bed which underlies the western peninsula. 
Great Plains.-A great area, including many diverse features, lie
 to the 
east of the Cordilleras. The portion that is included under the term Great Plains 
e),.t.ends from the southwestern edge of the ancient surface forming the Canadian 
Shield, to the e3.<:tern edge of the mountainous region of the Cordilleras. In the 
belt traversed hy the railway lines a three-fold division into pra 1 rie steppes, rising 
one above the other, is clearly recognizable, though the divisions are not distinguish- 
able in the region farther north to which the term prairie is not applicable. For the 
purpose of description these three divisions arc adopted and a fourth is added for 
t he broken hilly country of the foot-hills. The first or east.ern division comprises 
the plain lying betwecn the Canadian Shield and the plateau formed of Cretaceou:> 



RIVERS 
1I\TD LAKES 


7 


sediment!':; the second extends from the edge of this plateau westward to the erosion 
remnants of former Tertiary deposits; and the third stretches from this line west- 
ward to the foot-hilk North of the prairie country these di!':tinctions are less 
noticeable, and divisions two and three become merged into one. 
Cordilleran Region.- The western part of the American continent is more 
or less mountainous. The Andean chain, which extends throughout the length 
of South America and broadens out in the rnited States and in Canada, has an 
average width of over 500 miles. This region, covering about 600,000 square 
miles in Canada, is the most elevated in the Dominion, many of the summits reach- 
ing heights of 10,000 fed, with occasional peaks over 13,000 feet above sea level. 
The mountainous tract forming the Cordilleras can be divided broadly into three 
parallel bands; a series of plateaus and mountains, comprised in the Columbia, 
Interior, Cassiar and Yukon systems forming the central part, referred to as the 
Central Belt; another :-:eries of paranel ridges ef.st of the central plateaus, formed 
of fault rocks and folds and including the Rocky and Arctic systems, known as the 
Eastern Belt; and a third division between the plateau country and the Pacific, 
composed of the Pacific and Insular systems, called the Western Belt. 
Following is a list of the principal named Canadian Cordj]]eran peaks exceeding 
12,000 feet in elevation:- 


Kame. Elevation. X.Lat. W. Long. Range. 
feet. 
.-\.lberta- 
Alberta. .. . . . . . . . 12,000 52 0 14' 117 0 36' Rockr. mtns. 
Forbes..... ...... 12,000 51 0 48' 116 0 56' 
The Twins.... .. .. . 12,085 52 0 13' 117 0 12' 
British Columbia- 
Hobson. . . . . . . . . 13,068 53 0 07' 119 0 08' 
Yukon- 
.-\ ugus ta. . 14,900 60 0 18' 140 c 28' St. Eli
,s mtns. 
Cook.... .. 13,700 60 0 10' 139 0 59' 
Hubbard. 16,400 60 0 21' 139 0 02' 
King......... 16,971 60 c 35' 140 0 39' 
Logan....... .... 19,539 60 0 51' 140 0 21' 
I.ucania...... .. 17,147 61 0 01' 140 0 28' 

1('Arthur 14,253 60 0 36' 140 0 13' 
Xewton. . 13,860 60 0 19' 140 0 52' 
:-;t. Elias....... 18,000 60 0 18' 140 0 57' 
Steele...... . 16,644 61 0 06' 140 0 19' 
Strickland. 13,818 61 0 14' 140 0 45' 
Yancouver. 15,617 60 0 21' 139 0 42' 
Walsh............ . 14,498 61 0 00' 140 0 00' 
Wood....... 15,885 61 0 14' 140 0 31' 
3.-Rivers and Lakes. 


General.-The waterways of Canada constitute not only one of its most 
remarkable geographic features but one of the most vital elements of its national 
existence. The water area of 126,329 square miles is unusually large, constituting 
almost 3! p.c. of the total area of the country, whereas the water area of the United 
States forms but slightly more than 1! p.c. of its area. The Great Lakes, with 
the St. I_awrence river, form the most important system of waterways on the conti- 
nent and one of the most notable fresh water transportation routes in the world. 
Their value in facilitating the cheap and speedy shipment of grain from the prairi(" 
provinces cannot be overestimated. These lakes never freeze over, but usually 
most of their harbours are closed by ice about the middle of December and remaw 
frozen over until the end of :March or the beginning of April. 



8 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA.YADA 


Drainage Basins.- The great draînage basins of Canada are the Atlantic 
(554,000 square miles), the Hudson bay (1,486,000 square miles), the Arctic 
(1,290,000 square miles), thc Pacific (387,300 square miles), and the guJf of Mexico 
(12,365 squarc miles). Table 2 indicates the drainage areas of the more important 
rivers. 


Drainage Basins. 


2.-Drainage Basins of Canada. 


Drainage Basins. 


Atlantic Basin. 
Hamilton. . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . 
Miramichi....... _ ................. 
St. John. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . .. .. . . . . . . . 
St. I,awrence.......................... 
Saguenay... ... . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
St. Maurice....................... 


i


:::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 
Otta\\a......... _... _ .... _ _., 
Lièvre. .. . . . . . . .. _. ........... 
Gatineau......... ............... 


Total...... . . '. ..... . . . . . . . . . . 
Hudson Bay Basin. 
I{okeoak. ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
George..................... _. _. _..... 
Big..... . . . . . . . .. .. _ _ _ . .. .. . . _ . . 
Eastmain. _.. ................. 
Hupert. .............................. 
Broadback........................... . 
N ottaway.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Moose..... ...... ........... ..... ..... 

Y


ibi:: ::::::::::.:::: ::::::: 
Albany....:. ............ _ _. _. ..... 
Kenogaml. _ _ _ .. . . . . _ . . . . . . 
Atta\\apiskat...... ....... 
\Yinisk. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ........ 
Severn.................. ........ 
Hayes.................. ...... 
Kelson.. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
\Vinnipeg. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
English................... _ _.. 
Red.............._ 
ABBiniboine...... .... 
Saskatchewan........... .......... 
North Saskatche\\an............ 
South Saskatchewan............ 
Red Deer............... 
Bow..... . .. . .. . .. . . .. ..... '" 
Belly.................... .... 
Churchill.... .............. _........ . 


Area 
Drained. 


Sq.. miles. 
29,100 
5,400 
21,500 
309,500 
35,900 
16,200 
8,000 
9,000 
56,700 
3,500 
9,100 
554.000 


62,400 
20,000 
26,300 
25,500 
15,700 
9,800 
29,800 
42,100 
11 , 300 
10,600 
59,800 
20,700 
18,700 
24,100 
38,600 
28,000 
370,800 
44,000 
20,600 
63.400 
52,600 
158,800 
54,700 
65,500 
18,300 
11,100 
8,!J00 
115,500 


Area 
Drained. 


Hudson Bay Basln-concluded. Sq. miles. 
Kazan................................. 32,700 
Dubawnt.............................. 58,500 


Total. .... . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 
PaclOc Basin. 
\. ukon... _............................ 
Porcupine...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . 
Stewart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pelly................................ 
IJewes................ .............. 
'Vhite..... ...................... _ _" 
Alsek.. . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . _ .. . . .. . . 
Taku........ _ _.... _ _ _. _...... 
Stikine. . . . . . _ _ _ .. _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nass.................................. . 
Skeena................................ . 
Fraser. . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thompson.... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . 
]\" echako.. ... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Blackwater.... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . _ _ _ _ . 
Quesnel. . .. . . . .. . . . . _ . _ . . _ . . .. . . . . 
Chilcotin.. _... . _........ 
Columbia.. .. _. _. __................. 
I{ootenay....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Okanagan........................... . 
Kettle..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . 
Pend d'Oreille....................... 


Total.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . 
Arctic Basin. 
Ral'ks... .. . _......_........... 
Coppermine........................... . 
\1 ackenzie.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Liard................................ 
Hay................................. 
Peace............................... . 
Athabasha.......................... . 


Total. ....... .... . . 


GulCor:nelico Basin.............. 


1.486,000 


145,800 
24,600 
21,900 
21,300 
35,100 
15,000 
11 , 200 
7,600 
20,300 
7,400 
19,300 
91,700 
21,800 
15,700 
5,600 
4,500 
7,500 
39,300 
15,500 
6,000 
3,160 
1,190 
3S7,300 


47,.')00 
29,100 
6.',;.) 000 
lO:ÚOO 
25,700 
117,100 
58, 900 


1,290,110O 
n.3G:í 


KOTE.-Owing to overlapping, the wtals of each drainage basin do not represent an addition of the 
drainal!;e areas as I!;iven. Trihutaries and suh-trihutari<,!j are indicated by indentation of the names. The 
Gull of hlexiro basin is that part of the southern area of the prairie provinces drained by the Mi880uri and 
:r.1i;:sissippi rivers and their tributaries. 


St. Lawrence River 
ystem.-Most important of the lakes and rivers of 
Canada is thc chain of the Grcat Lakes with their connccting rivers, the St. Law- 
rence rivcr anù its tributaries. This {'hain is called the St. Lawrcnce River sy
tem. 
The Grcat Lakes, separating the province of Ontario from the United States and 
connected by a series of canals with the St. Lawrence river, al10w vcss<'ls drawing 
not over 14 feet of water to procced from the Atlantic ocean to the intcrior of the 
Dominion as far as Fort \\ illiam and l)ort Arthur, twin cities situatcd on lake 
Superior, practically half wa
 across the continent. 
Other River Systems.-Apart from the St. Lawrence, the great watcrway 
of the eastern half of the Dominion, other systcms also merit somc attention. The 



RIYERS ASD LAKES 


9 


Saskatchewan river, for example, flowing eastward from the Rocky mountains to 
lake 'Yinnipeg and thence northward by the Nelson river into Hudson bay, drains 
a great part of the plains of the western provinces. In the north, the Mackenzie 
ríver, with its tributaries the Slave, Liard, Athabaska and Peace rivers, follows 
the northerly slope of the Great Plain and empties into the Arctic ocean, its waters 
having traversed in all a distance of 2,525 miles. The Yukon river also, drain- 
ing a great part of the Yukon territory, flows northward through Alaska into the 
Behring sea after a course of 2,300 miles. The Fraser, Columbia, Skeena and 
Stikine rivers flow into the Pacific ocean after draining the western slopes of the 
mountains of British Columbia. Table 3 gives the lengths of the principal rivers 
with their tributaries, classified according to the course taken by their waters. 


3.-Lengths of Principa1 Rhers and 'Tributaries in Canada. 


NamE."B. 


Miles. 


Names. 


M ilea. 


Flowing into the Atlantic Oc('an. 
Hamilton (to head of Ashuanipi)... . . . . . .. . 
Katashkwan........ ........ ...... ...... ... 
Romaine.. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . '. 
Moisie.................................... . 
St. }Iarguerite............................ . 
St. John.... _ _............................. 
1\1 iramichi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. La\\TenCe (to head of St. Louis)......... 
1\lanikuagan............................ . 


::[
i
: : .. ::::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
Saguenay (to head of Peribonka).... . . . . 







tt..:::...::::::::::::::::::::: : 
Ash\\ apmuchuan. . _ .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
{'haudière. .. . .. . . .. . . _ . .. . . .. . 
St. Maurice.... . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . .. 
1\1 atta\\ in.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Francis.............................. 
Richelieu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
Ottawa.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . 





:.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 
North Nation... . 
Lièvre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gatineau....... . 
Coulonge................ ............. 
Dumoine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
South Nation........... ....... ... .... 


::
t
.:::...:::::::::
:: ::: ::: ::: 
Petawawa........ .... ........ 
:Moira. 
Trent... ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Grand.... .......... ....... ........... 
Thames........................... ..... 
French (to head of Sturgeon). .. ........ 
Sturgeon........................ ....... 

fl

l:
'gi.":::.'.:: :: : : :: : : : : : . . . . . . . . . . : : 
Thessalon....... . .". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Nipigon (to head of Ombabika)...... " 
Flowing into Hudson Bay. 
Hayes....................... ..... .... .... 
Nelson (to lake Winnipeg). . ..... ... ...... 
1'.eIson (to head of Bow).................. 
Red {to head of lake Traverse}. ....... . . . 
Red (to head of Sheyenne}..... . .. . . . .. .. 
ABSiniboine............................ . 
SOUris................................. . 
Qu' Appelle. . ................ .. . .. .. _ . . . . 
Winnipeg (to head of Firesteel). .... . . . . . . 
English. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


350 
220 
270 
210 
130 
390 
135 
1,900 
310 
270 
240 
405 
280 
185 
165 
120 
325 
100 
165 
210 
685 
70 
115 
60 
205 
240 
135 
80 
90 
105 
130 
95 
60 
150 
140 
135 
180 
110 
153 
140 
40 
130 


Flowing into Hudson Bay-concluded. 
Nelson {to head of Bow)-concluded. 
Saskatchewan (to head of Bow}......... 
North Saskatchewan.................. 
South Saskatchewan (to head of Bow). 
Bow................................ 
Belly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Red Deer........................... 
Churchill.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Beaver. . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kazan........ ......_ _.'" -........ .... 
Dubawnt... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........... 
Severn.................................. -. 
Winisk................................... . 
Atta\\apiskat........ ..................... 
Albany (to head of Cat river)............. 
Moose (to head of Mattagami}............. 
l\fattagami............................. . 
Abitibi...... _ ............. 
Missinaibi............. . 
Harricanaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " .... . 
Notta\\aý (to head of Waswanipi)........ 
'Vaswanipi............................. . 
Rupert................ .................... 
Eastmain...................... ......... 
Big. ... .... .............................. 
Great" hale... -.......................... 
Leaf.... .................................. 
Koksoak (to head of Kaniapiskau}........ 
Kaniapiskau... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 
George.................................. . 
Flowing into the Pacific Ocean. 
Colum bia (total)........ .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Columbia (in Canada). .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . 
Kootenay.. -.... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fraser.... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 
Thompson (to head of Korth Thompson) 
Korth Thompson........... . .... 
South Thompson................. --'.' 
Chilcotin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Blackwater............................ . 
Kechako............................... . 
Stuart. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Skeena. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Nass.................. --................. 
Stikine............. ..... -.............. 
AIsek.............. .. ............ ......... 
Yukon {mouth to head of Nisutlin)........ 
Yukon (Int. boundary to head of Nisutlin). 
Stewart........ . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 
\Vhite......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 
Pelly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Macmillan............................. . 
Lewes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


300 
390 
1,660 
355 
545 
450 
450 
270 
475 
330 


1,205 
760 
865 
315 
180 
385 
1,000 
305 
455 
580 
420 
295 
465 
610 
340 
275 
340 
26.') 
250 
4(>0 
190 
380 
3i5 
520 
3ti5 
295 
535 
445 
365 


1,150 
465 
400 
695 
270 
185 
120 
145 
]40 
255 
220 
335 
205 
335 
260 
1,765 
655 
320 
185 
330 
200 
338 



10 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA..V
1DA 


Xames. 


Miles. 


3.-I.engths of Principal Rhers and Tributaries in {'anada-concluùcd. 


:\1iles. 


Names. 


Flowing Into the Arctic Ocean. 


\fackenzie (to head of Finlay}....... ... ". 
Peel...... .... 
Arctic Red_. .. 
Liard.. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . 
Fort Nellj()n.. 
Athabaska... . 
Pembina.......... . 
!:,lave..... . 


2,S25 
365 
230 
550 
260 
765 
210 
265 


Flowing Into the .-\.rctlc Ocean -con. 
Mackenzie-concluded. 
Peace (to head of Finlay).. . . . . . . 
Finlay. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Parsnip.... . 

moky. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Little Smoky.............. 
Coppermine. 
Backs. . . . . . . . . . 


1,065 
250 
145 
245 
IS5 
525 
605 


NOTE.-In the above tahle the tributaries and sub-tributaries are indicated hy indentation of the 
names. Thus the Ottawa and other rivers are shown as tributary to the St. Lawrence, and the Gatineau 
and other rivers as tributary to the Ottawa. 


The Great Lakes.-Table 4 shows thc len
th, breadth, area, elevation 
above sea-level and maximum depth of each of the Creat LakeR. 
-t.- Area, t]e\ation and ))('I)th of the (;nat I,ak('s. 


Lakes. 


Length. 


:Kame. 

uperior. .......... ..... 

fi('higan. .. .. .. .. . . . 
Huron.. ..... 
St. Clair. .. . . .. 
Erie.. ........ ... . 
Ontario......................... ......... 


milcs. 
3R3 
320 
247 
26 
241 
180 


Breadth. 


Maximum 
depth. 


Area. 


Elevation 
above 
sea-level. 


feet. 
602.29 
581. 13 
581.13 
575.62 
572.52 
246. 17 


milcf'. 
160 
118 
10 1 
24 
57 
53 


square 
miles. 
31,810 
22,400 
23,010 
460 
9.940 
7,540 


Lake Superior, with its area of 31,810 square miles, i
 thc largest body of fre
,}1 
water in the world. As thc international houndary h('tween Canada and the 
rnited States passes through the centre of lakes Superior, Huron, Eric and Ontario, 
only half of the areas of theRe lakes given in the above f'tatenu'ut is Canadian. 
The whole of lake :Michi
an is within rnited States territory. From thc we:,;tern 
end of lakc Superior to the mouth of the St. Lawrence there is, with the aid of the 
canal system, a continuous navigable waterway. The total length of the 
t. Law- 
rence river from the hcad of the St. Louis river to the Pointe-des-:Monts, at the 
entrancc of the gulf of St. Lawrence, is 1,900 miles. TJle tributarics of the St. 
Lawrence, several of which havc t hemsclves important tributaries, indud{' thE' 
Ottawa river, 685 miles lon
, the St. Maurice river, 325 milcs long, and the Sague- 
nay (to head of Perihonka), 405 miles long. 
Other Inland Waters.-In addition to the Great Lakes thcre are large 
bodies of inland water in other parts of Canada. Of thei'c only the following prin- 
cipal lakes, with thcir respective areas, nero he mentioned here: in QueLec, lake 
:i\Iistassini (975 square miles); in Ontario, lake 
ipigon (1,730 squarc miles); m 
Manitoba, Jake Winnipeg (9,45
) gquare milcs), lake Winnipegosis (2,086 square 
miles) and lake :Manitoba (1,817 square miles); in Saskatchewan, Reindcer lake 
(2,436 square miles); in Albcrta, lake Athabaska (2,842 square miles). All these 
are wit.hin the boundaries of thc provinces as at prcsent constituted, and are exclu- 
sive of lakes situated in the Northwest Territories, as, for instance Great Bear 
lake (11,821 square miles) and Great Rlave la1..e (lO,71n square miles) in the district 
of Mackenzie. 


feet. 
1. tHO 
g70 
i50 
23 
210 
i38 



RIVERS 
lXD L.4KES 


11 


Table 5 gives a list of the principal lakes of Canada by provinces, with the 
area of each in square miles. The table corresponds with the delimitation of the 
provinces as altered by the Boundary Extension Acts, 1912 (2 Ceo. V, cc. 32, 40 
and 45). 


Xames of J.akl's. 


5.-Areas of Principal ('anadlan takes b)" Prminces. 


Areas. 


Xaml's of Lakes. 


Xoya 
cotia- - 
Bras d'Or. .. . .. ... 
J,ittIe Bras d'Or. 
Total ...... 


XI'\\ Brunswick- 
Grand.... . . . . 
QUl'bec- 
Abitibi, portion in Queb
c. 
Apiskigamish. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ashuanipi.... . .. . . . . 
Atikonak... . .. . 
Aylmer......... . 
Baskatong....... . 
Burnt.......... 
.. . " . . . . . . .... 
Champlain, portion in Quebee 
Chibougamau... . 
Clearwater........ . 
Evans........... . 
Expanse....... . 
Gull............ 
Grand Victoria. 
Great Long.... 
Indian House. . . . . 
Ishiamikuagan. 
Kakabonga..... . 
Kaniapiskau. 
Kipawa...... . 
Lower Seal. . . . . . . . . 
)Jatapedia.... .... 

Ianuan.............. . 

Iattagami. . 

I egantic....... __ . . . 

I elville. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . - 

Iemphremagog, part in Quebec. 

Jenihek................. . 
'!into........ ...... " ....... 

Jishikamua............. . 

lishikamats.. ...... . . . . . . . . 

Jistassini. .... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Jistassinis. ...... . . . . . . . . . . 
Xemiskau. 

ich
k
m.. 
:\ommmg... ............... .., 
Obatogamau.................. . 
Olga.......... ................ 
Ossokmanuan. ............ 
Papineau. . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Patamisk...... ..... 
Payne. . . . . .. 
Petitsikapau. 
Pipmaukin.............. . 
Pletipi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quinze, Lac deB......... ..... ......... 
Richmond........ ..... . . ........ ....... 

t. Francis, Beauce county. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
St. Francis, river St. La\\Tence, part.,.. 

t. John.. .... .......................... 
St. J ouis..................... 
:--it. Peter............. 

i



.t:. :::::::::::::::.::: 
Timiskaming, part.............. 
Temiscouata. . .... .. . . . .. .............. 
Thirty-one Mile......................... 
Two Mountains......................... 
l'pper SeaL....... . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
,,, akonichi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Square 
)1 ill's. 
230 
130 
360 


Quehec-concluded. 
Waswanipi.... .. . 
Whi tefish.. . . .. . . . . . 
Total. . 


74 


Ontario- 
Abitibi, portion in Ontario. ............. 
Bald.................................... 
Balsam. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............. 
Buckhorn. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cameron. . . . . .,. . 
Couchiching. 
Deer. 
Dog.. . 
Eagle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Erie, portion in Ontario...... .... .. .... 
George, portion in Ontario.......... . . ... 
Huron, including Georgian bay, portion 
in Ontario. .......... ., 
I,a Croix, portion in Ontario. 
Lansdowne. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Long.................... ..... 
)Ianitou, Manitou island..... ........... 

fille Lacs, Lac de....... 

rud.... ........... 
)J uskoka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Xamakan, portion in Ontario............ 






i
g.-.-:::::.:::.::....... . 
Ontario, portion in Ontario..... ........ 
Panache.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pigeon......... .... . .......... 
Rainy, portion in Ontario... 
Ricl'.. .................. .... 
Rt. Clair, portion in Ontario............. 
Rt. Francis, river Rt. La\\Tence, part..... 
Bt. Joseph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Raganaga, portion in Ontario.. 
Bandy. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

i::!

:::::::::::::' . 
R('ul!:og................ . 
Rtony. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rturgeon, English river. 
RturJ!;eon, \ïctoria county. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ruperior, portion in Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Timagami. . . . . . . . ., . 
Timiskaming, part. . . .. . . . . . 
Trou t, English river. . . . . . 
Trout, Severn river...... ..... 
Wanapitei....... ....... . . .. . . .. . ........ 
Woods, lake of the, part in Ontario...... 


25 
392 
319 
331 
8 
17 
56 
3 
138 
478 
23t 
59 
125 
57 
245 
306 
87 
65 
441 
117 
220 
16 
113 
87 
14 
1,298 
28 
112 
735 
612 
122 
975 
206 
56 
208 
9 
56 
50 
131 
5 
44 
747 
94 
100 
138 
46 
269 
13 
59 
350 
56 
130 
106 
12 
65 
29 
23 
63 
270 
44 


Total... . 


Manitoba- 
Atikameg. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cedar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
("ormoran t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Dauphin........ ............... ... ..... 
Dog.................................... 
Ebb-and-flow.......................... . 
Etawney.... ................... 
Gods.. . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Granville............. ........ 


l
kih
.-.'.'.:::::::'::::::::::::::::::: : 
Kiskittogisu... .. ................. .... 

fanitoba.............................. . 


Areas. 


Square 
)Jill's. 
100 
19 


11,330 


331 
2 
17 
14 
6 
19 
7 
61 
128 
5,019 
11 
14,331 
23 
98 
75 
38 
104 
13 
54 
19 
1,730 
330 
3,727 
35 
15 
260 
27 
257 
24 
245 
21 
245 
392 
271 
39 
19 
106 
18 
11, 178 
90 
52 
134 
233 
45 
1,325 
-U,188 


90 
285 
14t 
200 
64 
39 
625 
319 
392 
551 
69 
122 
1,817 



12 


PHl:iICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CASADA. 


Names of Lakes. 


5.-Areas of Principal Canadian Lakes by Provinces.-concludcd. 


Names of Lakes. 


}\1 nnitoba--'-COncluded. 
'loose........ .............. _ _ _ _. _ _.. 
::-.Jamew, part... __ 
Xorth Indian... . . . . . . . 
N eultin, part. _ .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Playgreen.............................. . 
Reed................................... 
Red Deer, 
est of lake Winnipl'gosis..... 
Reinrleer, part.......... .............. 
St. Martin............. . _. 
Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . _ . . 
Rhoal. . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . _ . _ . . 
South Indian............ ................ 
Swan................................... 
Todatara, part...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Waterhen...... ...... ............ ...... 

r:1
:


i
:::: : : :: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
Woods, lake of the, part..... . _ _ . . . . . 


Total.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,895 
Saskatchewan- 
Amisk............ ..... ........ ....... 
Athabaska, part.............. ...... 
Buffalo................................ . 
Candle... .. 
Chaplin. . _ . . _ . 
('ree. .. .............. 
Cumberland.... ................ 
Dove................................... 
Ile-a-la-Crosse............ ............. 
Johnston.................. .......... 
J,ast Mountain........ ..... ..... 
J ittle Quill............. ...... _. 
Manitou............... ... 
::\Iontreal. . ...... . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 

l
:

 

r
: : : : : : : : : : : . . . .. . . . : : : : : : : : 
Quill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Red Deer, on Red Deer river. ...... . . . 
Heindeer, part......................:... 
Ronge, Lac la.................. ........ . 
\Vhi te Loon. . .. . . . . . .. . _ . . . . . . _ . 
"itchikan... _ _. _... _ _. 
Wollaston..... _. .......... 


Total.. .. . . . . .. . .. ... ......... 8,3
9 


Alberta- 
Athabaska, part.......... ........... 
Reaver....... ..... 
Riche, Lac Ia.......... ........ 
Ruffalo... . . . . .. . . . . . . . _ . . 
Claire... .. ... 
J,esser Slave.. ........ 
Pakowki . _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sullivan.......... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1,041 
8!J 
125 
55 
404 
480 
72 
94 
1- 
Total...... .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 2,360 


Areas. 


Square 

I iles. 
552 
12 
184 
76 
224 
86 
86 
134 
125 
58 
102 
1,531 
84 
156 
83 
83 
9,459 
2,086 
60 


British Columbia- 
Adams... ..................... ........ 
AtIin, part................. .... .... ..... 
Rabine......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chilko. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
HarriROn.. ...................... _ ..... 
Kootenay. .. . . . . . _ . .. . . . . . 
J,ower Arrow. . . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Okanagan. . . .. . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Owikano. . . . . . .. .................. . .' 
Quesnel. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rhuswap............ ............. ....... 
f:tuart. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Tacb ........... ............ ..... 
Tagish, p.'trt. . . . . . . . _ . . . . _ . . 
Teslin, part.... _ . . . . 
Upper Arrow.. .. _ .. .. .. 


Total. 


Areas. 


Square 
Mill's. 
,;2 
331 
306 
172 
122 
2:W 
64 
135 
98 
147 
124 
220 
135 
91 
123 
91) 


2,4.'J9 


514 
612 
1,029 
674 
1,654 
122 
980 
674 
11,821 
10,719 
368 
318 
490 
1,22.; 
980 
230 
343 
331 
123 
184 
52 
858 


3U01 


107 
12 
lR4 
56 
87 
32 
48 
123 


6..9 


. .. 1 '!O,925 


111 
1,801 
281 
150 
66 
406 
166 
242 
187 
131 
98 
70 
67 
138 
54 
383 
163 
\17 
2,30J 
343 
!J7 
70 
906 


Northwest Territories- 
Aberdeen......... .. . 
Aylmer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Raker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _. _ _ . . 
Clinton-Colden. .. 
Dubawnt. . . . . . .. _ . . . . . . 
Franklin.......... ... ........... 
Garry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Gras. J,ac de.. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Great Bear............ ... ........ 
Great Slave............................ . 
Kaminuriak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Macdougall. .................. _ _ ., _ _.. 
Maguse....... ... ..... 
Martre, Lac Ia..... ................ 
Mackay........... ... ..... ..... ...... 
Nueltin, part......... ....... 
Kutarawit....... .,. .... 
Pelly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Schultz. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
"rhoalintoa..... . . . . .. . . . . 
Todatara, part.. .. ..... . . . . 
Yathkyed..... ... .. 


Total.. 


Yukon- 
Aishihik. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Atlin, part....... 
Kluane. . 
Kusawa..... .. 
Laberge. . 
Marsh........... . 
Tagish, part....... 
Teslin, part... . " 


Total 


Canada. . 


4.-Islands. 


The northcrn and we:-,tcrn coa5ts of Canada are fringed by islands, whilè along 
the eastern coast and in the- On'at Lakes and the St. L9.Vvrence river a f'mallcr 
number of important islands are found. Those on the north are mostly within 
the Arctic circle, but include several situatcd as far south as James bay; they are 
included in the provisional districts of Franklin and Kccwatin. 
affinl Victoria 
and Ellesmere are the largest of the northern islands, with areas estimated 
at 211,000, 74,000 and 7G,600 :;quare milef. respectin'ly. On the Pacific coagt, 



GEOLOGUYAL DFVISlnXS 


13 


south of the Alaskan boundary at Dixon entrance, are the Queen Charlotte ISlands 
(4,000 f;quare miles) and Vancouver island (13,500 square miles), besides innumer- 
able smaller islands. Manitoulin island in lake Huron and the Thousand Islands 
in the St. Lawrence at its outlet from lake Ontario are among the most important 
islands of our inland waters. On the eastern borders of the Dominion are the 
island of Anticosti, Prince Edward Island, one of the nine provinces, Cape Breton 
island and the Magdalen islands. 


II.-GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. I 


I.-Historical Outline and Geological Divisions. 
Introduction.-'Vhile politicaHy and economically Canada is a new country, 
from the geological point of view its central and eastern parts are of extreme old 
age, forming probably the largest area of Archaean or pre-Cambrian rocks in the 
world. At the same time comparatively recent geological events have rejuvenated 
the region, impressing upon it many of the characteristics of youth, as a result of 
which the Dominion presents impressive contrasts in geological structure and 
physical features. 
'Yhen the officials of the Geological Survey commenced to study the geology 
of eastern Canada they found that the more ancient and crystalline rocks, the 
nucleus or protaxis about which the remainder of the continent was built up, extended 
north-eastwards and north-westwards on each side of James bay and Hudson 
bay. The American geologist Dana ca]]ed this Canadian Archaean with its spread- 
ing arms a V -formation, but when it became evident that the ancient rocks extcnded 
also along the north side of Hudson bay, the Yiennese geologist, Suess, gave to 
this vast area the name of the Canadian Shield, a. term which has been accepted 
by subsequent writers. In the centre of the Shield there was at least in early times 
a depression filled by a shallow sea and now occupied by Hudson bay. 
A second Archaean protaxis is situated 500 miles south-west of the edge of 
the Shield, that of the Selkirk and Gold Range mountains in British Cokmbia. 
This is long, narrow, and somewhat interrupted, running from south-east to north- 
west parallel to the coast. The débris resulting from the destruction of the 
mountainous Archaean areas piled up in the shallow seas around, and on their flanks 
and in the wide trough between thcm marine Palaeozoic rocks were laid down. 
Later, Mesozoic sediments were deposited upon them, practically completing the 
outline of Canada and extending south into \\hat is now the United States. 
Together with this growth in area went the upheaval of mountains, first in 
Archaean times, whcn apparently the whole surface of the Shield 
as covered by 
great mountain chains, next at the end of the Palaeozoic agc, along the south- 
eastern and south-western sides, and finally at the end of the :Mesozoic era, when 
the Rocky mountains were elevated on the margin of the shallow interior sea. 
Outside of this area of mountain-building the rocks are fairly level and undisturbed, 
showing comparatively stable conditions throughout the continent. 
Historical Outline.-Since more than half of Canada is covered by Archaean 
or pre-Cambrian formations, these must first be considered. The lowest rocks are 


lAdapted from articles by R. W. Brock, 1I.A.. LL.D., University of British Columbia, and Wyatt 
Malcolm, M.A., Dept. of Mines. Ottawa, in the Canada Year Book, 1921. 



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GEOLOGICAL DrVISIOKS 


Vi 


the Laurentian gmnites and gneisses, which latter, though once believed to be 
sedimentary, are now known to be deep-seated eruptive rocks, which pushed up a
 
molten material into the cold rocks above, lifting them as domes and themselves 
solidifying slowly far below the surface. These great domes of gneiss and granite, 
known as batholiths, are the commonest structure of the Archaean region. 
Though the Laurentian rocks are the lowest, they are not t he oldest, as the 
Keewatin rocks were already cold and solid at the period when they were heaved 
upward upon the shoulders of the Laurent ian. The Keewatin rocks also consist 
chiefly of eruptive rocks, lava flows and volcanic ash now metamorphosed into 
greenstones and schists. 'Vith them are found in many places thick deposits of 
ordinary sediments, now changed into gneiss or mica-schist, together with the band- 
ed jasper and iron are of the iron formation. 
Much marble or crystalline limestone is a180 found in the Grenville series of 
the southern Archaean, which is probably of the same age as the Keewatin. During 
that period thousands of feet of lava, ashes, mud and sand were laid down on a 
sea-bottom that has utterly vanished. This was followed by the eruption of the 
domes of gneiss, lifting the earlier rocks into great mountain ranges, which were 
afterwards worn down to stumps, disclosing their foundations of granite àIld gneiss 
enclosed in a rude network of Keewatin schist. 
The next formation, the Huronian, consists of a great sheet of boulder clay 
or tillite formed by wide-spread glaciers, and masses of water-formed sediments, now 
slate or quartzite or limestone. In many phtces the Huronian rocks still lie ne
ly 
flat on the worn surfaces of the older rocks, but in others they were caught in 
mountain-building operations and squeezed and rolled out into schists. The 
Animikie or L"ppermost Huronian is also madp up of sediments, very modern in 
appearance. 
The Keweenawan is tlle concluding formation of the Canadian Archaean, 
resulting from another outburst of volcanic activity. Thousands of feet of lava, 
ash rocks, coarse sandstones and conglomerates were piled up on various parts of 
the old continent. Kewecnawrn intrusi,'es are considered the source of the ores 
of silver, nickel and copper mined on a great scale in northern Ontario. Altogether, 
more than half of the Dominion Owes its present configuration to forms shaped in 
the Archaean rocks though overlaid and sometimes obscured by later activities. 
Palaeozoic formations are Dll well represented in Canada, limestones, shales 
and sandstones of its various ages (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and 
Carboniferous) contributing to the shaping of the country. These in many places 
lie almost undisturbed, but in far eastern Canada, whue the Palaeozoic ended with 
the Appalachian mountain-building period, they are crumpled into great folds or 
torn asunder with profound faults. The Carboniferous of the Atlantic coast is 
valuablc for its important coal-beds. 
The Mesozoic in its carlier formations (Triassic, Jurassic) is poorly represented 
in Canada, but its later formation, the Cretaceous, is of great importance, both for 
extent and economic íeatures, its crumbling sandstones and shales underlying the 
prairies of western Canada and containing beds of coal at many places. During 
the Laramie pcriod, a transition era between the Mesozoic and the Tertiary, were 
elevated the Rocky mountains, the latest. and therefore the highest of the mountain 
ranges of Canada. 
By this time the continent was complete within its main outlines; but during 
the Tcrtiary, sediments were deposited in scveral small western basins, while in 
southern British Columbia volcanic eruptions covered t how-;ands of square miles 



16 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA.VADA 


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GEOLOGICAL DrVISIONS. 


17 


with lava or ashes. Thereafter the climate grew colder, and with the Pleistocene 
or Quaternary began the Glacial Period, which continued for a long time but was 
relieved by at. least one inter-glacial period characterized by a warm climate. At 
the close of the Glacial Period the surface of the northern part of the continent 
had been profoundly modified, "the vast accumulations of loose materials, due to ages 
of weathering, being scoured away from the central parts of the glaciated areas, 
leaving bare rounded surfaces of fresh rock, while nearer the edges of the ice-sheets 
boulder clay was spread out or long loops of moraine were heaped up, blocking 
the valleys and transforming the wholc system of drainage". During the subse- 
quent thawing of the ice-sheets, the melting ice in the upper part of the valley:; of 
the northward-flowing Canadian rivers formed glacial lakes in which sheets of silt 
or sand were deposited, forming what are now thousands of square miles of the 
most fertile lands of Canada. Also. as a consequence of the heavy load of ice, 
which at some points was two miles thick, the land sank some hundreds of feet, 
lcaving thousands of square miles beneath the sea when the ice-shC'ets bC'gan to 
thaw. Relieved of its burdC'n of ice, the sunken portions of the continent rose 
again, exposing wide belts of marine clay on the f'oastal plains. )Iany of the richf'st 
soils and the flattest plains of Canada owe thC'ir fertility and t.heir smoothness to 
the process just described. Thus the geologically recent episode of the Ice Age 
"modified the old topography and hydrography of Canada, giving to one of the 
oldest. lands under the sun its singularly youthful aspect". 
Geolo
ical Divisions.-As a result of the process of geological development 
just described, the Canada of to-day may be divided into five main regions, each 
with distinctive characteristics of formation and present resources. A generally 
accepted division is as follows:- 
1. The Appalachian or .Acadian region, occupying the Maritime provinf'f':{ 
and the mountainous south-eastern side of the province of Quebec. 
2. The Canadian Shield or Laurentian Plateau, the vast upland surround- 
ing Hudson bay and stretching through twenty degrees of latitude to the 
Arctic circle and in places four or five degrees beyond it. 
3. The St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec and Ontario, ext,ending 
south-west from the city of Quebec to the Detroit river. 
4. The Intf'rior Continental Plain, contained between the western edge 
of the Canadian Shield and the Rocky mountains. 
5. The Cordillpran rf'gion, extf'nding from the Rocky mountains to the 
Pacific coast. 
In addition two other less important regions may also be noted :-1. The 
Arctic Archipelago, including the islands of the Arctic ocean north of Hudson bay 
and 2. The Lowlands of James and Hudson bays. These last two regions, while 
distinct as to formation and peculiarities, are yet of insufficient importance and 
interest to warrant the further more detailed mention gÍven to the five principal 
regions. 
Appalachian Re
ion.- The Appalachian region occupies the lù l ly part of 
southeastern QUf'bec and the l\Iaritime provinces. Here during remote geological 
ages the sedimentary beds of limestone, sandstone and shale that had been deposited 
beneath the sea were foldf'd into mountain ranges, hardened, and intruded by igneous 
rocks. During long succeeding ages these mountains have been subdued, and little 
is left that may bp regarded as mountains except the 
otre Dame range of Quebec 
with a general elevation of 1,000 to 2,000 feet and with peaks rising above 3,500 
62373-2 



18 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS UF CANADA. 


feet, the broken hilly country of the northwestcrn part of New Brunswick, a section 
of this province bordering the bay of Fundy, and a central ridge in Nova Scotia. 
In the ordinary processes of erosion much of the loosened material resulting 
from rock decay was carried seaward, and in recent times glaciation denuded a 
great deal of the more elevated sections of country, leaving barely enough soil 
to support a forest growth. 
In some places sediments have been deposited subsequently to the great folding 
processes of earlier ages; they are unaltered, easily attacked by weathering agencies 
and are overlain by an ample depth of soil. The soils of Prince Edward Island, 
the Annapolis-Cornwallis valley and oTher sections are derived from thesc sand- 
stones and shales of later deposition, the shales producing the clayey constituents 
and the sandstones yielding the sand that renders the f:oil porous and tillable. 
Calcareous slates have in places such as in Carleton and York counties, New Bruns- 
wick, broken down into fertile soils. In eastern Quebec sufficient soil has been 
retained in the val1eys to render the land arable. 'The great fertility of the reclaimed 
marshes of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is due to the fine silt deposited by the 
tides by which they were formerly submerged. 
In Canada the Appalachian extension is found to possess many of the minerals 
which have placed some of the eastern States in the foremost rank of mineral and 
industrial districts of the world. Important deposits of coal, gypsum, and gold are 
mined in Nova Scotia. Of lesser but still considerable importance are the iron, 
stone and building material industries; manganese, antimony, tripolite and barite 
are also mined, and some attention has been paid to copper. The principal minerals 
of New Brunswick are gypsum, iron, coal, stone for building purposes and grind- 
stones, clays, antimony, manganese, mineral water and oil-bearing shales. Natural 
gas is also a commercial product. The chief asbestos mines of the world are situated 
in the southeastern part of the provincc of Quebec, where there are also important 
deposits of chrome iron ore, copper and pY.fite. Iron ores and gold also occur. 
St. Lawrence Lowlands.-The St. Lawrence lowlands consist of the gener- 
ally level, arable land south of the Laurentian plateau. This lies on both sides of 
the St. Lawrence above Quebec, reaching south to the international boundary, 
occupies the eastern part of Ontario, east of a line running southward from a point 
about 50 miles west of Ottawa, and forms that portion of Ontario lying southwest 
of a line extending from Kingston to Georgian bay. 
These lowlands are among the most fertile of Canada's agricultural section", 
They are underlain by flat-lying shales and limestones which yield readily to 
weathering. The physiographic features are favourable, and the residual material 
derived from the decomposition of limestoncs and shales results in a fertile, calcar- 
eous, clayey soil. The loose surface deposits are of great depth, in placcs exceeding 
200 feet. 
The region was overridden by the great glacier, but the glaciation had apparently 
slight denuding effect on this part of the country, and served to mix the loose mate- 
rial" resulting from the weathering of the shales and limestones, and contributed 
the potash-bearing ingredicnts transported from the granitic areas of the Laurentian 
plateau. 
In its mineral deposits the area is very similar to the state of New York, its 
Palaeozoic rocks containing frequent occurrences of petroleum, natural gas, salt, 
gypsum and other non-metallic minerals. In addition, clay product!', ccment 
and other building materials are produced in large quantities. 



GEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS. 


19 


Laurentian Plateau.-North of the valley of the St. Lawrence, from New- 
foundland to beyond the lake of the Woods, and enclosing Hudson bay like a 
huge V, is an area of pre-Cambrian rocks, estimated to cover 2,000,000 square 
miles, or over one-haJf of Canada. 
The plateau is underlain by hardened sediments and igneous rocks. The 
latter are much more widespread than the former, however, and granitic types 
predominate. Considerable inequalities of surface have been augmented by glacial 
action and a further effect of glaciation was the denuding of much of this region 
of its soil. Generally speaking, therefore, the physiographic and soil conditions 
are not favourable to agricultural pursuits. Over a great part of the area, how- 
ever, sufficient soil has been retained to support a forest growth, although insuffi- 
cient for agriculture. "'-ithin the plateau there are some valleys where areas of 
softer rock have afforded a greater abundance of soil that has not been removed 
by glaciation, and beautiful cultivated fields lend a pleasing contrast to the surround- 
ing forest. In places the sediments deposited in the basins of glacial lakes have 
reduced the inequalities of the surface and produced large level areas of arable land. 
Interesting examples of these are furnished by the Clay Belt of northern Ontario 
and Quebec, traversed by the Canadian National railway, and by the flat section 
of country along the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway a few miles north 
of Sudbury. 
The rocks of this pre-Cambrian formation are remarkable for the varif'ty of 
useful and valuable minerals they contain. Iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, 
gold, platinum, lead, zinc, arsenic, pyrite, mica, apatite, graphite, feldspar, quartz, 
corundum, talc, actinolite, the rare earths, ornamental stones and gems, building 
materials, etc., are all found, and are, or have been, profitably mined. Most of the 
other minerals, both common and rare, that are used in the arts have been found. 
Diamonds have not been located, but from their discovery in glacial drift from 
this area, it is altogether probable that they occur. 
A tongue of these pre-Cambrian rocks extends into X ew York state and supports 
some large and varied mineral industries. Another extension crosses over from 
Canada into Michigan, \Visconsin, and Minnesota. In it are located the Michigan 
copper mines and the great lake Superior iron ranges. Along the southern edge of 
the pre-Cambrian in Canada there are the copper and gold deposits of Saskatchewan 
and :\lanitoba, the gold ranges of the lake of the ,,? oods, the silver of Thunder bay, 
a succession of iron ranges occ rring at intecvals from Minnesota to the province 
of Quebec, the copper rocks of :Michipicoten and Bruce Mines, the Sudbury copper- 
nickel deposits (probably the largest high-grade ore bodies in the world), the Mont- 
real river and Cobalt silver areas, the world-famous Porcupine and other gold 
deposits, the corundum deposits of eastern Ontario, the magnetites of eastern 
Ontario and Quebec and their large apatit.e-mica deposits. In the far north about 
Coronation gulf, are rocks that will warrant prospecting, since they bear native 
copper very similar to the great Michigan occurrences. 
Interior Continental Plain.-The greater portions of Manitoba and Saskat- 
chewan that lie outside of the pre-Cambrian and the province of Alberta are pre- 
eminently agricultural, the flat-lying shales and sandstones having weathered down 
into the clays and clay loams which have made the plains one of the great wheat 
producing districts of the world. The greatest proportion of the surface deposits 
is derived from these underlying rocks. Some large stretches of the region, how- 
ever, were submerged by glacial lakes in which fine silts and clays, carried down 
from the surrounding land and introduced by glacial streams, were deposited. Such 
62373-2! 



20 


PHYSIC1L CIl41R.1CTERISTICS OF C.-L\"ADA. 


is tlw very fertile Red Riwr vaHl'Y. This is 3. part of thp hed of a gr('at lakf' that 
extmded from the l...aun'ntian platmll \Vest to the :Manitoba escarpmpnt; it r<':l('hcd 
southwn.rd into the L"nitcd State:; and northward 100 miles h('yond lake 'Winnipeg. 
The sedimpnta.ry rocks which underlie the greater part of the Interior Plain 
are chiefly of Cretaceous age and contain coal, building ston('s, clays, some of tlwm 
high gradl' and cpnwnt mat('rÌtI,k Xatnral gas OVf'r wide areas and under great 
pressure has hef'n tappC'd in northern 
\.lberta, and some oil has been C'ncouDtered in the 
southwest. The lower sand..;tones of the Cretaceous along the Athabaska rivl'r, 
where they come to the 8urface, are for mites saturatl'd with bitumm. These tar 
sands wiJl prohably average 12 per cent in maltha or a
pha1tum. Recent prosp('ct- 
ing has discovered oil at Pouce Conpé on the Peace river, and at }o'ort Norman, 
on the 
[a('kenzie river, near the Arctic circle. At other points in the Devonian 
rocks of the Mackenzie basin oil indications occur. The lignitf's of the ea.stern 
plains are useful for local purposes, and highly bituminized coals arc fonnd as t Iw 
mountains are approachf'd. Yast areas are und('r1ain by lignite beds in Saskat- 
che\\ an and Alberta, and the reserves of bituminous coal in Alberta ar(' ('normous. 
Gold is found in a number of the rivers coming from the mountain
. Gyrsum is 
quarried in l\Ianitoba and imrortant depo:-iits also occur in Xorthern Albprta. 
Beds of salt have been discovered by drilling ne:tr :\IdIurray, Xorthern Alberta. 
Cordilleran Re
ion.-The CordiJleran belt in South America, in :\Iexico, 
and in the western States, is recognized as onc of the grf'atest mining regions of the 
world, not('d principaIJy for its wealth in gold, silver, copper and lead. The Cor- 
dilleras stand unparalleh'd in the world for tll(' continuity, e"Xtent and variety of 
their mineral resources. In Canada and in Alaska this belt maintains its reputa- 
tion, although in both, for the grmtcr part, it is unprospeded. In Canada the helt 
has a length of 1,300 miles and a width of 400 miles. It is pre-eminently a /!rea.t 
mining region. Its rocks rang(' from the oldest formations to thf' youngf'st; vulcan- 
ism and mountain building proce:5ðes have repeatedly been active. The chipf 
produds of its lode mines in Canada are copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc. Thc 
Yukon territory i:; noted for its production of placer gold and is now a.ttracting 
attention with rich silver orf's. In addition to the:..,e minerals there are, within the 
same region, enormous resources of coal of excellent quality, varying from lignite 
to anthracite, and convf'niently distributed. 
The surface of the rf'gion is generally mountainous, though the interior spction 
is reducf'd to an elevated plateau. Agricultural pursuits are therf'fore limited to 
the vaHey:=:. In these there are numerous terraces composed of silt carried down 
by streams issuing from former glaciers, the latter acting as eroding agcnts on the 
underlying rocks. These valley deposits are fertile and are well adapted to fruit 
culture. 


2.-Economic Geology of Canada, 1922. 1 


The purpose of this paper is to call attent ion to the most important reports 
and articles treating of the economic geology of Canada published during 1922. 
Brief notes are given on the contents of the most important rpports. This paper 
also indicatps whf're detailed information regarding the mineral rl'sources of the 
country may be obtained, since the articles referred to, although recmtly publi:;hed, 
do not necessarily contain the best and mORt complete information on the suhjPf't. 


lContributed b
 W
att Malcolm, :\1..-\., Geological Surve
', Canad.. 



ECOXOJIIC GEOLOGY OF CAXADA. 


21 


The numbers appearing after the names of writers or articles refer to the publishers 
li!<ted at the end. 
Asbestos.-Asbestos of the chrysotile variety is found at an elevation of 2,800 
fC'et above the railway 3 miles north of Arrowhead, Briti
h Columbia. It occurs, 
according to 
I. }<'. Bancroft!, in a belt of serpf'ntine derived by alteration from a 
dyke of basic igneous rock. Slip fibre 4 to 5 inches long is found and cross fibre 
! to! of an inch long. An intC'resting description hy \Y. A. Rukpyser of the Quehec 
asbestos deposits appears in the EnginC'C'ring and :\Iining Journal-Press. 
Coal.-Field investigations are continued frolil year to year with a vif'w to 
hroadming our knowledge of the e),.tensive coal field
 of Canada. During the 
year the results of investigations by J. D. Mackenzie, J. R. 
Iarshall and 'v. L. 
L glow in the Cumberland coal field, British Columhia 5 , the Kananaskis area, 
Alherta, l and the "Korth Thompwn River area, British Columbia, 1,5 respertively, 
were publi
hcd. A wen il1ustrated detailed report by John A. Allan on the Drum- 
helJer coal field, the source of an important supply of domestic fuel, appearcd as 
one of a series of publications i
sucd by the Rcientific and Industrial Re
earch 
Council of Alherta. This Council also puhlished in its second annual report the 
results of analy
es and boiler tests, and note's on storage and utilization of Alherta 
coals. 
Copper.-An interesting and unusual type of coppC'r deposit at the Drum 
Lummon mine on the west coast of British Columbia is descrihf'd hy Y. Dolmage. l 
The ore, which con:5ists. of chalcocite, bornite and chalcopyrite, occurs in pC'gmatite 
dykC's near their contact with the altered quartz diorite of the Coast Range bath- 
o]ith. Cha]cocite and bornite in nearly equal proportions constitute over 90 p.c. 
of the ore minerals. The ores also carry gold and :5ilver. Copper d{'po
it:5 on 
La
queti island are described by J. D. ::\Iackenzie. l 
Iron.-Interest has been manifested for several years in the BC'IC"her i:51ands, 
Hud:5on bay, as a source of iron are. As a re
ult of investigations madf' in 1921, 
G. A. Young l reports that the iron-formation consists of five bands in which highly 
ferruginous zones 10 to 50 feet thick occur. Although no deposits of comm{'rcial 
value under exi
ting condition", wC're seen, four representative samples gave on 
analysis 35.42 per cent to 44.96 per ccnt of metallic iron. A paper by F. Hille 4 
on the i\Iattawin iron range, Ontario, contains notes on the charactf'r of the ore 
and the commercial pO:5
ibilities of the dC'po
it. The iron are deposits of Deroche 
and adjoining townships arf' briefly described by S. Bninton 1 and a brief description 
by ,Yo H. Collins of the geological features of the various types of iron ores of 
Ontario appears in the Canadian l\Iining Journal. 
Gold.-Gold continue:5 to hold a position of incrcasing importance in Canada's 
mineral industry, and as a result the gold deposits receive considerable attf'ntion 
from economic gcologists. In a report entitled .'Ontario Gold Deposits, their 
Character, Dllitribution and Productiveness"3, P. E. Hopkins presents conci
ely a 
wealth of information regarding the mode of occurrence of the gold deposits of 
Ontario and the extent of mining operations. _ C. \Y. Knight, in presenting a study 
of the Lightning River gold area, Ontario,3 directs the pro:5pector to the search for 
gold in the vicinity of fe]dspar porphyry and quartz porphyry intrusives. 
J. C. Murray in a paper on the Shear Zones of Porcupine 4 points to the fact 
that not only do the ores occur in the vicinity of porphyry intrusives, but that 
shearing and deformation are essential to the localization of the are bodies. The 
gold deposits of the Larder Lake area lie, according to H. C. Cooke!, within bodies 
of dolomite which were formed by the alteration of other rocks along 
heared zones. 



22 


PHYSICA.L CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 


The gold occurs as thin leaflets in the free state in fine fractures in quartz of The 
quartz veins cutting the dolomite. The gold is of later age than the quartz and 
the pyrite and it is stated that absolutely no connection eJ...ists between the concen- 
tration of pyrite, the only sulphide in the rock, and the gold content. 
Reports appeared during the year on other areas in Ontario where gold has 
been discovered and development work done. Among these are reports on the 
Goudreau areal. 3 by E. Thomson and A. G:BuITows, on the Schreiber area 3 by 
P. E. Hopkins, on the Boston-Skead area 3 by A. G. Burrows and P. E. Hopkins, on 
the Wanapitei areal by T. T. Quirke, and on the Black River area 3 by D. G. H. 
'Vright. There were reports also by B. R. MacKay on the placers of the Chaudière 
River basin, Quebec\ and by H. C. Cooke on the Rice Lake area, Manitoba 1 . 
Investigations made b
 ,Yo A. Johnston in the Cariboo district, British Colum- 
bia, 1,5 show that there is still a large amount of gold in this district that is recover- 
able by dredging. The placers of Cedar creek, which have yielded considerable 
gold during the last year, are described by 'V. A. Johnston 4 , the gold-quartz veins 
of the Bridge River area, British Columbia 1 , by"'. S. McCann, the quartz veins 
of the Barkerville area by W. L. Uglow 5 , and the Surf Inlet mine by V. Dolmage l . 
Nickel.-A concise description of the Shebandowan, Ontario, nickel-copper 
deposits is given by J. G. Cross 4 . The ore occurs in lenses 2 to 20 feet wide and 
carries nickel, copper, and cobalt, and quite an appreciable amount of rare méta1s 
of the platinum group. The nickel-copper deposits of the Oiseau River area, Mani- 
toba, consist, according to H. C. Cooke\ of pyrrhotite carrying more or less pent- 
landite and chalcopyrite. The deposits are found as irregularly shaped accumnla- 
tion
, or segregations, "ithin a gabbro sill near what was originally its base. 
Oil-shale.-Oil-shales are shales carrying organic matter from which oil can 
be obtained by retorting. They arouse increasing interest as the possible exhaustion 
of the world's petroleum resources forcE:'s itself upon public attention. The oil- 
shales of Canada that have attracted gr atest attention are thosE:' of southeastern 
New Brunswick. A report on a detailed investigation made by \Y. J. Wright on 
a deposit at Albert Mines 1 contains descriptions of the geological formations and 
their structural features, the results of analyses of many samples, and sUJ!:J!:c
tions 
as to how to test further the commerciul possibilities of the deposit. There are 
other deposits in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, but no detailed work was done 
on them. The results of experimental work in retorting the shales of the Rosevale 
area are presented by 'v. S. McCann i . 
Petroleum.-Considerable information was published 1 during 1922 on the 
geology of Mackenzie River basin, more particularly in its relation to the petroleum 
possibilities of that part of Canada. A detailed description is given by A. E. 
Cameron of the sedimentary formations underlying the area to the southwest of 
Great Slave lake, an area drained by Hay and Buffalo rivers. E. J. \\l1ittaker 
reports on geological observations made between Great Slave lake and Simpson, 
M. Y. ""iUiams on the geology east of Mackenzie river between Simpson and 
'Wrigley and G. S. Hume on the geology of North Nahanni and Root rivcrs west 
of the Mackenzie. General structural features of Mackenzie basin are described 
by D. B. Dowling. 
A consideration of the utilization of the bituminous sands of Athabaska river 
is presented by S. C. Ells in the summary report of the Mines Branch, Department 
of Mines, Ottawa, and by K. A. Clark in the second annual report of the 
Scientific und Industrial Research Council of Alberta. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF CAl\-ADA.. 


23 


The Department of Lands, British Columbia, published a report by John A. 
Dresser on the results of borings made by the provincial government for oil near 
Peace river northwest of Hud
on Hope. Five borings were made, but only a trace 
of oil was obtained. Suggestions are given in the report as to locations for further 
exploratory drilling. 
Silve7'.-The Salmon River area, British Columbia, has recently been forced 
upon the attention of the mining public by the big dividends paid by the Premier 
mine. The ore deposits, which have been described by S. J. Schofield and G. 
Hanson,l are rich in silver and gold. The ore was deposited in fissures and shear 
zones from solutions emanating from the intrusive granite magma of the Coas i 
Range batholith. The deposits were afterwards to some extent enriched by 
secondary action. 
The results of a re-study by C. 'V. Knight of the Cobalt mining district were 
published in the Engineering and Mining Journal-Press. In summing up, the writer 
states that it is not likely that operations in Cobalt will ever again reach their paST 
magnitude, but maintains that mining will doubtless bp carried on for generation
 
in or around Cobalt, or in the outlying areas of Go" ganda, South Lorrain, Casey; 
Montreal river and elsewhere in the dittrict. In this connection it is interestinr 
to know that work in South LOIrain bas been revived and very rich silver ore i
 
being mined. Another point of interest is the evidence presented by J. M. Bell in 
the Bulletin of the Institute of Mining and l\IetaHurgy of oxidation having taken 
place to a depth of at least 420 feet. A furthcr contribution to the geology of 
Cobalt is made by A. R. 'Yhitman in the University of California publications; it 
is claimed that the ores were deposited in joints developed as a result of folding 
subsequent to the solidification of the diabase and that they were derived from 
the diabase sheet itself, transported, and deposited through diffusion in relatively 
stagnant water. A consideration by E. S. Bastin of the nature of the silver- 
depositing solutions at Cobalt appears in Bulletin 735 of the United States 
Geological Survey. 
J'urther studies by 'V.. E. Cockfield 1 in the Mayo district, Yukon, show that 
the argentiferous lead ores of Davidson mountains are very similar to those of 
Keno hill although not quite so rich in silver. Other reports on silver producing 
areas are made by A. G. Burrows on Gowganda,3 by G. Hanson on Upper Kitzault 
river, 1 and by A. L. Parsons on the Thunder Bay area. 3 
.JIiscellaneous.-F. J. Alcock 1 describes in considerable detail the geology of 
the lead-zinc deposits of Lemieux township, Quebec. The lead and zinc minerals 
occur in veins cutting Devonian shales and limestones and are thought to be genetic- 
ally related to deep-seated intrusives. The feldspar deposits in the Ottawa district 
are described in a paper by N. B. Davis 5 , who directs attention to a deposit in Derry 
township where a fine grade of cream or buff coloured feldspar is produced. 
H. S. Spence is the author of two valuable monographs published in 1922, 
one on talc and soapstone in Canada, and one on barium and strontium in Canada. 2 
These monographs contain descriptions of the known occurrences of the minerals 
in Canada, of the methods of mining and preparing the minerals for the market, 
and of their uses. A report by J. Keele and L. H. Cole presents the results of investi- 
gations into the character and extent of the structural materials to be found along 
the St. Lawrence river between Prescott and Lachine. 2 
Preliminary statements regarding investigations on the alkali deposits of 
western Canada and mineral pigments in eastern Canada have been made respect- 
ively by L. H. Cole and H. Frechette. 2 J. Keele describes in the Transactions of 



24 


PHl.'s/f'AL CHAR.tCTERIST[('::) OF CA.\ ..11).1. 


the Royal Society of Canada the occurrence of certain clays and :sands in the hasin 
of :\Ioose river, Ontariu, that are thought to be of CrC'taceous age; sume of the clays 
are high gmde refractories. H. V. Ellsworth, in df'Hcribing the radium-bearing 
pegmatites of Ontariu!, states that radium and thorium minerals occur in the pegma- 
tites in rdatively great ahundance, so disHeminatC'd that it appears improbahle that 
concentrations will be found sufficiently large and rich to be of commercial value. 
In addition to the ahove, mu('h valuable information un the develupment of 
the mining industry is contained in the annual reports of the various provincial 
departments of mines. 


Sm::RCE8 OF REPORTS 
ND ARTICLES REFERRED TO 1:\1 THE TEXT: IGeolol1:ical Surve\', ()ttawa. 2
rin
" 
Branch, Dl'partml'nt of 
fine
, Otta"'a. 3Department of Mines, Toronto, Ontario. 'tCanadian 
[ining 
Journal, Garrl('m.ale, QuebeC'. 'Canadian Institute oC Mininl1: and 
Ietallurgy, Drummond Ruildin/l., 

[ontreal, Qupb('c. 


III.-SEISMOLOGY I
 CA
ADA.l 


Seinnology-the branch of :'õcience whieh treats of earthquakes-has received 
considerable attention in Canada during recent years. It has been generally 
recognized that earthquakes are frequent in regiolls of adjustment of strata and 
are characteristic of the newer mountain and coast regions" here abrupt changes 
in level are present. Seismulogical researches, \\hile recording their location, 
duration and intensity, seek to determine particular caUSeS. They ascertain the 
physical properties of the earth's crust and interior as revealed by the peculiarities 
of the recorded waves after their passage through the earth. Instruments as 
developed hy seismological research for the hetter recurding of earth tremors arc 
being used commercially in many ways, not the least important being for the 
mapping uut of underground densities in order to loeate minerals and oil without 
frequent and expensive hurings. 
During the years for \\ hich re('ords are availahle, Canada has lIeen but slightly 
affected by earthquakes. Histori('ally a record shows that the St. La\\ rence valley 
\\ as shaken by a great quake in 1663. In Ib
9 a great disturhance occurred in 
Alaska at Yukatat bay, very ('lose to Canadian territory. Slight shocks arc very 
uccasionally experienced in British Columbia and along the drainage system from 
the Great Lakes to the sea, but no damage to propcrty or luss of life has been caused 
\\ ithin the past century. It may be :said that no active fault lines of any importance 
are found in Canada. 

\.t present five :seismulugic stations, all maintained by the Duminion Govcrn- 
Ill('nt, are in active o!wration in Canada, and are situated at Halifax, Ottawa, 
Toronto, Saskatoon and Victoria. Two of thesc--at Toronto and Victoria-are 
under the :\Ictmrologieal Branch of the Dq>artmmt of Marine and Fi:sheries, 
while the three remaining station
 arc controlled by the Dominion Oh-:ervatory 
Bran('h of the Dppartment of the Interior, with the a:-;
istancC' and co-op
ratil)n 
of the univer::;ities at Halifax and Saskatoon. 
The records for Toronto and \ïctoria are publislwù from Toronto, whcnce 
monthly bulletin:s arc i
:sued to :seismolugical oh:servatorie:s interested, giving full 
df'tails of all quakes as registerC'd. The re('ords for Ottawa, 
askatoon and Halifax 
are published frum Ottawa. Monthly bulletins are is:sued to about 230 seismo- 
logical observatorie:s interested giving full details of the quakes ai' registered. The:se 


IContributed by Ernest A. Hodgson, 
1. A., Sei8mologist, Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. 



THE FLORA OF CAl\-ADA. 


2:') 


are supplemented yearly by a publication giving the location of epicentres of all 
earthquakps of which any trace is registered at Ottawa. Data are gathered from 
all the reporting seismological stations of the world. 
Regular research work in seismology is carried on at Ottawa where the full 
time' of two seismologist
 is given to thp work of earthquake study alone. The 
reports are issued in the publications of the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. 
The natural and im;truDlental data for each station are as fol1ows:- 
Halifax.-Lat., 44 0 38' 
.; Long., 63 0 36' W.; Alt., 47.3 m. F:ubstrata, carbonaceous slate. Equip- 
ment:-Small Mainka Pendulum 
eismograph. Mechanical ree;istration. Components N.S., B.W. )lass 
of each 139.3 kgm. Period of each, 10 sec. Damping ratio of each, 6:1. :\lagnification of each, about 60. 
Time is checked automatically each hour by signal from Western Union Telegraph and is to be depended 
on to one or two seconds. 
Ottawa.-Lat., 45 0 23' 38. N.; Long.. 75 0 42' 57.W.; Alt., 82 m. Substrata, boulder clay over limestone 
(Ordovician). Equipment:-(I) Bosch Horizontal Seismog;raphs. Photo!!;raphic registration. Independent 
components, N.S.,E.W. :\lassofeach200g;m. Period of each, about 5.5sec. Damping ratios,N.S. , 2:1,E.W., 
18:1. Magnification of each, 120. (2) 'Iilne-Shaw Horizontal Seismographs. Photographic registration. 
Independent components, N.H., E.W. Mass of each, lib. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of each, 
20:1. Magnification of each. 250. (3) Wiechert Vertical Seismograph. }Iechanical registration. Mass. 
80 kgm. Period, 6 sec. Damping ratio, 20:1. Magnification. about 160. (4) A deformation Instrument. 
Photographic registration. Components, N.S., E.W. Mass of each, about 20 gm. Period of each, about 
36 sec. l:"ndamped. Used for determination of tilt. The time servic(' at Ottawa is that of the Dominion 
Observatory and the registration on the record is kept correct to "ithin 0.2 sec. 
Toronto.-Lat.. 43 0 40' N.; Long., 79 0 24' W.; Alt., 115.5 m. Substrata, sand and gravel on boulder 
clay to a depth of about 15 m. then shale over crystalline rock (Laurentian) to a depth of about 335.5 metres. 
Equipment:-(1) Milne Seismoe;raph. Photographic registration. E.W. component. Mass, 0.23 kgm. 
Period, 18 sec. 
o damping. (2) }Iilne-Shaw Horizontal F:eismographs. Photographic registration. 
Independent components, N.S., E.W., Mass of each; 1 lb. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of 
eacn, 20:1. Magnification (If each, 150. 
Time markings by Toronto Observatory clock. The registration has an error of 2 sec. The time is 
checked by meridian transits. 
Saskatoon.-Lat., 52 0 08' N.; Long., 106 0 40'W.: Alt.,515m. Rubstrata, clay and sand. Equipment: 
Small Mainka Pendulum Seismograph. Mechanical registration. Components, N.S., E.W. Mass of 
each, 139.3 kgm. Period of each, approximately 9 sec. Damping ratio of each, 5:1. Magnification of 
each about 60. 
Time by local clock, checked occasionally by telephone with train time. 
"Victoria.-I.at., 48 0 24' 50" N.; J ong., 123 0 19' 28" W.; Alt., 67.6 m. Substrata, igneous rock. Equip- 
ment:-(1) Milne Seismograph. Photographic registration. E.W. compo Mass, 0.23 kgm. Period, 18 
sec. No damping. (2) }Iilne-F:haw Horizontal Seismoe;raphs. Photographic registration. Independent 
components, 
.S., E.W. Mass of each, lIb. Period of each, 12 sec. Damping ratio of each, 20:1. Magni- 
fication of eaci', 250. (3) Wiechert Vertical Seismograph. 
Iechanical registration. )Iass, 80 kgm. 
Period, 5 sec. Magnification, 70. . 
Time service of the meteorological station. Registration correct to::l: 1 sec. 


IV.-THE FLORA OF CANADA.l 


Introduction.-It is a well known fact that, at a geologically recent period, 
practically thp whole of Canada from t.he Rocky mountains east was covercd with 
glacial ice which, slowly advancing southward, reached as far as Ccntral Missouri. 
'Yhatever vegetation may have flourished in Canada before the glacial period \Va!': 
gradually forced to migrate 
outhward as the ice advanced. During this retreat 
many species were no doubt wiped out of existence, but a certain number, belonging 
perhaps largely to types which now are found in the arctic regions, ma.naged to sur- 
vive. In fact, we must surmise that, during the gkcial period, the vegetation 
immediately in front of the continental ice was arctic in character and that, when 
the glaciation reached its maximum, those parts of the United. States which were 
immediately to the south of the ice had a flora similar to that now existing in the 
far north. 
\Yith the rf'turn of a warmer climate and the gradual recession of the continental 
ice, vegetation began to move back northward, with the arctic types as a vanguard 


IThis article, reprinted in slightly abbreviated form from the 1921 Year Book, is a revised and popular. 
ized edition of a paper, entitled "Flora of Canada," by the late Mr. J. M. Macoun, C.l\LG., F.L.S., and 
M. O. Malte, Ph. D.. published in Canada Year Book, 1915, and also as Museum Bulletin No. 26, Geological 

urve
', Department of Mines, Ottawa, 1917. 



26 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA
VA.DA. 


followed by more temperate and southern ones. Generally speaking, the Canadian 
flora, as it exists today, may therefore be said to be composed of immigrants that 
took possesE'ion of the country after the glacial period and established themselves 
in botanical provinces in accordance with their specific requirements. These botanical 
provinces, generally referred to as zones, are briefly described in the foJIowing pages. 
The Arctic Zone.-Botanically, the arctic zone is the region lying north of 
the tree line. In Canada it extends far to the south of the arctic circle, especially 
in the eastern parts of the Dominion. Its southern limit is, roughly, a line running 
from the estuary of the Mackenzie river to the mouth of the Churchill river on the 
west coast of Hudson bay. EasT of Hudson bay, the tree line, i.e., the southern 
boundary of the arctic zone, runs from about late 56 0 on Richmond gulf to the 
mouth of George river on the ea
tern shore of Ungava bay, and from there in a 
southeasterly direction along the coast of Labrador to Hamilton inlet. South of 
Hamilton inlet a narrow strip along the coast as far south as the strait of Belle Isle 
and extending a short distance to the west from there is also barren of real trees 
and therefore has an arctic aspect. This strip can hardly be included in the arctic 
zone proper, however, although a few arctic plants may be found there; the lack 
of trees and the barren appearance in general are caused by the arctic current 
which flows from the north along the coast and through the Htrait of Belle Isle. 
The vegetation in the arctic zone is generally of a low-growing and even dwarf- 
ed type. The woody plants, even when half a century old or more, reach a very 
inconspicuous height in comparison with their next of kin farther south and are 
often prostrate or even trailing along the ground. In the more northern parts of 
the arctic zone the most conspicuous woody plants are willows 
md dwarf birches. 
Further south, on the tundra, i.e., the marc or less boggy lowlands north of the tree 
line, the woody plants are chiefly represented by members of the blueberry family. 
In respect to herbaceous vegetation, the arctic flora of Canada is very closely 
related to the so-called circumpolar florlY in general. Not only are there many 
species in arctic Canada which occur all around the north pole, but in general 
characteristics the Canadian arctic plants are vcry similar to arctic plants else- 
where, particularly to those growing in Greenland and arctic Europe. 
A striking form of growth encountered in many species is the dense, compact, 
bunchy type, which e
pecially is found well developed on rocky ground in the 
northern sections of the arctic zone. This form of growth is characteristic also 
of arid and semi-arid regions in hot climates, and at. first sight it may seem strange 
that it should also be found in the arctic. The arctic zone, however, from a plant 
physiological point of view, is somewhat akin to arid regions farther south. In 
the latter regions the bunch growth is generalJy considered to be associated with 
a shortage of water supply in the ground, and to some extent the mme may be 
mid of arctic areas. The ground may apparently be well supplieJ with moisture, 
but the plants relying upon the moisture are often unable to utilize it on account of 
the temperature in the ground being at times so low that the water-absorbing 
parts of the plants are incapable of functioning. 
Compactness of growth is also displayed by a number of plants which, although 
not growing in defined bunches, form dense and often rather extended mats. On 
the other hand, there are quite a number of species which grow neither in bunches 
nor in mats; these are particularly common on the tundra. 
Practically all arctic plants are perennials. Owing to the shortness of the 
season they are often caught by early frost while the blossoms are still undeveloped 
and before their fruit has ripened. Indeed, many species regularly enter the winter 



THE FLORA OF CA.!'; ADA. 


27 


in this condition and hibernate with flower and leaf buds in an advanced stage of 
development. '" hen the returning sun again wakes them up to renewed activity, 
they are therefore ready to spring into blossom over-night, as it were, and to present 
a surprisingly rapid development of vegetative as well as of floral organs. 
The Sub-arctic Forest Zone.- The sub-arctic or so-called coniferous forest 
extends, in the east, from the arctic zone southward to a line running approximately 
from Anticosti to the south end of lake 'Winnipeg. This line is practically identical 
with the northern limits of the white and the red pine. ""est of lake Winnipeg the 
sub-arctic forest is bounded to the south and west by the prairies and the foot- 
hills of the Rocky mountains, respectively. The Gaspé peninsula and sections of 
New Brun
wick may also be included in the sub-arctic forest zone. 
The sub-arctic forest, as the name indicates, is decidedly boreal. The trees 
do not reach any imposing height and the number of species which make up the 
forest is small in comparison with the number occurring in the hardwood forest 
zone to the south. The sub-arctic forest is largely coniferous in charactc,r, the 
black and white spruce being the dominating trees. Of the other coniferous trees 
the Banksian pine is the most important species. It reaches perfection in the 
western part of the zone and constitutes the chief source of supply of lumber for the 
northern prairie region. The other trees characteriHtic of the zone in general are 
aspen and balsam poplar, white birch, larch, and balsam fir. Between the gulf 
of St. Lawrence and lake 'Winnipeg, white cedar, white elm, and ash are occasionally 
met with, but these trees cannot be properly considered as belonging to the sub- 
arctic forest. 
Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the sub-arctic forest is the abundancE 
of berry shrubs such as gooseberries, currants, blueberries, raspberries, yeUow- 
berries, and high-bush cranberries. Another is the remarkable uniformity, in 
general character as well as in species, exhibited throughout the zone. This lack 
of variety is especially marked in the vegetation of the bogs, which are very numer- 
ous throughout the zone, the species encountered in the bogs of anyone part of 
the zone being characteristic of practically the whole sub-arctic forest. 
The herbaceous flora of the sub-arctic forest is also remarkably uniform through- 
out, and hardly a species is found that does not occur either in the arctic zone or 
in the hardwood forest zone to the south. A noteworthy exception to this rule 
is a small water lily, in fact the smallest of the water lillies, which is found in this 
area only. 
The sub-arctic forest zone is as yet almost undisturbed by settlers except in 
some sections of the so-called clay belts of northern Quebec and Ontario. It forms 
a vast reserve of national wealth and may in the future furnish the chief supply 
of wood for the pulp and paper industries in eastern North America. 
The Hardwood Forest Zone.-The hardwood forest zone includes all eastern 
Canada south of the sub-arctic forest, with the exception of a small region in south- 
ern Ontario. It is characterized chiefly by deciduous trees, the principal ones being 
basswood, sugar maple, red maple, black ash, white ash, white elm, yeUow birch, 
red oak, burr oak, and beech. Of the coniferous trees white pine, red pine, hem- 
lock, and white cedar are the most important. The underbrush, although very 
variable and made up of a great number of species, is generaUy rather scanty and 
becomes conspicuous, as a component of the forest, only along its borders or where 
the woods are open. Among the most typical shrubs may be mentioned service 
berry, moosewood, purple flowering raspberry, sumach, poison ivy, and arrow- 
wood. 



28 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF (,A.Y
lDA.. 


As the rainfall is abundant throughout the zone, the herbaceous vegetation, 
where light and soil conditions are favourable, is rich in both f';pecies and individuals. 
In the woods proper it i
 rather insignificant after the foliage of the trees is fully 
devdoped. In the spring, however, it i
 very luxuriant and, e:':p('cially where the soil 
is rich and deep, there is a magnificient display of beautifully coloured and showy 
flowers, for instance trillium, bellwort, dog's-tooth violet, showy orchis, jack-in-the- 
pulpit, f';pring beauty, violets (blue, yellow and white forms), hepatica, dutchman's 
breeches, squirrel corn, bloodroot, pepper-root, barren strawberry, flowering winter- 
grl'en, blue phlox, etc. Others, less conspicuous but characteristic of th(' hard- 
wood forest's spring flora, are species of sedges, wild ginger, blue ('ohosh, mitre- 
wort, star flower, showy lady's slipper, etc. Characteristic of the bogs of the zone 
are, among others, various species of orchids and the pitcher-plant. The autumn 
flowers arc chiefly members of the composite family, with asters, golden rods, and 
joe-p)Te in greatest profusion. 
\"ery characteristic of the hardwood forest zone is the autumnal colouring of 
the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants which lasts a cumparatively long 
time, from about the first week of S('ptember to the second week in October, depend- 
ent on the dryneb:> of the season. During that period a splendid display of colours 
is exhibited, especially in open, mixed woods where the underbrush is wdl developed. 
:-;hades of yellow, golden bronze, red and scarlet are mixed in a gorgeous symphony 
of colours, generally marvellously modulated by the sombre, deep, dark or bluish 
green of the conifprs which are dotted among the deciduous trees. X a such wealth 
of autumnal colour is met with in any of the other zones. 
The Carolinian Zone.- This zone is confined to a small tract of land in 
southern Ontario, bounded to the south by lake Eric and to the north by a line 
running appro:ximatcly from the northern shore of lake Ontario to 'Vindsor. In 
general physiognomy it is rather similar to the hardwood forest flora just described, 
but differs greatly in its characteristic Spl ies which are deridedly southern. It 
e:xhibits a large number of plants, woody as well as herbaceous, which occur no- 
where else in Canada. 
The most characteristic trees are the hickori('s (six species), t he oaks (ten 
:,:pecies), black walnut, chestnut, and sycamore. Le::.s abundant and more local 
in their distribution are the cucumber tree, the tulip tree, the flowering dogwood, 
which aU have beautiful and very conspicuous flowffs, the papaw, the red muI- 
berry, the American crabapple, the sour gum, the sassafrass, and others. 
The herbaceous vegetation is very rich and at lea.::;t a hundred bpecies which 
occur nowhere ebe in Canaùa are founù in the zone. A fe\\ of the most conspic- 
uous ones may be mentioned, viz.: yellow nelumbo or lotllð flower. mayapple, 
wild lupine, tick trefoil, flowuing spurge, swamp rose mallow, wild pansy, priekly 
pmI', poke milkweed, wild potato vine, downy phlox, water-leaf, h('(' balm, fox- 
glove, tall bell flower, great 10bC'lia, ironweed, dem;e button snak('root, prairie dock, 
cup plant, bun flowers, taU coreopsi:,:, Indian pJantain and showy lady's slipper. 
Golden seal and ginsC'ng were at one time abundant but arc now practically 
extinct. IndC'ed a similar fate is ah-;o threatening many of the other species charac- 
teristic of the zone, all accuunt of the clearing of the land for agricultural purposcs. 
The Prairie.-'Cnder the gcneral term prairie is understood the vast grass- 
covered area uf the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. It is 
hounded to the east and north by the sub-arctic fore:-ot and to t h(' \,.(.:,:t. by the foot- 
hills of the Rocky lIlountains. 



THE FLORA. OF r'A.\A.D_1. 


29 


The prairie, which begins a few miles east of \\ïnnipeg, has becn 
ubdividf'd 
into three zones, known as the first, second and third "prairie steppes." These 
f'teppes are rather indefinite, botanically speaking, and they have one thing in common 
as far as the vegetation is concerned. The luxuriance and general appearance of 
their flora are to a conspicuous degree dependent on the rain and snowfall. In the 
case of the spring vegetation, the rainfall during the previous year and the snow- 
fan during the preceding winter are dominant factors, so much so that, in the event 
of lack of sufficient precipitation, the 
pring flora may in certain years be either 
very poorly represented or even almost entirely absent. The summer and fall 
vegetation are to an equal extent depf'ndent on the present season's precipitation 
and thus it may happm that a district which one year displays a luxuriant gro\\- th, 
rich in species and individuals, may in a folIo\\- ing year appear almost barren of 
flowering plants. Lack of precipitation is also largely responsible for the fact th::>,t 
in some seasons the grass vegetation, so characteristic of the prairie, may remain 
practically at a standstill without heads or seeds being formed. 
First Pmirie Steppe.-This area inc]udes " the low plain of Manitoba, bounded 
by a line of elevated country) which commences at the international boundary at 
a point some distance west of Emerson, and extends northwestwardlr under the 
names of Pembina, Riding, Duck, Porcupine and Pas mountains." 
The southea
tern part of the area so defined differs from the true prairie in 
that it is characterized by many woodland plants which have their home (last of 
the Great Lakes but which occur rarely, if at all, between lake Huron and the 
1ani- 
toba border. Among these plants may be mentioned nettle tree, basswood, wild 
plum, hawthorn. Yirginia creeper, moonseed, bloodroot, columbine, hog peanut, 
tick trefoil, prickly curmnber, bpecies of gentian, lousewort, Indian paint-brush, 
ox-eye and cone-flower. The flora of this region is distinct from tho.
e of the are u.: 
farther to the northwest. 
The prairie proper of the first prairie steppe is confined chiefly to what is known 
as the Red River valley, i.e., the low, flat plains south and west of \\ïnnipeg. In 
this region trees are met with only in narrow fringes along the rivers, oak, elm, 
poplar, and Manitoba maple being the most abundant. Away from the bordf'rs 
of streams the prairie is treeless. It is covered with an abundance of herbaceous 
plants, the most widely represented families being the composite family (asters, 
golden rods, etc.), the rose family, the pea family, the grass family, and the sedge 
family, but the species representing them can hardly be said to be characteristic 
of the zone, as practically all of them are found in suitable localities farther west. 
Second Prairie Steppe.- This central region extends westward from the first 
prairie steppe to a line running apprm.imately from the international boundary 
at longitude 103 0 30' in a northwesterly direction to Battleford. 
The flora is rather diversified and several very different plant associations are 
met with. In the north, where the prairie and the sub-arctic forest meet, the flora 
is composed of species characteristic of both zones, as is also the flora "Of the north- 
ern parts of the third prairie steppe. In the southwestern part of the second prairie 
steppe, i.e., the country southwest of the Moose mountain, in Saskatchewan, the 
vegetation is in many respects similar to that of the drier sections of the third prairie 
steppe. The grass is very short and the vegetation in general of a type adapted 
to regions with a scant precipitation. In places, large sandy tracts exist which 
are covered with a profusion of cactus, and in others there is no vegetation except 
that peculiar to arid land. Considerable broken or park-like country is found 
near the hi]]s forming the boundary between the first and second prairie steppes, 



30 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANA.D
!. 


and is also met with in the Qu' Appelle River valley and in other parts of the zone. 
Poplar and oak are the chief trees of the bluffs and the herbaceous vegetation, as 
may be expected., is made up of a mixture of prairie and woodland forms. 
The major part of the second prairie steppe is true prairie, with no trees except 
in the river valleys. Shrubs occur, generaUy in low thickets or copses, and very 
frequently in small clumps composed. of a single species. On the exposed prairie, 
where their growth always is stunted., snowberry, silver berry, buffalo berry, sask- 
atoon, roses, and other species occur. In damp situations meadow sweet is met 
with, and in wet places, such as the borders of ponds and marshes, willows are 
abundant. The herbaceous vegetation varies somewhat with soil conditions but, 
taking the s
colld prairie steppe as a whole, the numerous members of the pea 
family are perhaps the most characteristic flowering plants. 
Third Prairie Steppe.-This region include" the rest of the prairie up to the 
foothills of the Rocky mountains. In its northern parts, i.e., north of lat. 52 0 , the 
flora is very similar to that of the second prairie steppe, but in the southcrn parts it 
is very different. 
Except on Wood mountain and C}--press hills trees occur only along the borders 
of streams in the valleys, and the ponds, marshes, and lakes are not even fringed 
with shrubs. The rivers and creeks flow in deep, narrow valleys and the country 
is broken by coulees and low hills. The precipitation is scant and, as a result, the 
vegetation is often almost desert-like in character. 
Large districts, especially in the Coteau de ::\lissouri belt, are characterized 
by the absence of drainage valleys, the result being that the water in the lakes and 
ponds is gcncrally saline and that numerous alkali flats occur. The vegetation in 
such situations is sparse and largely made up of plants especiaJly fitted for soils 
rich in salt. Indeed, in these inland ponds and marshes, a number of plants thrive 
which normally occur in profusion on the shores of the Atlantic ocean. 
The Rocky Mountains.-A great 
umber of prairie species are found at 
considerable altitudes in the foothills of the Rocky mountains. On the other hand, 
a number of sub-alpine forms descend practica])y to the prairie, the result i'eing that in 
the foothills, where the two types of vegetation intermingle, the flora is very rich in 
species. As the foothi1Js and the lower slopes are ascended, prairie forms graduaUy 
disappear and are replaced by mountain species. Vegetation in general becomes 
more luxuriant in appearance, herbaceous plants grow taUer, shrubs become an 
important feature in the flora, and finally rcal forests are reached. 
In the well developed forests on the slopes the trees are largely coniferous, the 
principal ones being lodge-pole pine, whitebark pine, white spruce, balsam fir and 
highest up, larch. Shrubs are few in number, except in open and springy places, 
where bewildering thickets of many species of willows are found. The herbaceous 
vegetation is also rather scant, except along the edges, in open spaces, and along 
brooks and rivulets. In the dense forest, members of the blueberry and winter- 
green familie
 are conspicuous. 
On the grassy slopes above the tree line the herbaceous vegetation again becomes 
very rich in species, exhibiting the richness and brilJiancy of colour in the flowers 
so characteristic of alpine Vf'getation in general, until, j\.L
t below the snow line, 
it takes on an appcarance suggestive of arctic vegetation. In fact, many species 
occur on the higher levcls in the Rockies which also have their homes in the arctic 
regions, a fact which may be satisfactorily explained, in the words of Darwin, as a 
result of conditions caused by the glacial period, as follows: "As the warmth 
returned. (after the glaciation had rcached. its height) the arctic forms would retreat 



THE FLORA. OF CANADA. 


31 


northward, closely followed up in their retreat by the productions of the more 
temperate regions. And as the snow melted from the bases of mountains, the 
arctic forms would seize on the cleared and thawed ground, always ascending higher 
and higher, as the warmth increased, whilst their brethren were pursuing their 
northern journey. Hence, when the warmth had fully returned, the same arctic 
species, which had lately lived in a body together in the lowlands. . . . . would 
be left isolated on dif?tant mountain summits (having been exterminated on all 
lesser heights) and in the arctic regions . . . . . . . " 
The Selkirk Mountains.-While the Rockies may be looked upon as a 
chain of individual mountains, the Selkirk range has more the character of a high- 
level plateau. As a result there are real alpine meadows in the Selkirks whereas, 
in the Rockies, similar plant formations are generally met with on steep slopes. 
Differences in the vegetation of the Rockies and the Selkirks above the tree line 
are . conspicuous and are due largely to the amount of precipitation, the Selkirks 
being favoured with a much more abundant moisture supply. For this reason 
the alpine meadow plant associations of the Selkirks extend almost to the snow 
line and, for the same reason, a number of high-alpine plants, which in the Rockies 
are characteristic of the bare peaks above the grassy slopes, are not met with at 
all in the Selkirks. 
The Selkirk forest differs from that of the Rocky mountains with regard to 
composition, as far as the trees are concerned, the principal species being cedar, 
Douglas fir, hemlock, and Engelmann's spruce. The undergrowth on the mount- 
ains proper is quite similar to that of the Rocky mountain forest and, although more 
luxuriant, is not represented by many species. In the lower valleys, however, 
and on lower levels where the forest is more open in character, the shrubby as well 
as the herbaceous undergrowth is very different. Not only is it luxuriantly deyelop- 
ed, but the species of which it is composed are of a different type. The Rocky mount- 
ain flora is diE appearing, its place being taken to such an extent by Pacific coast 
species that the casual observer will find it rather difficult to detect any conspic- 
uous difference between the flora of the Selkirk valleys and that of the coniferou"l 
forest of the Pacific coast. 
The Coast Mountains.-AIthough having a large number of plant species 
in common with the Selkirks, the Coast range must be considered a distinct botanic- 
al zone, as many species occur there which are peculiar to this region alone. 
Owing to the long growing season, the high average temperature and the 
abundance of the precipitation, the vegetation in the valleys and lowlands of the 
Coast range is almost sub-tropical in appearance. The trees, especially the cedar, 
the Douglas fir, and the spruce, reach gigantic dimensions, and the forest possesses 
a luxuriant undergrowth. In old, untouched forests, faJlen trunks, shrubs, and 
herbs form an almost impenetrable tangle, especially where salal and devil's club 
are luxuriantly developed. 
Trees characteristic of the valleys and the lowlands are the cedar, Douglas 
fir, Sitka spruce, hemlock, white fir, red alder, crabapple, broad-leaved maple, and 
cascara, while the characteristic shrubs include several species of wilJow, Oregon 
grape, species of currants and gooseberries, thimbleberry, salmonberry, roses, june- 
berry or saskatoon, devil's club, salal, blueberries, and red-fruited elder. 
The herbaceous vegetation is very rich. Many species of beautiful ferns are 
abundant, and the grass vegetation, especially along the coast, is luxuriantly 
developed. Of other herbaceous plants may be mentioned skunk cabbage, tril- 




.-) 


PHYSICAL CllARACTERISTlrS OF r 1XADA. 


lium, wild lily-of-the-valley, yellow pond lily, fringe-cup, false mitrewort, alum 
root, bleeding heart, goat's beard, twinflower and aster. 
The major part of Yancouver island has a typical Coast Range flora. The 
southea!--:tern section, howevpr. has a vegetation of a quitC' different type. There, 
the growth is influenecd by the ('nmparatively scant precipitation, with little rain 
between spring and fall. As a rpsult the spring vegetation is much more conspic- 
uous than the summer and fall vegetation, especially on open and rocky land. 
In addition, the section is cha.racterized by a numbpr of spC'cies which are mor<> or 
le:,s of a Californian type and which occur nowhere else in Canada. Among the- 
characteristic plants of this 
ect.ion of t he i
land may be mentioncd several Slwcit-":; 
of bromc grasses, camas, wild hyacinth. blue-eyed grass, spring-beauty, lupins, 
bird-foot clover, tall veteh, marsh hollyhock, godetia, arbutus or madrona, gilia, 
grove-lover, paint-brush, etc. 
Dry Belts of British Columbia.-A few word
 may finally be !--:aid about. 
the most important dry belts of British Columbia, including the Okanagan and the 
Kamloops district!>. The-sc r{'gions, owing to the scant precipitation ana to the 
nature of the soil, have a flura whi('h stnmgely cOlltras
s with that of the other 
parts of the British Columhia mainland. 
In the dry belts two florllitic subdivisions may be recugnized, which, however, 
run more or less into each other and for this reason will not be- dmlt with se'parately. 
One subdivision is characterized by 
o-called bunch gra
'ses. of which ., wild rye" 
is the most conspicuous species, and is more or Ipss dC'stitutc of forC'st-forming trees. 
The other floristic subdivision of the dry belts is more densely wooded, the character- 
istic tree of the forest being the yello
 pine. On the' whole', the' dry belts may be 
said to be park-like in gencral character, with a rather desert-like ground vegetation. 


V.-FAUNAS OF CANADA.1 


Historical.-\\'hether thc fauna of the western hemi;:,;phere was derived from 
that of the eastern, or vice versa, as is eontC'nded by various authoritie-s, therp is 
a dose relationship betwC'en them. Geological evidence shows that in previous 
ages types now found in but one of the great continental circumpolar divi
ions 
were common to both. Old and now submcrged land connectiuns between the 
continents have been postulated both from zoologieal and geological cvidence, and 
a more or less complete continuity of land throughout the northern hemisphere, 
in former times, must be acknowledged before pre-sent American biotal conditions 
can be thoroughly understood. That this connection was in the far north and in 
what is now arctic ur sub-arctic climate did not prohibit a continual interC'hange 
of warmth-loving species, for the presence of coal in very high latitudes points to 
mildcr if not tropical or sub-tropical conditions where now we find perpetual snow 
and ice. One must, therefore, conceive of a pre-glacial time when trec-ferns- and 
other luxuriant coal-producing forest types occupied extreme northern lands, and 
such animals as elephants, horses and other warmth-loving species could ..pread 
from one cuntinent to the othcr. 
This intcréontinental connection must have been made and broken numbers 
of times by the recurrence of glacial periods which covered this country with ice 
lAbridged from an article contributed to the 1921 Year Book by P. A. Taverner, Department of Mines, 
Ottawa. 



FAUN AS OF CANA.DA. 


33 


to well south of the present Great I
akes and must at times have formed barriers 
more complete even than to-day to the passage of life across the far north. During 
these periods of alternate isolation and connection there was ample time and oppor- 
tunity for wide divergence in development in the faunas of the separated land 
masses, the extinction of connecting links and the occurrence of many complexities 
to confuse the clear picture of the historical succession, until to-day we find a nearly 
identical circumpolar fauna at the north progressively breaking up and differen- 
tiating into peculiar and special New and Old 'World forms as it proceeds south. 
The general trend of geographical distribution in Canada is from southeast 
to northwest. Ocean currents have much to do with this. Our east coast is chilled 
by the cold arctic current coming directly down from the polar ice fields through 
Davis strait, and the west coast is warmed by the grateful temperature of the great 
final sweep Qf the Japan current. 'Vhen we realize that the barren Labrador 
coast is in almost the same latitude as southern British Columbia and is slightly 
south of the most southerly point of the British Islf's, we can see what a funda- 
mental influence these ocean currents have on the distribution of life upon our 
continent. Elevation also has a determining influence on climate and the distri- 
bution of animal life. It is well known that high mountains even in the tropics 
present arctic conditions at their peaks. Less elevation has similar effect in pro- 
portion to its height and often a rise of a few hundred feet will produce conditions 
that otherwise would only occur at considerable distance to the north. Not only 
do mountain ranges thus project long tongues of northern faunas into southern 
localities, but on the retreat of the ice at the end of glaèial epochs they formed 
oases for the retreating cold-loving forms as they withdrew from the gradually 
warming lowlands. We thus have true arctic" relicts" of an ancient order isolated 
on mountain tops far from their natural habitats,-boreal islands in a sea of more 
southern life. 
Zonal Distribution.-The general outline of zonal life distribution is well 
known, as is the fact that tropical life differs from temperate and from arctic. Close 
study, however, shows that besides these broad and obvious associations minor 
ones also exist. Various attempts have been made to map them out, and perhaps 
the most successful and generally accepted one for our purposes is that which divides 
North America into three regions, Boreal, Austral and Tropical, with the first two 
each divided into three life zones: the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian zones for 
the Boreal region and the Transition and Upper and Lower Austral zones for the 
Austral region. In Canada we have five of these zones represented- from the north 
the Arctic, Hudsonian, Canadian, Transition and Upper Austral. These extend 
across the continent, roughly agreeing with latitude, but thrown out of regularity, 
as previously indicated, by local conditions and agreeing closely with the mid- 
summer isotherms. 
The Arctic zone is the so-calJ(d " bar
en land" of the far north, and includes 
all the islands and the north shore of the continent. The distinctive land mammals 
of this zone are the polar bear, musk ox, barren land caribou, arctic fox, arctic hare 
and lemming. Amongst the characteristic birds are snow buntings, ptarmigan, 
longspurs, snowy owl and gyrfalcons. This region is the great nesting ground 
for many of our waders and more northern ducks and geese, but few are residents 
as most forms migrate in winter. 
The Hudsonian zone is the land of scrub forests, small stunted trees, mostly 
coniferous, and scattered dwarf willows and poplars. The southern boundary of 
this zone extends from the north shore of the gulf of St. Lawrence to nc
tr thc mouth 
623ï3-3 



34 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANA.DA 


of James bay, thence in a wavy curve to Great Slave lake where it drops south 
suddenly to a latitude about on line with the lower point of the Alaska Pan-handle, 
and thence to near the coast. It thus includes the southern Ungava peninsuJa, 
a narrow belt extending northwest from James bay, the Yukon, northern British 
Columbia and southern Alaska. It is pcnetrated -from the north by the Arctic 
zone which persists on the mountains of the Yukon and from the south by the 
Canadian zone which follows up the valleys of the Mackenzie and Peace rivers. 
It is shut off from the sea on the Pacific side by the Alaska Pan-handle which has 
an intrusive Canadian fauna. On the othcr hand, it works down the Rocky mount- 
ains in a narrow band and scattered isolated spots across the United States bound- 
ary. This zone can be considered more as a transition betwecn t he Canadian and 
Arctic zones than a primary division itself. It contains spccics whose centres of 
abundance are on either hand and a few peculiar to it. Musk m..en. caribou and 
ptarmigan range into it in winter from the north, and it forms the extreme northern 
distribution of woodland caribou and moose. Its most characteristic birds are 
the rough-legged hawk, great-grey owl, northern shrike, pine grosbcak, white-winged 
cross-bill and fox sparrow. 
The Canadian zone occupies the greater area of Canada and can be roughly 
defined as the coniferous forest belt. It includes practically all the remaindcr of 
the Dominion except the inner shorcs of the Kava Scotia peninsula., southern 
Ontario and Quebec in a narrow strip from about Montreal to just bclow Georgian 
bay on lakc Huron, the prniries, a small irregular fringe along the Pacific coast 
opposite Vancouver i:-:land and a fcw mountain valleys penetrating thc southern 
boundary of British Columbia. It pcnetratcs the Hudsonian zone on the north 
along the valleys of the Mackenzic and Pcace rivers and runs up most of thc Alaska 
Pan-handle, The characteristic life is more numerous than in the preceding zones 
and includes the moose, woodland caribou, lynx, marten, porcupine, varying hare, 
white-throated sparrow, numerous warblers, olive-backed thrush, thrce-toed wood- 
peckers, pileated woodpecker, spruce grð\1se and Canada jay. 
The Transition zone lics just along the southern border, including most of 
both shores of the bay of Fundy, a narrow belt following the north shores of lakes 
Ontario and Eric, all of the western prairies and intrusive valle)'s into the south 
of British Columbiå and the shores of the strait of Gcorgia. The name Transition 
wcll describes its falUla. It contains comparatively few distinctive species, but in 
it many northern and southern forms meet. Its southern limit lies in the L"nited 
States below, striking almost squarely across the continent on a line with the lower 
points of the Great Lakes, with excursions southward along the mountain ranges 
east and west and penetrated by extensions of the 'Gpper Austral fauna along warm 
lowland valleys in the west. It forms the northern limit of range of the cotton- 
tail and jack-rabbits and the American elk, and is just touched upon by the varying 
hare from the north; the common molc of the south meets the star-nosed and 
Brewer's mole of the north and the wild cat partially rcplaces the Canada lynx. 
Amongst birds, the wild turkey, bob-white, two cuckoos, towhee, wood thrush and 
yellow-throated vireo are here at the northern limit of thcir rangcs, and the Balti- 
more oriole, blucbird, catbird and bobolink overlap thc solitary vireo and \\ ilson'l:j 
thrush. 
The Upper Austral zone in Canada is small in area, crossing our borders in a 
narrow shore belt along lake Erie, extending to the sout h side of lake Ontario and 
including the Kiagara peninsula. It extends south as far as thc northern bordcrs 



FAUNAS OF CANADA 


35 


of the Gulf States, variously dotted and cut into by intrusive branches of the neigh- 
bouring faunas from either side, especially in the broken country of the west. 
The opossum is perhaps the most distinctive of the mammals of the zone and 
among birds we have the yellow-breasted chat, mockingbird, Carolina wren, Carolina 
chickadee, orchard oriole, baTn owl, a number of distinctive southern warblers and 
Bome southern subspecific forms allied to more northern variations. 
These make the latitudinal or thermal divisions of our faunal life. Outside 
of the species mentioned are numerous forms that extend over the whole area, but 
show in different zones variations recognizable only to the expert. A good example 
is the hairy woodpecker. This bird breeds over all the wooded parts of North 
America, but the birds from the Lower Austral zone are quite separable by the 
trained eye from those of the Upper Austral and Transition and these from the 
large northern form of the Hudsonian. This is but one C3.se of måny where a 
northern and a southern race exist in the same species which are designated as 
subspecies. Some of thepe geogr3.phical races are so slightly differentiated as to 
require an expert to sep3.rate them while others are marked and striking. The 
critica1 difference between a fun species and a subspecies is the f3.ct that the latter 
intergrade and blend into each other gradualJy. \Vith species the break between 
is sudden, and intermedi3.tes do not occur. 
Further Divisions.-"
ith this zonal distribution and a vari3.tion of life 
groups depending b3.sically upon temperature, we have another system of distribu- 
tion from east to west, depending largely upon phYf'ic3.1 conditions of habitat- 
the 3.rrangement of land and water or mountain ranges forming barriers or highways 
of migration and leading certain forms in cert3.in directions while barring them 
from others-and the comparative rainfall and humidity of climate. This has a 
primary direct influence upon such forms of life, as well as a secondary and indirect 
one through the pl3.nts and insects which give them food or shelter. 
The principal east and west division is m3.de by the Rocky mountains, which 
successfully cut off the Pacific C09st from close cont3.ct with eastern forms. The 
Rocky mount3.in system approximates the dividing line of the e3.st and west faun3.s, 
leaving a triangular patch to the west inc1uding British Columbia, southern Yukon 
and southern Alaska as the we-tern or mountain faùna, and cutting through the 
Transition, Canadian and Hudsonian transcontinental zones. 
The mountain district is characterized by an abundant rainf3.ll, a high average 
humidity and a greatly diversified and rugged topography] forming a succession 
of parallel mountain ranges and valleys which facilitate intercommunication in a 
north and south direction, while obstructing it from east to west. The::;e topo- 
graphical conditions continue to the south well into Mexico and enforce migration 
routes and conditions and associations more or less isolated. The marked humidity 
of the climate, especially near the coast, also causes or encourages special physiolog- 
ical changes in numerous organisms tending as a rule to produce larger size and 
richer colouration. These differences in physic3.1 conditions and the isolation 
formed by the barrier mountains have produced a great number of forms peculiar 
to the district. In fact, comparatively few species, either of birds or animals, 
extend across the mountains from the east unmodified, and the native population 
can be dividcd into three heads: sub::;pecific variations of eastern forms, species 
confined to the area and forms of evident mountain origin but spreading from 
them a certain distance eastward. 
Typical amongst the first may be mentioned the moose and woodland caribou, 
the Oregon subspecies of the ruffed grouse, Ha
ris' Rocky-mountain and Gairdner's 
62373-3
 



36 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


woodpeckers, northwest flicker, dusky and streaked horned larks, many forms of 
the warbJers and sparrows and others. Of fuJI species confined to this .f::mna are: 
DougJas squirrel, black-tailed deer, pika, yellow-beJ1ied marmot, bushy-tailed wood 
rat, little striped skunk or spilogale, blue and Franklin's grouse, band-tailed pigeon, 
red-breasted and \Villiamson's sapsucker, Steller's jay, black and Yaux swift, black- 
chinned and rufous hummingbirds, Clark's nutcracker, northwestern crow, dipper, 
chesnut-backed chickadee, varied thrush and others. Forms typical of the mount- 
ains but spreading a little way east are: hoary marmot, mule deer, grizzly bear, 
red-napcd sapsucker, Lewis's woodpecker, red-shafted flicker, Hammond's and 
'Vright's flycatcher, black headed grosbeak and many more. 
The Eastern fauna is comparatively homogeneous across the continent in a 
diagonal direction from Nova Scotia to Alaska, with but slight variation in physical 
aspect, except in the prairie region of the central we
t. In generaJ the country is 
of low, evcn topography with good rainfall and is cover('d \\ ith a uniform forest 
of but little variety except that due to latitude and zonal di::;tribution. 
In the west it is penctrated by a great semicircular expansion of the Transition 
zone, extending from the eastern l\1anitoban line along the international boundary 
to the mountains and north to Edmonton and Prince Albert, and characterized by 
great dryness, near-desert conditions and an almost entire absence of trees. 
The general tendency of this prairie fauna is towards small size and pale, 
bleached colouration. Species characteristic of it are the prong-horn antelope, 
bison, coyote, gopher, prairie chicken, sage hen, burrowing owl, Leconte's sparrow, 
and lark bunting, who
e open country requirements debar thcm from wooded land. 
The remainder of its fauna is similar to that of the eastern country but gcnerally 
subspecifically differentiated from it through the dryer climate and desert-like 
conditions. Some species included in this division are western horned owl, Say's 
phoebe, desert horned lark, pale goldfinch, western clay-coloured sparrow, Dakota 
song sparrow, prairie marsh wren, etc. 
True Eastern fauna, through generally similar from the far northwest to the 
Atlantic coast, does show a slight tendency to variation north of these pJains, but 
the influence is slight and in broad treatment may be disregarded. Many species 
extend unmodified throughoút the area, or when modification occurs it can usually 
be attributed to either thermal differences or the influence of the closely allied 
neighbouring prairie forms with which it comes in contact in migration. In general 
most of the subspecific forms mentioned as prairie or western are represented by 
type subspecies in this great eastern fauna, which is perhaps the most typical of 
Canada and gives distinctive character to our biotal resources. 


VI.-THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF CANADA. 


The economic life of new countries must at first depend el)tirely, snd later, 
mainly upon their n8tursl resources. Older countries, after exhausting their most 
easily obtained resources, turn for a livelihood to manufacturing snd simil8r pur- 
suits, cOl)serving their own resources and utili2Íng those of less developed 
lfe8S. 
Canada is di8tmctly a new country, the resource
 of which are but now commel)cil)g 
to be appreciated; in recent years numerous surveys and investigations as to their 
extel)t and value have been made. A 
hort B1Jmm8ry of important det8ils regarding 



THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF CASADA. 


37 


them follows. Fuller information will be found in the introductions to the later 

e('tiQIls-Agriculturel F\,lr
1 Fi
heries. Fore
try; l\Iin
rpl
. "

ter Powers-of this 
volulPe. 
Agricultural Lands.-Of the totallaIJd area of the nine provinces (1,401,- 
316,413 acre
) it is estimated that 8pproxÏIl'ately 440,951,000 acres are avail3ble 
for UEe in ::agricultural production. The area now under cultivation iE but a fraction 
of thiE total, that undcr field crops in 1921 being 59,635:346 acreE. The area under 
paEture in the s
me :year in all the provinces except Manitoba and Alberta WfiS 
9.977,204 acres. TheEe figures are exclusive of the Yukon and the Northwest 
Territories, where certain of the more hardy crops have been grown and where 
I"tock raising is possible. Farm lands of almost unlimited extent are to be had in 
all parts of the Dominion, and are among the most productive in the world. In 
1923 Canada was the world's leading exporter of wheat: while in the export of other 
grains she also occupied a prominent place. Fruit culture is carried on in the 
Maritime Provinces, in southern Ontario aI1d in British Columbia, under favour- 
able conditions of soil and climate. Stock raising is a flouriEhing pursuit on the 
prairies, while mixed and dairy farming proves profitable throughout the wholc 
coun try. 
Furs.-Canada is one of the world's greatest fur producers. .Aß early as 1676, 
Canadian furs Eold in England were valued at ;(19,500. Since that time vast ar{'as of 
Ollr northern territory have been e""ploited by b1Jnter and trapper, the vast expanses 
of northern Quebec and Ontario and the Nortbwest Territories f1Jrnisbing sub- 
sistence for many of the mOEt highly prized fur-bearing animals, among the mOEt 
important of which are the beaver: fisher, various varieties of foxes, marten, otter 
Bnd many others of less commercial value. The 
uccessful breeding of the fox on 
fur farms came in the period of rising prices after 1890. Other animals also have 
been domesticated, though less successfully than the fox-raccoon, mi:gk, marten, 
otter, skunk, muskrat and beaver. During the year 1921-22 the value of pelts 
purcbased by traders from trapperE in C
)I1Bda amounted to $17,438,867. Pelts 
sold from fur farms in the calendar year 1921 were valued at $626;900, and animals 
sold at $690,566. 
Forests.-Among the mOEt notable of all CaJJadian natural resources are thoEe 
of the forests. From the days whell early French 
ettlers established Ehip-building 
yards akng the St. Lawrence up to the present: when our forests s1Jpply millions of 
tons of pulp, paper, and other wood products yearly, these resources have been 
of immenEe value, not only to Canada but to the Empire. Canada's forest areas 
may be stated as follows:-(l) the great fir forest of the Rocky mountains and 
Pacific coast, (2) the northern coniferous forest stretching in a wide curve from the 
Yukon, north of the Great Lakes to Labrador, and (3) the deciduous hardwood 
forest, extending from lake Huron through southern Ontario and Quebec to New 
BrunEwick alld the Atlantic coast. Estimates have placed the extent of timber 
lands in the Dominion at 932,416 square miles, of which 390,625 are covered with 
saw timber of commercial size, alld the remainder with pulpwood. Next to Russia 
and the United States our resources are the most important in the world: in qualit.y 
as well as in extent. .The strength and durability of many of the woods of British 
Columbia place them amongst the most valuable in commercial UEe, while pulp 
woods from limits in eastern Canada are of equally high grade. Statistics of the 
total value of forest production in 1920 place it at $315,902,193. The value of pulp 
and paper products alone in 1922 was $155,785,388 ($236,420,176 in 1920). 



38 


PHYSICAl.} CHARACTERISTICS OF CA. V ADA 


Fisheries.-The firE't of Canada'
 resources to be exploit cd by Europeans was 
the fi
hing-banks of the Atlantic coaE't. It is believed that for many years before 
the actual discovery and :::ettlcment of North America the cod-banks E'outh of 
Newfoundland and ea
t of Nova Scotia h2d attracted French fiE'hcrmen by their 
abundant catcheE'. TheE'e fiE'hing grounds alone extend along a coast line of more 
than 5,000 miles
 comprising an area of not less than 200,000 square mile
, where 
many of the world's most valupble food fishe
 are caught. Other fishing grounds 
include the inshore expan:::es of tbe St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes and innumersble 
othcr inland water areas, Hudson bay with a shore line of 6,000 milès and the Pacific 
coast, with its ivland 
almon fiE'heries and over 7,000 miles of well-protected shore. 
The value of Cansdian fish products in HH8 (the record year) reached S60,250,544. 
Minerals.-The numerous and varied roineral deposits of the Dominion form 
anothcr of her most important resources. Their value was first appreciated eprly 
in the 17th century, when iron was mined in Cape Breton. FollO\\Ïng a develop- 
ment which has ol1ly become an important one during recent years, when the needs 
of manufacturing industries and a more settled civilization were to be met, Cal1ada 
has now become one of the important mining countries of the world. Her coal 
resources are only now being e:X'Ploited to any considerable extent, the estimated 
totpl reserves available amounting to 1,234,269,310,000 metric tov
, approximately 
one-sixth's of the world reserve; over 85 per cent of the Canadian re
erve
 are in 
Alberta. The total estimated reserves constitute almost one quarter of the total 
amouvt of coal available in North :md South America. E:xtellsive oil fields exist 
in the western province
, where they remain practically undeveloped. Some smaller 
fields in Ontario have been exploited, while oil:::hale occurs in several part
 of eastern 
Canada, In the production of natural gas, Canada holds 
econd place among the 
countries of the world. Nickel depoFit
 at Sudbury, Ontario, are as largc as all 
otherE'in the world combined, Bnd produce six-E'eventhE' of thc world total. Coppcr 
depoE'it
 in the same area and in Manito1:1a, while not of great extent, :::till assure the 
maintenallce and pOE'sible increase of the preE'ent rate of production. Ar
enic in 
large quantities is a by-product obtained in the smelting of Ontario :::ilver ores of 
the Cobalt and Porcupine districts: where the latter are found in large quantities. 
Gold, of which Canada was in 1921 the world's thiId largeE't producer, iE' alFo found 
in the E'ame region, in BritiFh Colun 1 bia and in the Yukon. Canada is the E'econd 
largeE't producer of lI'agneE'itc and the third largeft producer of mica in the world. 
J
arge iron depo:::its, although of a low grade, are found in the district north of Lake 
Superior. The a
beE'toE' depol"itE' of E'outhern Quebec are unrivalled in the produc- 
tiol1 of this mineral. The total value of mineral production in Canada during 1922 
was $184,297,242. 
Water Powers.-Ca1Jada's w::ltcr tHea of 126:329 E'quare miles, di:::tributed 
as it is throughout all partE' of the COUl1try, provide
 a large amourt of potential 
electric eneTgy. It is e
timated that 18,255:316 horse power are available at a 
minimum yearly flow, 32,075,998 at maximum flow and that a turbine installation 
of 41,700,000 horFe power is availahle. Pre:::ent turbine ip:::tallation is set at 
2,973,739 horse power or only 7 p.c. of the possible amount. 



CLI-'!,fATE AND 
METEOROLOGY 


39 


VII.-CLI
fATE AND METEOROLOGY. 
I.-The Factors which Control Canadian Weather. l 


Several prime factors play important rôles in establishing climatic types, 
latitude, distance from the Eea (especi311y on the western side of tre continents), 
altitude, and prevailing winds, tre last named being a variable, accounting for 
differences in the character of ccrreEponding Ee3HJnE in different years. 
Canada, with bel' huge area, has a wide range of climatic type:;, varying between 
temperate and arctic, and between marine 3nd semi-arid. No country, however, 
has a climate altogether independent of the rest of tbe world; the 3tmosphere knows 
no political boundaries, but moves in accordance with physical laws. 
Prevailing Winds due to Inequality of Atmospheric Pressure.-Meteoro- 
logical research has Ehown that the earth's atmm'phere is not spread uniformly 
over its surface, and that certain regions exist where the atmospheric presEUJe is 
either higher or lower tban the general average the year round, 
md other regions 
where it changes with the seasons, Tbe winds 3re tre outcome of tbe tendency 
to establisb an equilibrium, which, however, is never attained. This general 
circulation of the atmosphere is withal a mechani
m of marvellous beauty and 
intricacy, which, owing to caUEes yet 
mperfectly understood, is subject to many 
variations. 
Tre most persistent and relatively unvarying feature of atmospheric distri- 
bution is a belt of high pressure between latitudes 30 0 and 40 0 in the southern 
hemisphere. Its partial counterpart exists in tbe northErn bemisphere, but is 
there subject to greater cranges, which without doubt, result from the larger land 
areas in the north. Between tbese two belts of high pressure is a belt of relatively 
low pressure over the equatorial regions. To this distribution, with certain other 
factors, is due the system of trade winds, the northeast and southeast trades. Towards 
higher latitudes beyond 40 0 in both hemispheres, there is a tendency towards a 
gradual diminution of pressure, and westerly winds prevail in the middle and even 
higher latitudes. 
Unequal Heating of Land and Water.-Tbe physical properties of land 
and water, as regards temperature, play an important rôle. The earth receives 
almost all its heat from the sun, and the character of the surface on which it falls 
plays a very important rôle in determining climatic differences. 'Water has a 
large capacity for heat and, being a fluid, is mixed by the winds and kept fairly 
uniform in temperature to considerable depths. Thus the sun's heat warms the 
oceans very slowly, and for the same reason tbe oceans cool very slowly. 0.11 the 
other hand, the same solar heat warms a mass of land more rapirlly than the same 
mass of water in the ocean, and morcover the sun's heat is all absorbed in the surface 
layers of the land, which thuE become very hot; similarly, when thf' sun is withdrawn, 
the land surface cools very rapidly. The result of these physical facts is that the 
northern portions of the continents of the northern hemisphere become very cold 
in winter, wbile the OCe3I'S in corresponding latitudes remain warm, and as cooling 
of the lower strata of the atmosphere, resting over the lands, If'ads to contraction, 
the pressure becomes bigher over the continents tban over the seas, and conse- 
quently, the tendency is for air to move from land to sea during the winter, wrile 
in summer, when all the continents become warmer than the oceans, the reverse 
holds. But the winter effect of còntracting atmospheric lower strata is in operation 


IContributed by Sir Frelerick Stupart, Director of the Meteorological Service of Camda. 



40 


PHYSICAL CHARA.CTERISTICS OF CANADA 


more or less throughout the year oyer the ice covered arctic seas, and over Green- 
land, with the result that in summer the barometric pressure is a little higher 
in the polar regions thßn in the middle latitudes. 
Cyclones and Anticyclones.-This gencral average distribution of pressure 
has an important bearing on Canadian weather. Another important factor to bf> 
considered, is the influence of anticylonic and cyclonic areas. W" e have mentioned 
thc wef:t to cast drift of thc air ovcr the middle latitudes, and it is within and more 
frequently toward:; the northern limit of this drift, that the phcnomena of the 
travelling anticyclone and cyclone are found. The anticyclonic area is a disturbance 
in the general drift of the atmosphere, usually of enormous extent, within wbich 
tl>e air is moving spirally outwards from the higher to the lower pressure. Within 
this region the weather is generally fine and settled. The cyclonic area is also a 
disturbance, varying frcm a few hundred to more than fifteen hundred miles in 
diamcter. It may be elllptical or circular or very irregular in form, and within 
its boundaries the air is moving inwarde- from a higher to a lower pressure. This 
is the region of unsettled and stormy weather. 
The anticyclones and cyclones, designated as areas of high and low pres8ure, 
or more shortly as highs and lows, pass across the North .American continent in 
constant procession from west to east at velocities averaging 20 miles in summer 
and 30 miles in winter. The highs, especiahy those first appearing in the more 
northern regions, have a tendency towards a southeastward course, while the 
m::tjority of the lows have a more directly eastward movement, the mean average 
track being from British Columbia to the Great Lakes and thence to Newfoundland. 
It is the passage of thfse high and low areas which brings to us thc cbanging winds 
and weather; warm sÞowery weather being associated with the lows, and fair, 
cool or cold weather, according to the season, with the highs. As example: the 
barometer is high, in say, Ottawa and Toronto, and begins to fall as a low approaches 
lake l\Iichigan, the wind sets in ftom tàe east or southeast and cloudiness increases, 
and within twelve hours conditions are more or less favourat Ie for rain. Rain 
falls continuously when warm, moist, expanding and hence cooling air is passing 
slantingly upward over a barrier of relatively cold air, and these conditions are 
frequently found in advance of the low, more especially in the colder seasons, and 
occasionally in summer, But in summer it is more often. that the rain partakes 
rather of the character of showers, perhaps with thunder, and this occurs wben, 
with the heating of the land, upward moving, convectional, and hence rapidly 
cooling currents, become prevalent. It is often thought that if only water vapour 
in the cloud would fall as rain, it wo,lld be sufficiem for all purposes, but this is 
not so; the actual amount of water in the cloud is not much greater than is often 
obtained in a heavy dew. Before an abundance of rain can be obtained, it is nec{'s- 
sary to feed the cloud with a copious supply of water vapour. This supply is 
obtained when the centre or trough of lowest pressure approaches the plaf'C of 
observation, and the rain usually tecomes heavier, and as it passes, the wind shifts 
to the northwest, not infrequently with a squall, and tbe barometer begins to ris{' 
in advance of an oncoming. area of high pressure, acccmpanied by clearing weatber. 
Such is an ordinary sequence cf events over the larger portion of Canada. 
Effect of Topography on Climate.-The topography of a country, howcver, 
exercises an important influence on weather conditions, and there are many parts 
of Ontario, to say nothing for the momcnt of British Columbia, where, owing to 
topographical features, considerable rain or snow may fall with westerly winds, 





lAP OF CANADA SHOWING N I\L MEAN TJ 


To late p. 40. 


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() 



MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION IN JANUARY. 


NORMAL MEAN 
TEMPERATURE 
JA N UARY 
METEOROLOqlCAL SERVICE' 
STATIOH6 = 0 


NORMAL 
PRECIPITATION 
JANUARY 



MAP OF CANADA SHOWING NORMAL MEAN 


'fJl:e II. 40. 



\flU' Tmru 


IN JULY. 


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CAXADIAN CLI][ATIC FEA.TURES 


41 


when the barometer is rising behind a retreating low area. Immediately to the 
east of lake Huron and Georgian bay tÞe land rises rather abruptly over 1,000 feet; 
westerly winds off the lake are deflected upwards by the increasing height of the 
land, and the air, expanding as it rises, is cooled below the dew point, with re:,;ulting 
precipitation. Hence it is that the snowfall in Grey, Bruce and neighbouring 
counties is greater than in the counties to the south and east, where the land falls 
away in elevation. This topo
aphical effect is more general and more pronounced 
in British Columbia, where, in winter, the mean temperature of the sea is warmer 
than the land. The air coming eastward from the Pacific rises up the western 
slopes of the mountain ranges, and the cooling effect of expansion leads to very 
heavy rains on the outer coastline with lighter but still heavy rains on the lower 
mainland. 
Climatic Features of the Canadian Provinces.-There are very interesting 
climatic features peculiar to each of the Canadian provinces. Beginning in the 
far west, the most striki.ng feature is the mildness of the climate near the Pacific 
coast, where the controlling influence is the prevailing westerly winds which bring 
the warm moist air from the Pacific. In addition to this, when winds are northerly 
and easterly the air is being drawn from highcr to lower levels, and is thus gradually 
warmed as the atmospheric pre
sure increases towards sea level. It is also due 
to this latter cause th3.t the cold spells near the coast are never severe. Another 
feature is the seasonal cÞaracter of the rain fulls. During the colder months of 
the 
 ear it is heavy while in summer it is very light. In the cold montÞs, Pacific 
air, on reaching the continent, is cooled both by passing over a relatively cdd land, 
and also a land with rapidly increasing elevation. In summer, on the contrary, 
the sea air is colder than the land, and it is only occasionally, even at high levels, 
that it is cooled below the dew point, hence the deficiency of rain during June, 
July and August. Another factor which plays an important rôle in British Columbia 
is tbe anticyclone moving southward from the Yukon. It is at such times that the- 
severe east and northeast snowstorms occur in the mountains. 
A problem whicb is receiving much attention is trat of the precipitation of 
tbe western provinces. It bas not yet been definitely decided wÞence comes the 
moisture which falls in summer rains, but from recent investigation it would appear 
that tbe greater part i
 from the gulf of Mexico, tbough a certain proportion comes 
across the mountains south of Canada from the Pacific. The variation from season 
to seascn is certainly closely connected with the distribution of atmospheric pressure 
over other parts of the continent. It is surmised tbat a cold spring, following a 
cold winter with an abnormal accumulation of snow and ice in northeastern Canada, 
including Hudson bay, is usually tbere followed by a ratber persistent abnormally 
high barometer, which in turn leads to a prevalence of east and northeast winds 
over the northern portion of the Great Lakes, and thence westward to the Canadian 
prairies, while over the northwestern portions of the continent, the pressure is 
relatively low. Tbe strcam lincs of the warm lower atmosphere in tbe Mississippi 
vallcy will thcn be ftom the southeast, converging towards colder east and northeast 
winds, and gradually rising abovc them. 'With such conditions, which are strikingly 
like those which have prevailed tbis past spring, copious rains are likely to occur 
in the western Canadian provinces. W
('n, in otÞH seasons, a series of lows pas3 
ea
tward across tbe Great Lakes, tbe rffult8nt 
tream lines in western Canada. 
will be soutbwest and west and tbe rainfall wcst of tbe Great Lakes will be light. 
A factor wHcb plays an important rôle in detcrmining tbe character of western 
winters is tte intensity of the anticyclones and tÞe latitude in which they first 



42 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 


appear. The weatver chart of the northern temispbere between longitude 40 0 E. 
and 1
00 \V., now prepared daily, includ.es data l:oth from Ala
ka and from the 
sub-arctic portions of the north Atlantic, and there is a growing conviction that 
tbe pressure disbibution in northwestern AmeJica in winter depends largely on 
tbe position and the intmsity of tbe normal area of low pressure over the north 
Pacific, whicb is the resultant of the persistent development of deep cyclonic areas. 
In some seasons t}1e
e cyclonic areas enter tbe continent very far nortv, and 
appear actually to prevent tbe formation of tbe anticyclone
, whicb are so intimately 
associated with great cold waves, and in sucb seasons, comparatively mild or even 
very mild wÏnteJfI prevail in the western provinces, tl'e general flow of air l:-eing 
from the soutv and west. In other seasons, the Pacific cyclonic areas develop 
farther south, and enter the continent over British Columbia, and tben great anti- 
cyclones, accompanied by intense cold, develop in tbe Mackenzie River valley 
and Yukon, and sweep southeasTward towards tbe Great Lakes and eastern Canada. 
One of the problems then to be solved has relation to tbe factors governing cyclonic 
development in the higher latitudes over the ocean, and one wonders whether 
a varying solar radiation may not cause changes in the barometric distribution 
in the tropics, which will affect the strength of the trade winds and which will in 
turn lead to variations in the great ocean currents, and then, according as the warm 
waters are abnormally far north or far south, the Pacific centre of action will also 
vary. The solution of such a problem may ultimately lead to the possibility of 
forecasting the character of coming winters. 
Canadian territory stretches northward beyond the arctic circle, from lands 
in the western provinces, where cereal crops are an assured success, to the barren 
lands where only mosses and lichen grow. A question of moment then, is how 
far nortb the lands of agricultural possibilities extend. Certainly, between the two 
limits, tbere is a wide zone, in the southern ponion of which crops will in most 
years mature, and in the northern portion of which they will only very occasionaJIy 
ripen. Throughout all this vast doubtful area the factor of long summer sunlight 
plays an important rôle, and lengthens the period of growth, but another fae.tor, 
acting adversely, is the liability of early and late summer frc::ts, and tre husbandman 
who sees his crops rapidly maturing is not unlikely to see them destroyed in August 
before ready for barvest. Graphs showing summer temperature curves at various 
stations show bow in August the downward trend of the curve is very rapid at 
tbe more nortber
 stations. 
The soutbern portions of Ontario, enjoy a particularly favourable climate, 
partly owing to tveir being fartper south than other portions of tbe Dominion. 
The most southerly point in Ontario is in the same latitude as Rome and Toronto 
is in the same latitude as Florence. The Great Lakes also exert an important 
influence in tempering tbe cold of winter and moderating the heat of summer, 
and undoubtedly have some influence in equalizing the precipitation, periods of 
drought there being less frequent than in corresponding latitudes to the west. 
The enormous territory includcd in northern Ontario and Quebec, north of 
a line passing through Quebec cit.y, enjoys a fairly warm sumnlf'r, and it is only 
as autumn advances that a marked difference of temperature is registered between 
these distri(.t
 and those f3rtber south. It is not latitude alone wbich leads to tbe 
shorter growing season and more Sf'vere winters in tbe
e northern parts, but rather 
the fact that the mean path of cyclonic depre.-;sion lifs in the valley of tpe St. Law- 
rence to the south. 



THE JfETEOROWGICAL SERVICE OF CAN ADA 


43 


In the southern portions of Ontario and Quebec the winds connected with cyclonic 
circulation commonly veer from east through south to west, while in the north 
they back througb northeast to northwest and it is only occasionally that tbe 
warmer air of the south is wafted northwaJd. This of course, leads to a steadier 
find more intense cold in winter, and, as this whole northern region has a fairly 
heavy precipitation, the snow lies deep in winter and does not disappear until 
quite late in the spring. It is practically certain that deforestation will nOT appre- 
ciably affect tbis northern climate, the causes whicb lead to existing conditions 
being the result of a world wiqe atmospheric ciJculation. 
The weather types peculiar to the Maritime provinces aJe likewise largely 
controlled by factors apart from latitude (wbich is lowf'r than that of Great Britain). 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick lie near the eastern coast line of America, and 
hence are affected at intervals by the cold waves coming from the interior of the 
continent. Then ag3Ì.D tbe mean patb of lows is directly over tbe nortbern 
part of the gulf of Sf. LaWJence, hence conditionli associated with cyclonic areas 
are of frequent occurrence. Tbese conditions are accentuated by the fact that 
many storms, especially in winter, develop near the Atlantic coast between the 
Gulf etream and the cold land, and, moving northeastward, cause g
les and bring 
prf'cipitation in tbe Maritime provinces and Newfoundland. 


2.-The Climate of Canada since Confederation. 


Under tbe above beading Sir Frederick Stupart, Director of the Meteorological 
Service of Canada, contributed a short article, which for reasons of space is not 
reprinted bere, to the 19
1 edition of the Year Book (pp. 169-173); to it tbe 
interested reader is referred. 


3.-The Meteorological Service of Canada. 1 


In order to secure information regarding the climate of Canada in the 17th 
and 18tb centuries, the URelations of the Jesuits" have been carefully examined 
and the references to climatic phenomena collated under sucb headings as "winter", 
usummer", "drough", etc. From these notes it h<ts been possible, in spite of the 
total lack of instrumental records, to arrive at certain conclusions regarding the 
general character of the Canadian climate in tbese early days. Broadly speaking, 
that climate was then very much the same as it is now. 
Some of the earliest instrumental meteorological records of the Canadian 
climate appear to have been made by Mr. Thomas Hutchins, an officer of the 
Hudson's B.:1Y Company at York Factory and Severn House, in 1773, and it is 
believed that there are sever9.1 other records by officers of the company in the 
archives of the Royal Society in London. 
Investigation of old provincial records bas further shown that, during the 
early part of the 19th century, several individuals in Ontario, Quebec and the 
Maritime provinces kept meteorological records which it would be quite possible 
to bring together and publish; however, owing to their fragmentary character, 
it is unlikely that they would prove of any great value. Perhaps the most inde- 
fatigable among observers prior to 1840 was the Rev. Mr. Dade, who has bequeathed 
us a record extending over many years. 


IContribute1 by Sir Frederick Stupart. Director or the :Meteorological Service or Canada. 



44 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA.V.4DA. 


Establishment of Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory.-It was 
not, however, until the British government established a Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observatory in Toronto, that meteorological observations were begun on a 
basis which promised continuity and scientific precision. The first observatory 
building was erected under the direction of Lieutenant Riddell, R.A. It was of 
logs, rough cast on the outside and plastered on the inside, and was completed 
during the summer of 1840, magnetical and meteorological observations being 
begun in September of that :year. Lieutenant Riddell returned to England in the 
spring of 1841, and Captain, afterwards General, Sir Henry Lefroy, who had estab- 
lished an observatory of a similar character in St. Helena, was transferred to Toronto, 
in order that he might undertake a magnetic survey of British North America. 
Captain Lefro)" remained as director of the observatory until, in the spring of 18.33, 
it ceased to be an Imperial establishment. 
Upon the transfer of the o1;>servatory to the Government of Canada, arrange- 
ments were made for retaining the military observers, and the institution was 
placed under the direction of Professor CherrÏman, professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy in the university of Toronto, who continued in charge 
for t" a years. During this period a stone observatory was erected on the exact 
site of the old frame building, the pillars on which the magnetic instruments were 
placed being left stánding and the walls built around them. Presumably there 
was no change in the position of the meteorological instruments. 
In 1855 Professor G. T. Kingston, M.A. was appointed director of the obser- 
vatory. For about ten years he apparently confined his attention almost exclusively 
to magnetic work and the local meteorology, but it is quite obvious from correspond- 
ence and the various reports made by him to the Government that for some years 
prior to 1870 he had been considering the possibility of inaugurating a Meteorological 
Service in Canada alonf! much the same lines as those then existing in Great Britain 
and the United States. In 18G9 he addressed himself by letter and circular to 
persons actually engaged in meteorology, including the principals of several grammar 
schools, who for several years had acted as obser
ers, and others who were interested 
in this movement, requesting their co
peration. The result was a steady increase 
in the number of observers, who now with unity of purpose and action made syste- 
matic and similar observations in different portions of the Dominion. 
From October, 1869, to the spring of 1871, meteorological work in Canada was 
carried on by purely voluntary organization; no emoluments whatever were attached 
to the services of the observers, and the instruments were provided from private 
sources or lent from the MaWJ.etic Observatory, Toronto, whi
h also furnished 
the forms for registration. The work connected with organizing new stations 
and discussing and compiling returns was also gratuitously performed by the director 
and assistants of the observatory. Professor Kingston received much assistance 
from a few persons in the various provinces who recognized the usefulness of the 
proposed work. Among these were the late Archbishop Machray, of Rupert's 
Land, the late F. Allison, M.A., of Halifax, the late H. J. Cundall, C.E., of Prince 
Edward Island, and Captain Ashe, R.N., of Quebec. In more recent years Mr. 
E. Baynes Reed proved a most valuable officer of the service. 
In the spring of 1871, a grant of $5,000 made by the Dominion Government 
for tþe promotion of meteorological research gave considerable impetus to the 
movement. The preparation of a daily synchronous weather chart was begun in 
1873, but the information received in Toronto was quite inadequate to admit of 
daily forecast.s and the issue of storm warnings. However, through the courte
y 



THE AIETEOROWGICAL SERF ICE OF CANADA 


45 


and goodwill of the Chief Signal Officer at \Vashington, warnings of e"--pected storms 
in Canada were sent to Toronto, and thence forwarded to the various districts 
likely to be affected. By 1876 there were 15 stations in Canada reporting three 
times daily to Toronto, and reports from upwards of 50 American stations were 
.also received at the observatory. Also the storm signal display stations had by 
this time been increased to 37, and observing stations of all classes numbered 115. 
Forecasts were first issued during the summer of this year, a chart of the weather 
with the probabilities for the ensuing 24 hours being prepared each morning at 10 
o'clock and furnished to the Marine Exchange Board in Toronto for public inspection. 
Mter September 1, warnings were issued from the observatory without waiting 
for advice from \Vashington, and in October the daily forecasts were first printed 
in the Toronto evening papers. 
The Meteorological Service was now completely established, and during the 
45 years which have since elapsed, its growth has been steady, and its activities 
have greatly increased. At the time of writing (July, 1923) there are 686 observing 
stations, the records of which are published regularly in the "Monthly Record". 
The majority of these stations are necessarily in the more southern portions of 
the Dominion, but there are several stations in the Peace River district, at 
intervals in the Mackenzie River basin, between lake Athabaska and the Arctic 
sea, along the shores of Hudson bay and in the Yukon. 
Publications of the ::\Ieteorological Service.-The "
Ionthly Record", 
which began as a two page issue in January 1877, is now a volume of 82 pages, 
including two maps, showing the distribution of precipitation and the temperature 
values and their departure from normal. A thirteenth III mber is published each 
year, containing the reports of stations received too lah
 for the monthly issue, 
among which are usually those from the far north. Frt,ffi the inception of the 
Sprvice until 1916, an annual Climatolo,rical Report was pl
bliRhed, but the :Monthly 
Records, with the supplement, bound together, now constitute the Annual Climato- 
logical Report of Canada. 
In addition to the Monthly Record there is published within a week a meteoro- 
logical map for the month just closed, showing the distribution of rainfall over the 
Dominion, the temperature and departure from normal, and also fairly compre- 
hensive notes descriptive of the prevailing weather and the condition of vegetation, 
or in winter of the depth of snow and thickness of ice. 
A Climatology of the Dominion is in progress. Parts I and II, covering British 
Columbia and the western provinces, have been published. Part III, for the 
province of Ontario, will shortly be sent to the printers and the part covering Quebec 
and the Maritime provinces will soon be ready. 
A brochure containing the Meteorological Report of the Toronto Observatory 
has been published annually for over 60 years. 
Weather Forecasting Service.-The particular work which brings the 
service most closely into the public eye is weather forecasting. Forecasts are 
issued from the central office, Toronto, for all parts of the Dominion east of the 
Rocky mountains, and from Victoria for British Columbia. 
For the purposes of the weather map, on which forecasts are based, two daily 
reports, 8 a.m. and ð p.m. Eastern standard time, are telegraphed to the central 
office, in Toronto from 39 stations in Canada, from 5 in Newfoundland and from 
Bermuda. Most of these reports are immediately forwarded to 'Washington, 
while Toronto receives about 100 similar reports from stations in the United States. 
Each report includes the reading of the barometer reduced to sea level, the tem- 



46 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 


perature, the direction and velocity of the wind, and precipitation, if an.)". All 
these reports having been entered in a map of North America, lines called isobars 
connecting places with the same barometric pressure, are drawn and show graphically 
the distribution of pressure; the areas of high and low pressure are thus clearly 
marked out. Noting the movements of these areas as shown by previous maps, 
the forecastinl!' official, from IanI!' experience, and a knowledge of many of the physical 
laws which govern atmospheric phenomena, is able to judge of changes likely to 
occur over subsequent periods of from one to several days. 
Supplementary to this weather chart of America, a chart is also prepared daily 
containing reports from Europe and Alaska, and also from the Azores and sevpral 
sub-arctic stations in the North Atlantic. This chart is very hf'lpful, showing 
as it does how intimately connected are the changes in all parts of the globe. 
The weather forecasts are issued twice daily, namely at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. 
and are usually in both instances for the ensuing 36 hours. At times the forecast 
is more extended, but there is no regular issue covering a longer period. The 
general means of disseminating the forecasts is by telegraph, and arrangements 
exist whereby every telegraph office in Canada should receive them without delay. 
In many parts of the Dominion, a copy of the forenoon forecast is supplied to 
central telephone offices and furnished to rural subscribers and shipping people 
when asked for. The forecasts are also broadcasted from all the government 
wireless stations for the benefit of shipping near the Atlantic coast and on the Great 
Lakes. 
In addition to the re
ular bi-daily issue of forecasts, special warnin
s of expected 
gales are telegraphed to agents at over 100 ports, where storm signals ar
 displayed, 
and special notice is telegraphed to the railways when snowstorms and drifts 
are expected. 
The daily weather map is printed each morning in the Toronto and \Vinnipeg 
offices, and several hundred copies are distributed to commercial companies, insur- 
ance companies, railways, and many other business concerns. In addi,tion a large 
-number of public schools and high schools receive the map, and as a result, a good 
knowledge of atmospheric changes is not uncommon among teachers, who, it is 
found, take plf'asure in e-xplaining the maps to their pupils. 
A very similar weather map is prepared at Victoria 1\Ieteorolovical Office, 
whence forecasts are issued for British Columbia and the sea routes adjaceut thereto. 
Meteorological Research.-Since research is essential to the life and progress 
of meteorology, a trained physicist and assistants are included in the staff of the 
central office. Meteorological research includes a scientific study of the earth's 
atmosphere and its circulation, and in view of this, increasing attention is devoted 
to exploration by balloons carrying self-recording instruments. Results are 
co-ordinated with those obtained in other countries by the same means. Further, 
as it it is probable that variation in the temperature and the position of the great 
ocean currents are factors intimately connected with prevailing winds and climatic 
control, transoceanic steamships are being equipped with thermometers for con- 
tinuously registering the water temperature. The study of solar radiation and 
atmospheric electricity is not neglected. 
A subject which receives very serious attention is that of agricultural meteoro- 
logy, which is concerned with the effect of weather changes on the growth, yield 
and quality of crops, more especially as this effect is modified by various methods 
of cultivation. Data for the determination of the epochs of wheat growth are now 
collected .by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics for the use of this Branch, and 



T,HE l\IETEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF CANADA 


47 


special experiments are conducted by the Dominion Experimental Stations. Use 
is also made of the statistics which are published in earlier years, by co-ordinating 
the times of growth with the meteorolog-ical observations of these years. This 
branch is in the development stage and will have to create its own observational 
material in the future, since the work accomplished to date has shown that the 
statistics of earlier years were not gathered with sufficient attention to detail to 
permit of the rigid analysis which the nature of the work demands. 
Some preliminary notice of the work on wheat has been published as well as 
an article on the suitability of the climate of various districts in Canada for the 
production of sugar from the sugar beet. 'V ark on oats, wheat and potatoes is 
progressing. 
Magnetic Observatories.-The Mag-netic Observatory which, as already 
stated, was established in 1840, was, on the recommendation of the present director 
of the Meteorological Service, removed to the village of Agincourt, 14 miles distant 
from Toronto, since it was found that the elect1"ical development of railways and 
light was impairing the records. The work of observation has, however, been 
carried on without intermission and with increased equipment at the new site as a 
branch of the Meteorological Service, so that from 1840 to the present time there 
has been an uninterrupted record of changes in terrestrial magnetism-one of the 
longest and most valuable records in the world. At this observatory, all the 
camp. sses attr:cherl to the theodolites of the Dominion Land Survey are annually 
adjusted, and the magnetic instruments used by the Dominion Observatory are 
here standardized. Another :Magnetic Observatory was establi"herl near Atha- 
baska Landing, Alberta, in 19lG, and a continuous record of the magnetic declina- 
tion has since been obtain('d there, data very necessary to the Dominion surveyors 
as well as to the science of terrestrial magnetism. 
Miscellaneous Activitiès.-Some attention has been given to seismology, 
mainly for the purpose of obtaining data for others to study; the service having 
suitable observers and locations for instruments. The first self-registering seis- 
mometer in opel at ion in Canada was placed in the Toronto Observatory in 1897, 
and later on another was placed in the office of the service in Victoria, B.C. Both 
these instruments have recently been replaced by others of a more sensitive tyþe. 
The Meteorological Service has from its earliest days supervi
ed the time 
service of the Dominion, making use of its observers, notably those at Toronto, 
Victoria, Montreal, Quebec and St. John, K.B., to take stellar observations and 
send out time signals. 
Tables 6 and 7 which follow, have been prepared by the Meteorological 
Service of Canada for insertion in the Year Book. }'or the interpretation of Table 
6 a note on the method used in measuring temperature and precipitation is appended. 


TE:MPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION. 


TEMPERATURE.-At the stations of the Dominion Meteorological Service the highest 
and lowest temperature in each 24 hours, termed respectively the maximum and the mini- 
mum, are recorded by self-registering thermometers. For any month the sum of tho 
daily maxima, divided by the number of days of the month, is the mean maximum tem- 
perature of that month. The mean minimum temperature is obtained in a similar manner. 
The half sum of the mean maximum and the mean minimum is called the mean temperature. 
The averages of these results for any particular month over a period of years are the average 
means for that period and are used as normal means or temperatures of reference. The 
highest and lowest temperatures recorded during the whole period of years are termed 
the extreme maximum and extreme minimum respectively. These latter figures are of 
course to be regarded as extraordinary, the more unlikely to recur the longer the period 
from which they have been derived. Temperatures below zero have the minus sign (-) 



48 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


prefixed. The mean winter temperature is based on the records of January, February, 
March, November and December, and the mean summer temperature is based on those 
of June, July and August. 
PRECIPITATION.-Under the collective term "precipitation" is included all moisture 
which has been precipitated from the atmosphere upon the earth: rain, snow. hail, sleet, 
etc. The amount of moisture is conveniently measured by determining the depth to which 
it has accumulated upon an impervious surface, and is always expressed in inches of depth. 
The total depth of snow is tabulated separately, but is added to the depth of rain after 
division by ten. An extended. series of experiments in melting and measuring snow having 
been collated, the rule was deduced that a given fall of snow will, in melting, diminish 
on the average to one-tenth of its original depth. This rule is used in practice. All solid 
forms of precipitation other than snow are included in the tables of rain. 


6.-
ormal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations. 
VICTORIA, B.C.-Lat. 48 0 25' N., long. 123 0 21' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. Mean Mean )fean High- I.ow- l\1pan Averages. Extremes. 
daily. daily daily est. est. daily 
nlax. min. range. Rain. Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - - - 
J an.. . . .. . .. . 39.2 43.5 35.0 56.0 -2.0 8.5 3.88 6.3 4.51 6.54 2.56 
Feh......... 40.3 45.0 35.6 60.0 6.0 9.4 3.08 4.5 3.53 6.20 0.!J6 
)Tar.......... 43.1 49.2 37.0 68.0 17.0 12.2 2.40 1.5 2.55 4.58 0.67 
April.... .. . . 47.7 54.9 40.6 75.0 24.0 14.3 1.73 fì 1.73 5.40 0.21 
May. ........ 53.0 60.7 45.3 83.0 31.0 15.4 1.30 - 1.30 2.8.1 0.35 
June........ . 57.1 65.1 4!J.0 88.0 36.0 16.1 0.93 - 0.93 2.37 0.08 
July......... 60.3 69.2 51.2 90.0 37.0 18.0 0.36 - 0.36 1.15 R 
Aug........ . 60.0 68.8 51.2 88.0 37.0 17.6 0.65 - 0.65 2.26 0.00 
Sppt. . .. . .. . . 55.6 63.3 47.9 8.').0 30.0 15.4 2.01 - 2.01 4.27 0.32 
Oct......... . 50.4 56.0 44.8 70.0 28.0 1I.2 2.55 - 2.55 5.60 0.46 
1';'ov........ . 44.5 48.6 40.5 63.0 17.0 8.1 6.31 1.5 6.46 11.50 0.91 
Dee.... 41.5 45.1 37.8 59.0 8.0 7.3 5.86 0.5 5.91 12.41 1.66 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 49.4 55.8 43.0 90.0 -2.0 12.8 31.06 14.3 32.49 51.03 22.58 


VANCOUVER, B.C.-Lat. 49 0 17' N..long.123 c 5'W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


1 
F 
A 
1\ 
J 
J 
A 
S 


an.......... 35.0 39.2 30.9 55.0 2.0 . 8.3 7.12 14.4 8.56 10.54 6.08 
eb......... 37.8 43.1 32.5 58.0 10.0 10.6 5.90 3.2 6.22 10.17 2.60 
Mar.......... 41.9 49.0 34.8 61.0 15.0 14.2 4.31 1.5 4.46 10.29 0.89 
priI........ 47.0 55.8 38.3 79.0 27.0 17.5 3.09 - 3.09 5.29 1.04 
tay........ . 53.5 62.3 44.7 80.0 33.0 17.6 3.56 - 3.56 5.39 1.44 
une. .. .. . . . . 58.4 67.7 49.1 88.0 36.0 18.6 2.82 - 2.82 5.42 1.43 
uly.... . . . . . 63.2 73.3 53.0 90.0 43.0 20.3 1.33 - 1.33 2.45 0.32 
ug........ . 61.5 71.0 52.0 92.0 39.0 19.0 1.71 - 1.71 5.86 0.22 
ept......... 55.7 64.0 47.4 82.0 30.0 16.6 4.29 - 4.29 9.0!) 1.61 
Oct......... . 49.2 55.7 42.6 69.0 23.0 13.1 5.69 - 5.69 9.20 1.76 
Nov........ . 42.4 47.1 37.6 63.0 15.0 9.5 10.97 3.1 11.28 18.99 4.18 
Dee......... 38.9 42.8 35.0 58.0 17.0 7.8 7.27 2.9 7.56 9.55 4.21 
- - - - - - - - -. - - 
ear........ 48.7 56.0 41.5 92.0 2.0 14.5 58.06 25.1 60.57 72.29 52.27 


y 


PORT SIMPSON, B.C.-Lat. 54 0 34' N., long. 130 0 25' W. (Observations for 20 years.) 


Jan.......... 34.0 40.0 28.1 64.0 - 9.0 11.9 8.62 9.8 9.60 16.74 1.08 
Feb......... 34.8 41.8 27.7 63.0 -10.0 14.1 6.07 11.8 7.25 16.65 1.93 
1\Tar........ . 37.6 44.8 30.3 63.0 11.0 14.5 5.06 5.3 5.59 8.16 1.41 
ApriL..... . 41.6 49.9 33.4 73.0 18.0 16.5 4.85 3.0 5.15 14.31 2.24 
May........ . 48.3 56.5 40.0 79.0 27.0 16.5 5.14 - 5.14 9.84 1.63 
June......;. . 52.8 60.5 45.1 88.0 34.0 15.4 4.26 - 4.26 7.50 1.20 
July...... .. . 56.0 63.3 48.8 88.0 29.0 14.5 4.42 - 4.42 9.41 1.28 
Aug........ . 56.7 63.8 49.5 80.0 31.0 14.3 6.93 - 6.93 14.11 1.74 
Sept........ . 52.2 5!J.l 45.2 74.0 30.0 13.9 9.03 - 9.03 14.63 2.20 
Oct.......... 47.1 53.5 40.7 65.0 28.0 12.8 12.21 - 12.21 16.99 6.71 
Nov ......... 39.7 45.6 33.7 65.0 6.0 11.9 11.47 1.6 11.63 23.90 3.26 
Dee......... 36.9 42.6 31.2 62.0 5.0 11.4 10.11 8.7 10.98 18.82 5.23 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 44.8 51.8 37.8 88.0 -10.0 14.0 88.17 40.2 92.19 126.48 62.05 



TEJIPERA.TURE AND PRECIPITATION 


49 


6.-l\ormal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected ('anadian Stations- 
continupd. 
K\MLOOPS, B.C.-Lat. 50 0 41' N.,lon!!;. 120 0 18' W. (Observations for 22 years.) 


Temperature of. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. Mpan Mean }\fpan High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
daily. daily daily est. est. daily 
max. min. range. Rain. Snow Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - - - - 
Jan......... . 2
.4 28.3 16.5 54.0 -31.0 11.8 0.13 7.7 0.90 0.60 0.35 
Feb......... 26.5 33.4 }9.6 64.0 -27.0 13.8 0.20 6.0 0.80 }.17 0.02 
!If ar..... . . ... 37.6 47.3 27.8 70.0 - 6.0 19.5 0.20 1.2 0.32 0.83 0.01 
April....... . 49.7 61.1 38.3 92.0 19.0 22.8 0.36 S 0.36 1.36 R 
)!ay......... 57.5 70.3 44.8 100.0 26.0 2.'j.5 0.93 - 0.93 2.50 R 
June........ . 64.6 76.4 52.7 101.0 35.0 23.7 1.23 - }.2::\ 3.07 0.57 
July......... 69.6 82.7 56.5 102.0 42.0 26.2 1.27 - 1.27 3.50 0.35 
Aug......... 68.1 80.9 55.4 101.0 35.0 25.5 1.0.; - 1.05 3.73 0.00 
Sept....... .. 58.4 69.3 47.4 93.0 28.0 21.9 0.!J4 - 0.94 2.34 O.}o 
Oct......... . 47.8 56.2 39.3 82.0 16.0 16.9 0.57 0.2 .0.59 1.41 R 
Nov......... 35.8 41.5 30.2 72.0 -22.0 11.3 0.40 6.5 }.05 1.23 0.07 
Dee.. .. . . . .. 28.8 32.6 24.9 59.0 -17.0 7.7 0.20 13.5 1.55 0.64 0.12 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 47.2 56.7 37.8 102.0 -31.0 18.9 7.48 35.1 10.99 13.47 7.07 


DAWSON, yuKo.....-Lat. 64 0 5' N.,long. 131 0 20' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan......... . -24.6 -18.0 -31.3 30.0 -68.0 13.3 0.00 8.6 0.86 1.73 
Feb......... -12.0 - 4.3 -19.6 45.0 -55.0 15.3 R 7.3 0.73 1.35 0.2 
'far....... .. 5.6 16.5 - 5.3 52.0 -47.0 21.8 0.01 4.7 0.48 1.21 0.00 
April.... .. . . 27.6 40.2 15.1 67.0 -30.0 25.1 0.18 4.7 0.65 1.68 0.23 
May........ . 46.8 59.0 34.6 85.0 12.0 24.4 0.83 0.4 0.87 2.00 0.25 
June......... 56.9 70.3 43.6 90.0 27.0 26.7 1.18 0.3 1.21 2.66 0.25 
July. .. . . .. . . 59.4 71.9 46.8 93.0 31.0 25.1 1.61 - 1.61 3.32 0.62 
Aug........ . 54.0 66.2 41.7 85.0 23.0 24.5 1.51 - 1.51 2.38 0.07 
Sept....... .. 41.6 .51.1 32.2 78.0 8.0 18.9 1.40 1.8 1.58 3.52 0.86 
Oct. . . .. . . .. . 26.4 32.7 20.1 68.0 -22.0 12.6 0.29 8.8 1.17 4.09 0.10 
Nov. _ ....... 0.4 6.4 - 5.6 46.0 -48.0 12.0 0.01 12.4 1.2.5 2.60 0.24 
Dee......... -10.2 -4.3 -16.1 38.0 -63.0 11.8 R 10.9 1.09 2.09 0.08 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 22.6 33.0 13.0 95.0 -68.0 20.0 7.02 59.9 13.01 17.75 6.2S 


R 
o 


EDMo:-oroN, ALTA.-Lat. 53 0 35' N., long. 113 0 30' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan.......... 5.9 1.5.6 - 3.8 57.0 -57.0 19.4 0.06 7.0 0.76 2.49 0.05 
Feb......... 10.6 21.1 0.1 62.0 -57.0 21.0 0.00 6.7 0.67 2.33 S 
!If ar . .. . . . . . . 23.4 34.9 11.9 72.0 -40.0 23.0 0.05 6.2 0.67 1.93 R 
April.... ... . 40.8 52.9 28.6 84.0 -15.0 24.3 0.44 3.6 0.80 2.60 0.04 
)fay......... 51.2 64.4 38.1 90.0 10.0 26.3 1.73 1.3 1.86 4.04 0.20 
June...... 57.3 70.1 44.4 94.0 25.0 25.7 3.26 S 3.26 8.53 0.00 
July.......: : 61.2 73.7 48.8 94.0 33.0 24.9 3.56 - 3.56 11.13 0.15 
Au!!;..... .... 59.0 71.6 46.4 90.0 26.0 25.2 2.47 - 2;47 6.43 0.49 
Sept........ . 50.4 62.9 37.8 87.0 12.0 25.1 1.33 0.7 1.40 4.32 0.00 
Oct. . .. . . .. . . 41.7 53.2 30.3 82.0 -10.0 22.9 0.39 3.5 0.74 1.86 0.00 

ov........ . 24.5 33.3 15.6 74.0 -37.0 17.7 0.06 6.7 0.73 3.57 0.00 
Dee......... 16.0 24.7 7.3 60.0 -43.0 '17.4 0.07 6.8 0.75 3.21 0.00 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 36.9 48.2 25.6 94.0 -57.0 22.6 13.42 42.5 17.67 27.81 8.16 


)!EDlCI
\'-E HAT, ALTA.-Lat. 50 0 2' N .,long. 110 0 41' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan.......... 11.2 21.6 0.7 62.0 -51.0 20.9 0.00 6.1 0.61 1.72 0.00 
Feb......... 12.8 23.5 2.1 64.0 -46.0 21.4 0.01 6.0 0.61 1.51 0.00 
1\far....... .. 26.7 38.4 14.9 84.0 -38.0 23.5 0.11 5.0 0.61 1.62 S 
April. . . . . . . . 45.1 58.8 31.4 96.0 -16.0 27.-t 0.37 2.4 0.61 2.26 0.03 
)1 ay.. . .. . .. . 54.7 68.0 41.5 99.0 12.0 26.5 1.70 0.5 1.75 6.29 0.12 
June........ . 62.5 75.6 49.3 107.0 30.0 26.3 2.57 S 2.57 5.62 0.00 
July. .. .. . . .. 68.4 82.7 54.1 108.0 36.0 28.6 1.73 - 1.73 4.86 0.09 
Aug......... 66.0 80.7 51.4 104.0 31.0 29.3 1.51 - 1.51 5.65 0.00 
Sept. .. . .. . . . 56.5 70.2 42.7 94.0 17.0 27.5 0.S8 0.4 0.92 2.41 0.00 
Oct......... . 45.8 58.7. 32.9 93.0 -10.0 25.8 0.51 1.1 0.62 3.48 0.00 
Nov........ . 29.3 39.9 18.7 76.0 -36.0 21.2 0.08 6.4 0.72 3.11 R 
Dee......... . 21.1 31.0 11.2 68.0 -37.0 19.8 0.06 4.7 0.53 1.42 0.00 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 41.7 54.1 29.2 108.0 -51.0 22.2 11.53 32.6 12.79 22.28 6.72 


62373-4 



50 


PHYSICAL CHA.RACTERISTICS OF CA.VADA 


S.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continuf'd. 
FORT VER'-\:ILION, ALTA.-Lat. 53 0 21' N., long. 110 0 52' W. (Observations for 18 years.) 


Months. 


Mean 
daily 
max. 


l\ d l
a l n HiO'h- Low- 
my 
 
min. est. est. 


Mean 
daily 
range. 


Averages. 
Rain. Snow. Total. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Extremes. 


Temperature of. 


Mean 
daily. 


Jan.......... - 14.8 
Feb......... - 3.9 
:l\Iar......... 11.8 
ApriL. . .. . . . 32.0 
)fay. ........ 49.3 
June......... 57.9 
July......... 61.0 
Aug... .. . . . . 57.1 
Sept... ..... 47.3 
Oct.......... 33.1 
-:-;ov......... 14.0 
Dec. . . .. . . .. - 1.7 


- 2.5 
9.7 
26.0 
44.5 
63.3 
72.2 
75.2 
70.4 
58.2 
43.1 
22.4 
10.2 


- 27.1 
- 17.5 
- 2.4 
19.5 
35.3 
43.7 
46.9 
43.8 
36.4 
23.1 
5.6 
- 13.6 


50.0 
53.0 
63.0 
78.0 
!)3.0 
98.0 
94.0 
101.0 
84.0 
70.0 
48.0 
65.0 


0.00 
0.00 
0.01 
0.23 
0.78 
1.65 
1.60 
1.57 
1.40 
0.26 
0.02 
0.00 


4.7 
3.7 
7.0 
6.1 
0.6 
0.1 


-77.() 
-58.0 
-41.0 
-29.0 
13.0 
26.0 
28.0 
28.0 
9.0 
-14.0 
-26.0 
-50.0 


24.6 
27.2 
28.4 
25.0 
28.0 
28.5 
28.3 
26.6 
21.8 
20.0 
16.8 
23.8 


0.1 
2.1 
7.2 
5.0 


Year-o .... 28.6 


16.1 101.0 -77.0 25.0 7.52 36.6 11.18 


FQRT CHIPE'\ Y'-\:-l, ALTA.-Lat. 58 0 46' N., long. 111 0 13' W. (Observations for 16 years.) 


14.78 


7.60 


41.1 


Greatest. Least. 


0.47 
0.37 
0.71 
0.84 
0.84 
1.66 
1.60 
1.57 
1.41 
0.47 
0.74 
0.50 


1.80 
0.65 
1.70 
1.85 
2.06 
3.44 
3.49 
3.32 
2.33 
0.81 
1.40 
1.60 


0.15 
0.20 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.25 
0.51 
0.53 
0.64 
0.00 
0.20 
0.20 


Jan.......... - 11.9 - 3.5 - 20.4 45.0 -55.0 16.9 0.00 9.0 0.90 1.68 0.02 
Feb......... - 9.1 0.5 - 18.7 46.0 -56.0 19.2 R 5.8 0.58 2.03 0.03 
:àl ar . .. . . . . . . 5.0 15.1 - 5.0 47.0 -41.( 20.1 R 5.8 0.58 1.58 0.09 
ApriL. . . . .. . 28.5 39.4 17.6 69.0 -22.0 21.8 0.20 4.4 0.64 3.04 0.0& 

lay........ . 44.5 53.8 35.1 83.0 - 3.e 18.7 0.65 1.6 0.81 2.08 0.02 
June......... 54.0 64.6 43.3 90.0 24.0 21.3 1.56 0.1 1.57 3.31 0.10 
July. . .. .. .. . 61.5 71.0 51.9 93.0 26.0 19.1 2.64 - 2.64 9.52 0.21 
<\u
........ . 58.1 68.1 48.2 89.0 25.( 19.9 1.64 - 1.64 3.67 0.39 

('pt........ . 45.2 53.0 37.3 79.0 13.( 15.7 1.52 0.5 1.57 2.93 0.27 
Oct. . no .. . .. 33.7 40.1 27.3 66.0 - 9.0 12.8 0.32 4.3 0.75 5.30 0.02 
Nov. ........ 11.0 17.9 4.2 56.0 -33.0 13.7 0.05 8.6 0.91 2.28 0.26 
Dec....... .. 2.2 10.3 - 5.9 49.0 -48.0 16.2 0.01 9.1 0.92 3.20 0.09 
- - - - - - - - - - 
 
year...... .. 26.9 35.8 17.9 90.0 -56.0 17.9 8.59 49.2 13.51 16.99 6.70 


QU'ApPELLE, SAsK.-Lat. 50 0 32' X. long. 103 0 57' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


. 
J an. .... . . . . . - 0.6 8.5 - 9.7 50.0 -47.0 18.2 0.00 6.9 0.69 2.28 0.05 
Feb........ . 2.0 11.2 - 7.2 50.0 -55.0 18.4 0.00 8.1 0.81 2.85 0.12 
:àJ ar. 16.0 2.').7 6.2 76.0 -45.0 19.5 0.06 9.6 1.02 4.11 0.05 
April, 
 
 : : : : : 37.3 4(1.1 25.5 89.0 -24.0 23.6 0.43 6.7 1.10 3.59 0.29 
)) ay . .. . .. .. . 4!).8 62.4 37.3 92.0 8.0 25.1 2.40 3.1 2.71 6.95 0.25 
June. .. .. . . . . 59.6 70.8 48.4 101.0 25.0 22.4 3.6!) S 3.69 7.19 0.32 
July......... 63.8 75.9 51.7 100.0 34.0 24.2 2.84 - 2.84 7.25 0.58 
Aug........ . 61.1 73.3 48.9 100.0 27.0 24.4 2.04 - 2.04 5.03 0.30 
S('pt..... .... 52.0 64.0 39.9 93.0 12.C 24.1 1.28 1.0 1.38 4.61 0.08 
Oct.... .... . 40.8 51.5 30.2 86.0 -12.C 21.3 0.53 4.5 0.\)8 3.35 S 
Kov.. 21.8 30.4 13.3 73.0 -30.0 17.1 0.14 8.4 0.98 2.51 0.12 
Dec....... _ . 10.7 18.5 2.8 4"9.0 -40.0 15.7 0.01 7.1 0.72 3.11 0.03 
- - - - -- - - - - - - 
year........ 34.5 45.1 23.9 101.0 -55.0 21.2 13.42 55.4 18.96 26.47 10.14 


PmSCE ALBERT, S\!'\K.-I..at. 53 0 12':::-J., long. 105 0 48' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan.......... - 5.9 5.3 -17.1 53.0 -67.0 22.4 0.00 8.2 0.82 2.00 0.22 
Feb......... - 1.3 11.3 -13.9 52.0 -70.0 25.2 0.01 6.8 0.6!) 2.15 0.04 
Mar........ . 12.1 26.2 - 2.1 68.0 -44.0 28.3 0.10 7.7 0.87 2.56 0.17 
ApriL. . .. . .. 36.1 48.7 23.6 86.0 -23.0 25.1 0.38 4.4 0.82 3.37 0.03 
May........ . 48.9 62.6 35.2 90.0 2.0 27.4 1.34 1.6 1.50 4.87 0.01 
June........ . 58.1 71.a 45.1 96.0 17.0 2.).9 2.67 - 2.67 7.36 1.00 
July.. .. . . . . . 62.0 74.2 49.8 93.0 33.0 24.4 2.31 - 2.31 5.31 0.17 
Aug........ . 58.8 71.7 46.0 94.0 22.0 25.7 2.31 - 2.31 8.01 R. 
Sept....... .. 49.4 61.7 37.1 87.0 14.0 24.6 1.32 0.7 1.39 2.94 0.09 
Oct.......... 38.3 49.2 27.4 85.0 - 5.0 21.8 0.57 2.3 0.80 1.97 0.10 
Nov.... ..... 18.5 27.4 9.5 66.0 -41.0 17.9 0.12 8.7 0.99 3.06 0.07 
Dec....... .. 5.3 15.1 - 4.5 58.0 -57.0 19.6 0.01 8.0 0.81 2.61 0.19 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year.......:. 31.7 43.7 19.7 96.0 -70.0 24.0 11.13 48.4 15.97 29.88 9.25 



TEJfPERATURE AND PRECIPITA.TION 


51 


6.-Xormal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Statlons- 
continued. 
WINNIPEG, }IAN.-Lat. 49" 55' N., long. 97 0 6' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Temperature OF. Precipitation in inches. 
Months. !\Ican Mean Mean High- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
daily. daily daily est. est. daily 
max. min. range. Rain. Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - - - - 
Jan.......... - 3.5 6.8 -13.8 42.0 -46.0 20.6 0.01 8.1 0.82 2.12 0.12 
Feb......... - 0.5 10.7 -11.8 46.0 -46.0 22.5 0.01 7.4 0.75 1.80 0.09 
Mar......... 15.2 26.7 3.6 73.0 -37.0 23.1 0.21 9.6 1.17 3.00 0.29 
April.... . .. . 38.7 50.1 27.4 90.0 -13.0 22.7 1.10 4.4 1.5! 5.64 0.25 
1\1 ay . . . . . . . . . 51.5 64.5 38.5 94.0 11.0 26.0 2.06 0.9 2.15 6.38 0.11 
June........ . 62.6 74.9 50.2 101.0 21.0 24.7 3.03 - 3.03 6.30 0.45 
July........ . 66.2 78.1 54.3 96.0 35.C 23.8 3.25 - 3.25 7.14 0.87 
Aug......... 62.7 75.0 50.4 103.0 30.0 24.6 2.18 - 2.18 4.75 0.77 
Sept... ..... . 54.1 65.9 42.2 99.0 17.0 23.7 2.07 0.1 2.08 5.49 0.60 
Oct......... . 41.6 52.0 31.3 85.0 - 3.0 20.7 1.22 1.4 1.36 5.67 0.29 
Nov.. ....... 22.0 30.8 13.3 71.0 -33.0 17.5 0.17 8.2 0.99 2.34 0.06 
Dec......... 7.2 16.7 - 2.4 49.0 -44.0 19.1 0.06 8.6 0.92 3.99 0.11 
------ - 48.7 20.24 
õl
 
year........ 34.8 46.0 23.6 103.0 -46.0 22.4 15.37 


PORT ARTHUR, ONT.-Lat. 48 0 27' N., long. 89 c 13' W. (Observations Cor 30 year:'!.) 


Jan......... . 6.2 17.1 - 4.6 48.0 -40.0 21.7 0.02 7.4 0.76 1.46 0.2 
Feb. .. . . . . . . 8.2 19.7 - 3.3 52.0 -51.0 23.0 0.05 6.5 0.70 2.77 O. 
1\1 ar . . .. . . . . . 19.6 30.8 8.4 70.0 -42.0 22.4 0.11 8.1 0.92 2.76 0.1 
April.. .. . . . . 35.6 44.7 26.4 78.0 - 3.0 18.3 1.19 3.6 1.55 3.09 0.0 
}fay........ . 46.0 55.6 36.5 89.0 16.0 19.1 1.98 0.5 2.03 4.10 0.3 
June......... 57.1 67.2 47.0 91.0 20.0 20.2 2.69 - 2.69 6.94 0.5 
July..... . . . . 62.6 73.5 51.7 96.0 33.0 21.8 3.76 - 3.76 9.21 1.39 
Aug......... 59.0 70.6 47.5 94.0 31.0 23.1 2.77 - 2.77 5.06 1.02 
Sept........ . 52.8 62.3 4:3.3 88.0 19.0 19.0 3.26 - 3.26 7.54 1.3 
Oct.......... 41.5 50.6 32.9 80.0 1.0 17.7 2.39 0.9 2.48 5.27 0.37 
Nov......... 26.7 34.6 18.7 69.0 -22.0 15.9 0.84 6.2 1.46 4.29 0.35 
Dec......... 13.4 22.7 4.1 51.0 -38.0 18.6 0.18 6.6 0.84 2.68 0.02 
- - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 35.7 45.8 25.7 96.0 -51.0 20.1 19.24 39.8 23.22 29.43 18.8 


1 
04 
8 
7 
6 
o 


o 


o 


TOROXTO, O:S-T.-Lat. 43 0 39' N., long. 79 0 20' W. (Observations for 70 years,) 


Jan.......... 22.1 29.1 15.2 58.0 -26.0 13.9 1.14 17.3 2.87 5.72 0.61 
Feb......... 21.7 29.2 H.l 54.0 -25.0 1.').1 0.93 16.5 2.58 5.21 0.29 
}far... __.... 29.0 36.3 21.9 7.').0 -16.0 14.4 1.50 11.5 2.65 6.70 0.66 
ApriL...... 41.
 4 6 
 2 : 0 6 33.3 90.0 6.0 16.;3 2.15 2.5 2.40 4.90 0.09 
May......... 52.7 43.'393.0 25.0 18.72.97 0.1 2.t18 9.36 0.52 
June......... 62.6 72.4. 52.9 97.0 28.0 19.5 2.71j 2.íti 8.09 0.57 
July......... 68.1 77.9 58.2103.0 39.0 11.7 3.04 3.04 5.63 0.36 
Aug......... 66.6 76.1 57.1 101.0 40.0 19.0 2.77 2.77 7.09 R. 
Sept......... 59.2 68.2 50.2 97.0 28.0 18.0 3.18 3.18 9.76 0.40 
Oct.......... 47.0 54.9 39.1 86.0 16.0 15.8 2.40 0.6 2.46 5.96 0.56 
Kov. ...... 36.3 42.5 30.1 70.0 1 - 5.0 12.4 2.49 4.6 2.95 5.84 0.11 
Dec......... 26.3 32.5 20.0 61.0 -21.0 12.5 1.53 13.0 2.83 6.00 0.47 
----------- 
year........ 44.4 52.6 36.3 103.0 -26.0 16.3 26.86 66.0 33.46 50.18 24.84 


PARRY SOUND, ONT.-Lat. 45 0 20' N.,long. 80 0 l' W. (Observations for 40 ye
rs.) . 


year........ 41:o----sl.O
 98.0 -39.0 2Q.O 27.95 121.5 ---;O'W----s0.30
 


14.3 
13.7 
23.5 
39.0 
51.5 
61.8 
66.5 
64.2 
55.7 
45.8 
33.5 
20..,') 


24.5 
24.9 
34.3 
49.4 
62.4 
72.7 
76.9 
74.5 
67.6 
54.5 
40.8 
29.7 


4.0 
2.6 
12.8 
28.5 
40.6 
50.9 
56.1 
54.0 
47.9 
37.1 
26.2 
11.4 


54.0 -38.0 
58.0 -38.0 
71.0 -27.0 
82.0 - 3.0 
90.0 16.0 
94.0 31.0 
98.0 37.0 
9'3.0 35.0 
90.0 24.0 
84.0 9.0 
69.0 -20.0 
56.0 -39.0 


20.5 
22.3 
21.5 
20.9 
21.8 
21.8 
20.8 
20.5 
19.7 
17.4 
14.6 
18.3 


0.87 
0.76 
1.33 
1.76 
2.96 
2.47 
2.80 
2.83 
4.49 
3.83 
2.63 
1.22 


31.5 
23.4 
H.8 
3.1 
0.6 


4.02 
3.10 
2.81 
2.07 
3.02 
2.47 
2.80 
2.83 
4.49 
3.92 
4.12 
4.45 


7.75 
6.31 
5.49 
4.03 
6.06 
5.47 
0.92 
5.46 
8.43 
6.33 
7.33 
8.16 


1.76 
0.46 
0.75 
0.75 
0.58 
0.70 
1.10 
0.63 
1.52 
0.57 
2.09 
2.18 


Jan......... . 
Feb......... 
Mar........ . 
April.... . . . . 
May........ . 
June........ . 
July.......... 
Aug... .... 
Sept. .. . . . .. . 
Oct......... . 
Nov........ . 
Dec......... 


S. 
0.9 
14.9 
32.3 


ti2373-4! 



52 


PHYSICAL CHA.RACTERISTICS OF C
4NADA. 


S.-Normal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 
CO'M'AM, ONT.-Lat. 42 0 09' N., long. 82 0 44' W. (Observations for 20 years.) 


Temperature cF. 


Precipitation in inches. 


Montbs. 'lean Mean Me
n Higb- Low Mean Averages. Extremes 
d '1 daily d
lIy est. est.' daily 
al y. max. mID. range. Rain. Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
----------r---- 


Jan.......... 
Feb... ..... 
?lIar ........ 
April. . . . . . . . 
;\-Iay........ . 
June......... 
July.. __ .. 
Aug _ .. ... 
Sept........ . 
Oct.......... 
Nov........ . 
Dec......... 


year........ 46.2 


22.0 
21.1 
32.8 
43.7 
55.6 
64.6 
70.6 
68.9 
61.6 
49.4 
37.8 
26.4 


31.6 
30.9 
42.8 
54.& 
67.6 
76.6 
83.0 
81.6 
74.4 
61.7 
47.9 
35.0 


62.0 
57.0 
80.0 
87.0 
95.0 
95.0 
100.0 
100.0 
97.0 
85.0 
74.0 
70.0 


0.1 
2.7 
8.2 


2.77 
2.62 
2.58 
2.55 
3.60 
4.18 
3.3
 
2.49 
2.18 
2.49 
2.67 
2.64 


6.01 
6.16 
6.30 
4.54 
6.76 
7.21 
7.08 
5.66 
5.50 
5.36 
5.04 
4.42 


1.45 
1.11 
1.07 
0.47 
1.48- 
0.41 
0.6& 
0.00 
1.09 
1.07 
1.05 
0.90 


12.3 
11.3 
22.8 
32.7 
43.6 
52.6 
58.2 
56.2 
48.9 
37.1 
27.8 
17.9 


-20.0 
-25.0 
- 8.0 
10.0 
19.0 
30.0 
36.0 
35.0 
26.0 
10.0 
8.0 
-11.0 


19.3 
19.6 
20.0 
21.9 
24.0 
24.0 
24.8 
25.4 
25.5 
24.6 
20.1 
17.1 


11.8 
10.1 
6.8 
2.1 
0.2 


1.59 
1.61 
1.90 
2.34 
3..58 
4.18 
3.38 
2.4!J 
2.18 
2.48 
2.40 
1.82 


57.3 


35.1 100.0 -25.0 22.2 29.95 42.0 34.15 


38.97 


26.67 


HAILEYBURY, O:olT.-Lat. 47 0 26' N., long. 79 c 38' W. (Observations for 20 years.) 


Jan.......... 6.4 17.4 - 4.6 48.0 -40.( 22.0 0.27 17.5 2.02 3.43 1.2 
Feb......... 7.8 14.0 - 3.4 48.0 -48.0 17.4 0.20 18.0 2.00 3.94 O. . 
Mar.. 19.4 21.6 8.2 66.0 -34.0 13.4 0.52 16.0 2.12 4.43 0.5 
April.. . : : : : : 37.1 48.0 26.2 81.0 - 3.0 21.8 1.25 5.8 1.83 4.38 0.8 
1\1 ay . .. . . . . . . 50.8 62.2 39.4 93.0 14.0 22.8 2.83 1.5 2.!J8 4.73 0.7 
June...... . . . 61.7 73.4 50.0 100.0 28.0 23.4 2.91 - 2.91 5.55 0.7 
July........ . 66.0 76.8 55.4 102.0 36.0 21.4 2.72 - 2.72 8.21 1.5 
Aug......... 62.2 72.7 51.8 04.0 30.0 29.9 2.88 - 2.88 4.45 1.14 
Sept........ . 55.3 64.9 45.7 91.0 24.0 19.2 2.31 - 2.31 7.44 0.96 
Oct. . .. . . . . . . 43.0 51.5 34.4 80.0 13.0 17.1 2.58 2.8 2.86 5.20 0.9 
Nov. .____.. 23.2 35.2 21.1 67.0 -15.0 14.1 0.99 13.7 2.36 4.35 0.4 
Dec. ....... 13.6 22.0 5.2 51.0 -34.0 16.8 0.75 19.9 2.74 3.95 O. 
- - - - - - - - - -- 
year........ 37.1 46.7 27.5 102.0 -48.0 19.2 20.21 95.2 29.73 39.77 27.1 


o 
.}4 
9 
8 
5 
2 
5 


7 
3 
88 
3 


MONTREAL, QUE.-Lat. 45 0 31' N.,long. 73 c 34' W. (Observations for 50 years.) 


Jan.......... 12.7 20.8 4.6 53.0 -26.0 16.2 0.85 31.4 3.!J9 6.18 2.08 
Feb........ . 14.3 21.8 6.8 47.0 -24.0 15.0 0.72 26.1 3.33 6.35 0.49 
)far........ . 24.6 31.7 17.4 61.0 -15.0 14.3 1.45 1!J.5 3.40 7.32 1.01 
ApriL..... . 41.3 4!J.3 33.4 77-0 8.0 15.9 (6!J 5.3 2.22 4.19 0.48 
.'Jay........ . 52.9 61.6 44.3 8!J.0 23.0 17.3 3.01 0.1 3.02 6.22 0.11 
June........ . 63.9 73.6 54.3 92.0 38.0 19.3 3.21 - 3.21 8.00 0.90 
July. . .. . . . . . 69.1 77.4 60.8 95.0 47.0 16.6 3.!J5 - 3.95 7.72 0.96 
Au/1:........ . 66.1 74.0 58.2 90.0 43.0 15.8 3.35 - 3.35 7.89 1.23 

cpt. . . .. . . . . 58.5 66.2 50.8 90.0 33.0 15.4 3.46 - 3.46 6.65 0.88 
Oct..... ..... 46.0 52.9 39.1 80.0 21.0 13.8 3.13 1.4 3.27 7.47 0.65 
I"ov........ . 33.3 39.2 27.4 68.0 0.0 11.8 2.26 11.7 3.43 6.40 1.44 
Dee. . .. . . . . . 19.6 26.5 12.7 59.0 -21.0 13.8 1.17 25.2 3.69 5.94 1.12 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 41.8 49.6 34.1 95.0 -26.0 15.5 28.25 120.7 40.32 48.01 30.97 


Jan.......... 
Feb......... 
Mar......... 
April..... .. . 
)Iay........ . 
June........ . 
July. .. . . . . . . 
Aug......... 
:-;ppt........ . 
Oct. . . . . . .. . . 
:!\ov........ . 
Dec.......... 
year........ 


QUEBEC, QUE.-Lat. 46 0 48' N.,long. 71 0 12' W. (Observations for 20 years.) 
9.7 17.7 1.8 1 47.0 -34.0 15.9 0.64 30.7 3.71 6.58 1.10 
12.0 20.2 3.7 49.0 -32.0 16.5 0.74 27.3 3.47 6.22 0.98 
22.8 30.7 15.0 64.0 -23.0 15.'5 1.2!J 19.9 3.28 6.16 1.05 
37.0 45.3 28.7 80.0 3.0 16.6 1.42 6.4 2.06 6.57 0.70 
52.0 62.0 42.0 88.0 21.0 20.0 3.01 0.4 3.05 6.93 0.27 
61.2 70.8 51.5 90.0 34.0 19.3 3.83 - 3.83 9.23 1.32 
66.1 75.7 56.6 96.0 39.0 19.1 4.30 - 4.30 7.12 0.53 
62.8 71.5 54.1 90.0 38.0 17.4 4.00 - 4.00 9.58 1.35 
55.3 63.6 46.9 88.0 29.0 16.7 3.77 - 3.77 8.75 1.08 
42.0 47.8 36.3 77-0 14.0 11.5 2.94 1.5 3.09 6.99 0.93 
32.2 35.7 28.7 66.0 -10.0 7.0 1.75 14.2 3.17 7.09 0.90 
15.0 22.2 7.8 55.0 -27.0 14.4 0.85 25.2 3.37 6.78 1.13 

 
 31.l1 96.0 -34.0 115.'9 28.54 125.6 
 -----s2.39 
 



TEJfPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION 


53 


6.-N"ormal Temperature and Precipitation at Selected Canadian Stations- 
concluded. 
SOUTH WEST POIYT, AYTICOSTI, QUE.-Lat. 49 0 23' N.,long. 63 c 38' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Temperature cF. Precipitation in inches. 
Montbs. Mean Mean Mean Higb- Low- Mean Averages. Extremes. 
daily. daily daily est. est. daily 
max. min. range. Rain. Snow. Total. Greatest. Least. 
- - - - - - - - - - 
Jan.......... 11.9 19.8 4.0 47.0 -40.0 15.8 0.58 18.3 2.41 6.70 0.54 
Feb......... 12.5 19.7 5.3 46.0 -35.0 14.4 0.25 14.7 1.72 4.70 0.27 
l\f ar.... . .. . . 21.0 27.1 15.0 47.0 -20.0 12.1 0.50 12.0 1.70 4.95 0.29 
April... . . . . . 30.5 35.4 25.6 71.0 - 3.0 9.8 1.12 5.6 1.68 7.92 R.05 
:!\fay.... ... . . 39.8 4S.0 34.5 78.0 19.0 10.5 2.40 0.4 2.44 4.68 0.05 
June........ . 48.4 53.4 43.5 85.0 26.0 9.9 2.93 0.1 2.94 5.58 0.40 
July.. . . . . . . . 56.6 62.3 51.0 79.0 34.0 11.3 3.14 - 3.14 8.70 0.43 
Aug......... . 56.2 61.5 51.0 80.0 28.0 10.5 3.43 - 3.43 4.92 0.7& 
Sepf........ . 48.7 54.4 43.0 73.0 20.0 11.4 2.92 - 2.92 4.81 0.70 
Oct.......... 39.8 45.1 34.5 68.0 8.0 10.6 3.40 0.5 3.45 9.85 " 0.54 
Nov ........., 30.2 35.4 25.1 57.0 - 1.0 10.3 2.05 6.4 2.69 4.54 0.49 
Dec.........I
 27.2 13.8 52.0 -39.0 13.4 0.65 14.7 2.12 5.10 0.32 
Year. .. . . .. . 34.7 40.5 28.9 85.0 -40.0 11.6 23.37 72.7 30.&4 45.43 15.83 


FREDERICTON, N.B.-Lat. 45 0 56' N., long. 66 c 40' W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan......... . 13.3 24.3 2.2 55.0 -34.0 22.1 1.&4 23.9 4.03 8.34 1.36 
Feb......... 15.4 26.6 4.1 51.0 -35.0 22.5 0.!)6 47.0 5.66 4.78 0.48 
)far......... 26.5 36.9 16.0 65.0 -20.0 20.9 2.16 25.6 4.72 7.58 1.32 
April.... . . . . 38.9 49.5 28.3 82.0 - 2.0 21.2 1.97 10.0 2.97 4.43 0.30 
:!\fay........ . 51.2 62.8 39.6 92.0 24.0 23.2 3.21 0.1 3.22 9.08 0.88 
June......... 59.6 71.7 47.5 92.0 26.0 24.2 3.71 - 3.71 8.01 1.47 
July........ . 65.9 77.0 54.8 96.0 40.0 22.2 3.03 - 3.03 6.28 1.26 
Aug......... 63.2 73.7 52.7 95.0 35.0 21.0 3.97 - 3.97 6.99 0.76 
Sept........ . 55.3 66.1 44.5 92.0 25.0 21.6 3.54 - 3.54 7.73 0.91 
Oct.......... 43.4 54.2 32.6 81.0 15.0 21.6 4.02 0.5 4.07 9.9!) 0.85 
Nov........ . 33.0 40.9 25.0 68.0 - 3.0 15.9 3.17 9.0 4.07 6.47 0.96 
Dec......... 19.4 28.2 10.5 58.0 -26.0 17.7 1.56 18.9 3.45 6.42 1.18 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Year.. . . . . . . 40.4 51.0 29.8 96.0 -3.5.0. 21.2 32.94 135.0 46.44 54.62 35.02 


YARMOUTH, N.S.-Lat. 45 0 53' N.,long. 65 0 45' W. (Observations for 35 years.) 
Jan......... . 30.0 34.3 19.6 54.0 - 6.0 14.7 2.75 20.3 4.78 0.92 1.97 
Feb......... 25.7 32.7 18.8 52.0 -12.0 13.9 2.13 21.8 4.31 7.77 2.28 
)far........ . 31.8 37.8 25.7 55.0 - 2.0 12.1 3.32 13.3 4.65 10.75 1.45 
April.. . .. .. . 39.7 4&.4 33.1 72.0 17.0 13.3 3.17 5.5 3.72 7.12 0.82 
May........ . 48.1 55.6 40.6 73.0 25.0 15.0 3.77 S. 3.77 7.66 0.93 
June......... 55.3 63.0 47.6 79.0 31.0 15.4 2.83 2.83 6.68 0.69 
July. .. .. . . . . &0.8 68.2 53.2 86.0 41.0 15.0 3.38 3.38 8.42 0.52 
Aug......... 60.7 67.9 53.6 83.0 39.0 14.3 3.51 3.51 9.59 1.08 
Sept....... .. 56.0 63.2 48.8 79.0 31.0 14.4 3.50 3.50 5.70 0.88 
Oct......... . 48.6 55.4 41.7 74.0 25.0 13.7 4.15 0.3 4.18 11.38 0.78. 
Kov......... 41.8 46.6 37.1 66.0 11.0 9.5 3.77 4.0 4.17 8.56 1.51 
Dee. . .. . . . . . 31.1 37.6 24.5 58.0 - 3.0 13.3 3.31 14.7 4.78 9.20 1.88 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year....... . 44.1 50.7 37.0 86.0 -12.0 13.7 39.59 79.9 47.58 70.90 35.06 
CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I.-Lat. 46 0 14' N.,long., 63 c 8'W. (Observations for 30 years.) 


Jan.......... 19.0 27.0 11.0 52.0 -19.0 16.0 1.46 19.6 3.42 7.62 1.10 
Feb........ . 18.0 26.0 9.0 49.0 -21.0 17.0 0.86 17.5 2.61 6.37 0.88 
1\1 ar . . ... . . . . . 27.0 34.0 20.0 54.0 -15.0 14.0 1.67 13.9 3.06 5.54 1.48 
April... . . .. . 37.0 44.0 30.0 74.0 8.0 14.0 2.11 8.8 2.99 6.10 0.82 
May........ . 48.0 56.0 40.0 .81.0 26.0 16.0 2.51 1.0 2.61 5.85 0.40 
June........ . 57.0 66.0 49.0 87.0 32.0 17.0 2.54 - 2.54 5.37 0.47 
July......... 66.0 74.0 58.0 91.0 37.0 12.0 2.96 - 2.96 8.97 1.81 
Aug.. . . . . . . . 65.0 73.0 57.0 92.0 42.0 16.0 3.37 - 3.37 8.44 0.94 
Sept....... . . 58.0 65.0 50.0 87.0 34.0 15.0 3.36 - 3.36 8.75 0.06 
Oct.......... 48.0 54.0 41.0 77-0 26.0 13.0 4.46 0.2 4.48 10.38 0.50 
Nov........ . 37.0 42.0 32.0 62.0 11.0 10.0 3.48 6.0 4.08 8.00 1.74 
Dec........ . 25.0 32.0 19.0 52.0 -11.0 13.0 2.19 16.0 3.79 7.25 1.41 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year........ 42.0 49.0 35.0 92.0 -21.0 14.0 30.97 83.0 39.27 56.43 3245 



54 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA 


'i.-Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations. 


(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
.VICTORIA, B.C., lat. 48 0 25' N.,long. 123 0 21'W. 
Sunshine average. Wind. Average 
Average no. days with 
no. days Strongest wind 
No. Per- com- A ver- A ver- Prevail- recorded. 
Months. of bours centage pletely age age ing Thun- 
per of clouded. no. of hourly direc- Miles der. Fog. Hail. 
month. possible gales. velo- tion. per Direc- 
duration. city. hour. tion. 
- - - -------------- 
Jan...... 53.4 19.6 14 3 9.0 N 50 SE 
Feb..... 79.4 27.9 7 2 8.9 N 48 SW 

Iar.... . 143.0 39.0 5 2 9.0 SE 52 SW 
o\pril... . 184.8 44.9 2 2 9.0 sW 50 SW 
May..... 198.6 41.9 3 2 8.8 F;W 41 W 
June.... . 215.1 44.7 1 2 9.7 sW 49 SW 
July. .. . . 293.7 60.4 1 2 9.1 SW 44 SW 
Aug..... 256.9 58.0 1 1 7.8 SW 43 SW 2 
Sept.... . 183.3 48.6 3 1 6.5 SW 44 SW 3 
Oct... ... 118.3 35.3 7 1 6.8 E 56 SW 4 
Nov.... . 57.3 20.8 10 3 9.9 NE 57 SE 1 
Dee.... . 38.1 14.9 13 3 8.8 NE 59 SE 1 


year.... 1,821.9 67 24.8.6 SW 59 SE 15 
.Sun:shine, 1895-1910; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1915. 
.VANCOUVER, B.C., lat. 49 0 17' N., long. 123 0 5'W. 


Jan..... . 46.4 17.3 17 4.3 E 40 NW - 3 - 
Feb..... 51.5 18.2 10 4.0 E 26 W - 4 - 
.Mar. . .. . 135.6 36.9 7 5.0 E 30 SE - 1 - 
April... . 179.4 43.7 4 Average 4.8 SE 25 W - - 1 
May.., .. 220.0 46.5 3 less 4,8 SE 23 W 1 - - 
June.... . 228.0 47.2 2 than 4.5 E 27 W 1 - - 
July..... 265.6 54.6 2 one 4.1 S 22 W 2 - - 
Aug... .. 252.7 57.0 2 per 3.7 S 20 W 1 - - 
Sept. . .. . 162.9 43.3 5 montb. 4.6 S 26 NW 1 2 - 
Oct.... .. 111.3 33.4 8 3.8 SE 35 W - 6 - 
Nov..... 51.1 18.6 13 4.3 E 25 NW - 4 - 
Dec.... . 38.8 15.3 15 4.4 E 30 W - 4 - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year.... 1.743.3 - 88 - 4.4 SE 40 NW 6 24 1 


.Sunshme, 1908-1917; days clouded, 1909-1920; wi n!! , days with thunder, etc., 1905-1920. 
tKAl\lLOOPB, B.C., lat. 50 0 41' N..long. 120 0 18'W. 


J 
F 
M 
M 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 
Y 


an...... 65.0 24.7 12 3.5 S 25 SE - - - 
eb..... 87.0 31.1 7 3.1 S 24 NE - - - 
ar.. ... 166.0 45.2 4 4.5 SE 31 W - - - 
\. pril.. . . 187.0 45.2 3 Average 4.8 S 30 W - - - 
ay..... 224.0 46.8 3 less 4.4 S 30 W - - - 
une..... 240.0 50.1 3 than 4.1 SW 25 SE - - - 
uly.... . 295.0 59.9 1 one 4.1 SW 40 SE 1 - - 
ug.... . 262.0 58.6 2 per 3.5 SW 30 SE - - - 
ept.. . . . 185.0 49.1 3 month. 3.5 S 40 S - - - 
ct...... 140.0 42.3 6 3.6 SE 40 NW - - - 
ov..... 70.0 26.2 10 4.4 Sg 40 W - - - 
ec.... . 50.0 20.1 13 3.3 S 30 SE - - - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
ear... . 1,971.0 - 67 - 3.9 S 40 Several 1 - - 


tSunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind, etc., 1897-1916. 
tEDMoXToN, ALTA., lat. 53 0 35' N., long. 113 0 30' W. 


Jan...... 79 31.6 10 - 4.4 W 36 W - - - 
Feb.... . 125 45.7 3 - 4.9 W 34 NW - - - 
Mar..... 174 47.4 3 - 5.6 S 28 NW - - - 
April... . 212 50.7 3 - 7.2 SW 42 NW - - - 
May..... 222 45.1 3 1 6.8 SW 36 HE 1 1 - 
June.... . 242 47.8 3 - 5.9 W 34 NW 3 1 - 
July..... 273 53.8 2 - 5.3 RW 30 !,;W 4 1 1 
Aug..... 256 56.3 2 - 4.7 W 26 I\'W 2 1 - 
Sept..... 184 48.6 3 - 5.3 W 36 W 1 1 - 
Oct..... . 150 46.2 4 - 5.2 W 28 NW - - - 
Nov.... . 87 33.9 7 - 4.6 SW 25 NW - - - 
Dec..... 77 33.2 11 - 4.2 SW 34 NW - - - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Year... . 2,081 - 54 1 5.3 SW 42 NW 11 5 1 


:Sunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded, 1906-1920; wind. etc. 1897-1916. 



SUKSHINE, WIND AND WEATHER 


55 


'7.-A\'erages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
-MEDICINE HAT, ALTA., lat. 50 0 2' N., long. 110" 41' W. 


No. 
Months. of hours 
per 
month. 


Per- 
centage 
of 
possible 
duration. 


Average 
no. days 
com- 
pletely 
clouded. 


Wind. 
Strongest wind 
A ver- Aver- Prevail- recorded. 
age age ing 
no. of hourly direc- :!\Iiles 
gales. velo- tion. per Direc- 
city. hour. tion. 
- - - - - 
2 5.9 SW 46 S 
2 6.0 SW 51 S 
2 6.6 SW 41 S,NW 
3 7.4 W 50 S 
2 7.5 S 60 N,W 
2 7.5 SW 61 SW 
1 6.4 SW 46 SW 
1 5.6 S\V 50 W 
1 5.8 SW 50 S 
1 5.9 W 60 W 
2 6.1 SW 60 SW 
2 6.5 SW 60 N 
--- - --<-- - - 
21 6.4 SW 61 SW 


Average 
no. days with 


Sunshine average. 


Thun- 
der. Fog.' Hail. 


Jan...... 88 33.1 8 
Feb.... . 117 41.6 6 
)Iar.... . 169 46.0 3 
April... . 220 53.4 2 
May..... 233 48.9 3 
June.... . 268 55.0 1 
July... .. 326 66.6 1 
.Aug..... 284 63,8 ! 
Sept. . .. . 196 52.0 3 
Oct..... . 158 47.7 4 
Nov..... 102 37.8 6 
Dec..... 82 32.9 9 


2 
4 
4 
3 
1 


year.... 2,243 47 14 
-Sun..,hine, 1!J06-1916; dW3 clouded. 1910-1920; wind. dJ.Y3 with thunder. etc., 1896-1915. 


"'ROSTHER:o.I, SASK., lat. 52 0 39' N., long. -PRI:o.ICE ALBERT, S-\SK., lat. 53 0 12' N., long. 105 0 48' W. 
106 0 21'oW. 
Jan..... . 91.6 36.1 10 - 3.3 S 26 NW - - - 
Feb... .. 137.7 50.0 4 - 3.2 SW 29 NW - - - 
Mar..... 176.1 47.9 4 - 4.0 SW 35 NW - - - 
April. . . . 220.8 53.6 3 - 5.0 SE 36 NW - - - 
:\Iay.... . 262.7 53.8 2 - 4.9 S 25 SE - - - 
June.... . 280.1 56.0 2 - 4.2 SE 31 N 1 - - 
July.... . 294.8 65.2 2 - 3.6 SW 31 SE 3 1 - 
Aug.... . 272.9 60.3 2 - 3.0 SW 24 E 2 1 - 

ept. . .. . 190.8 50.4 4 - 3.8 SW 24 Several. - 1 - 
Oct..... . 141.4 43.3 6 - 3-9 SW 28 NW - - - 
Nov..... 111.6 43.1 7 - 3.4 S 20 Several. - - - 
Dec..... 78.3 33.0 11 - 3.2 SW 32 N - - - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year.... 2,258'8 - 57 - 3.8 S 36 NW 6 3 - 


*::;unshine and days clouded, 1!J11-1920; wind 1896-1917, 1898 missing; days with thunder, etc., 1896-1917. 


-INDIAN' HEAD, S-\sK.,lat. 50 0 31' N .,long. -QU'ApPELI..E, SASK., lat. 50 0 32' N., long. 103 0 57' W. 
103 0 40'W . 
Jan...... 81.4 32.8 10 2 9.4 NW 66 NW - 1 - 
Feb..... 103.7 37.0 6 2 9.5 NW 46 W - 1 - 
)Iar..... 131-8 35'9 6 2 9.6 W 48 NW - 1 - 
April... . 170.1 41.2 4 2 10.0 SW 58 S - 1 - 
:!\lay.... . 214.4 44.6 5 2 9,8 SW 50 NW 2 1 - 
June.... . 207.4 42.4 4 1 g.O S 48 SW 4 1 1 
July..... 272.4 55.5 2 1 8.2 SW 42 NW 5 1 - 
Aug.... . 228.9 51.3 2 1 7.4 SW 38 SW,NW 4 1 - 
Sept... . . 162.8 43.2 5 1 8.4 W 41 SW 1 1 - 
Oct..... . 130.5 39.5 6 2 9.1 W 45 NW - 1 - 
Nov..... 68.8 25.7 8 1 9.1 W 42 NW - 1 - 
Dee.... . 58.8 23.8 12 2 9.0 W 45 .KW - 1 - 
- - 
- - - - - - - - - 
year.... 1.831.0 - 70 19 9.0 W 66 NW 16 12 1 


-Sunshine and days clouded, 1891-1910; wmd, etc., 1897-1917 (1908 missing). 
tWINr..--n>EO :!\IAN lat 49 c 55' N long 97 0 6' W 


J 


., .. 
an...... 110.3 41.4 9 7 ]2.8 W 50 N,W - 
Feb.... . 138.6 49.2 6 5 12.2 SW 55 NW' - 1 - 
lar.... . 175.0 47.7 7 6 13.1 S 66 NW - - - 
pril.. . . 206.7 50.2 5 7 14.5 E 60 W 1 - - 
May.... . 250.7 52.3 4 6 14.5 E 66 NW 2 - - 
June..... 250.4 51.6 3 5 12.7 E 46 N\V 4 - - 
uly..... 290.5 59.5 2 5 12.1 S 55 SW 5 - - 
Aug..... 256.7 57.8 3 4 11.3 S 43 W 3 - - 
Sept. .. .. 179.6 47.7 4 6 13.0 S 5.3 W 2 - - 
Oct...... 124.8 37.6 8 6 13.8 R 60 NW 1 - - 

ov.... . 89.6 33.2 10 5 ]2.4 HW 45 N,W - 1 - 
Dec.... . 81.2 32.2 14 4 12.2 S\1j 59 \\- - - - 
- - - - - - -- - -- - - 
Year... . 2,154.1 - 75 66 12.9 R 66 NW 18 2 - 
- 


tSunshme, 1882-1910; days clouded, 11101-1920; wmd, etc., 189/-1916. 


J 
1< 
A 



56 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADA. 


'i.-Averages of Sunshine, nind and Weather at Selected Canadian Stations- 
continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
.HAILEYBURY, ONT..lat. 47 0 26' N., long. 79 0 38' W. 


J 
J 
A 


Sunshine average. Wind. Average 
no. days with 
Average Strongest wind 
No. Per no. days A ver- A ver- Prevail- recorded. 
Months. of hours centage com- age age ing Thun- 
pletely 
per of clouded. no. of hourly direc- Miles der. Fog. Hail. 
month. possible gales. veloc- tion. per Direc- 
duration. ity. hour. tion. 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
Jan...... 92 33.4 10 1 2 NW 8 N,NW - 1 - 
Feb.... . 119 41.6 7 2 2 NW 9 SW - 1 - 
Mar..... 165 44'8 5 2 2 S 9 SW - 1 - 
April.. . . 193 47.3 5 1 2 S 8 N,NW - 1 - 
May..... 210 45.0 4 1 2 S 8 NW 2 1 - 
une.... . 259 54.5 2 1 2 SE 8 SW 4 1 - 
uly.... . 266 55.5 1 1 2 SW 8 Several. 6 - - 
ug... .. 221 50.3 2 1 2 S 8 NW 4 1 - 
Sept.... . 174 46.3 4 2 2 SW 8 S 2 1 - 
Oct..... . 110 32.8 7 2 2 SW 9 NW 1 1 - 
Nov.... . 56 20.1 13 2 2 NW 10 SW,W - 1 - 
Dec..... 61 23.2 12 1 2 W 8 1I.W - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year.... 1,733 - 72 17 2 S\, 10 S\\, \\ 19 n - 


.Sunshine, 1906-1916; days clouded. 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 
N 


.GRAVEXHURST, O'T., lat. 44 0 56' ., .PARRY SOUND, ONT., lat. 45 c 20' N., long. 80 0 l' ". 
long. 79 0 23' W. 
Jan..... . 80.7 28.4 12 1 9.4 8E 48 W - - - 
Feb..... 126.3 43.4 8 1 9.0 S 49 W - - - 
Mar..... 153.0 41.5 7 1 9.1 SW 52 SW 1 - - 
April. . . . 189.4 46.9 5 1 8.9 S 36 N 1 1 - 
May.... . 217.2 47.4 5 1 '7.9 S 39 SW 2 - - 
June.... . 229.8 49.4 2 - 6.8 SW 36 8W 2 - - 
July..... 265.2 56.4 1 - 6.5 SW 36 NW 3 - - 
Aug..... 252.6 58.2 1 - 6,9 S 30 SW,8E 3 - - 
Sept..... 170-6 45.6 4 - 7.4 SW 36 S\V 2 - - 
Oct.... 138.5 41.0 7 - 8.7 S 36 SW 2 - - 
Nov.... . 85.4 29.9 11 2 10.5 SW 48 
\\ - - - 
Dec..... 61.5 21.5 14 1 9.4 S 37 W,N\\' - - - 
- - - ----g -r4 - - - -- - 
year.... 1,970.2 77 S 52 SW 14 1 


.SunshIne, 1902-1910, 1915-1920; wmd, etc., 1896-1920. 
tTORO....-TO. ONT., lat. 43 c 39' N.. long. 79 0 20' W. 


Jan. 779 270 11 6 13 6 8W 56 NE - 2 - 
Feb 1081 36 7 6 5 13 7 W 56 E - 1 - 
Mar. 1500 405 6 5 12 8 BW 60 i';W 1 1 - 
April 190 7 47 1 4 3 119 HE 50 E 1 1 - 
May 2189 479 2 2 99 BE 54 W 3 1 - 
June 259 8 563 1 1 87 SE 35 NE 4 1 - 
July 28') 2 604 1 1 80 S 36 W,SW 5 1 - 
Aug. 252 7 59 8 1 - 80 RW 48 NE 6 - - 
Sept 207 8 554 2 1 88 SE 50 S 3 2 - 
Oct 149 3 43 8 4 2 99 S 53 W 1 2 - 
?\ov 853 294 8 4 12 2 SW 50 W - 2 - 
Dee 652 235 10 7 13 2 SW 50 S\V - 1 - 
------------- 
Year 2 046 9 - 56 37 109 S 60 NW 34 15 - 


tSunshine, 1882-1!JI0; days clouded, 1901-1920; W1nd, etc., 1896-1920. 
.WOODSTOCK, ONT., lat. 43 0 38' N., long. 80 0 46' W. 


J 
A 


Jan.... .. 62.0 21.4 14 4 12.4 8W 57 8W - 1 - 
Feb... .. 88.7 30.2 8 4 12.3 W 47 NW - 1 - 
Mar. .. . . 122.6 33.2 9 5 12.2 SW 52 S\\' - 1 - 
April... . 167.4 41.7 6 4 12.1 SW 48 8W 1 1 - 
May..... 206.8 45.6 4 3 10.5 SW 46 SW 2 1 - 
June..... 246.1 53.7 2 1 8'9 W 36 E 2 1 - 
uly.... . 275.4 59.4 1 1 8.4 W 36 SW 2 1 - 
ug.... . 238.0 55.4 2 1 8.0 SW 40 SW 2 2 - 
Sept..... 181.8 48.7 4 1 8.4 W 34 NW 2 1 - 
Oct..... . 135.7 41.7 6 2 10.5 SW 40 NW 1 2 - 
Nov.... . 76.4 26.3 10 3 11.9 SW 53 SW - 2 - 
Dec.... . 54.1 19.4 15 4 12.4 SW 49 SW - 1 - 
- - - - - - - -- - - - 
year.... 1. 855.0 - 81 33 10.7 SW 57 RW 12 15 - 


.Sunshine, 1882-1911; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days with thunder, etc., 18\111-1920. 



SUNSHINE, WIND AND WEATHER 


57 


'i.-Averages of Sunshine, \\ïnd and \feather at Selected ('anadian Stations- 
continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are based.) 
.
IO:iTREAL, QUE., lat. 45 0 31' N., long. 73 0 34' W. 


Jan..... . 
Feboo. .. 
Mar.... . 
April.. . . 
May.... . 
June.... . 
July.... . 
Aug.... . 
Sept. . .. . 
OcL... . 
Nov._... 
Dec..... 


12 
9 
6 
6 
4 
2 
1 
2 
4 
6 
11 
14 


Wind. 
Strongest wind 
A ver- Aver- Prevail- recorded. 
age age ing 
no. of hourly direc- Miles 
gales. veloc- tion. per Direc- 
ity. hour. tion. 
- - - - - 
6 15.5 SW 56 SW 
7 16.7 SW 66 NW 
8 16.7 SW 60 SE, S\\ 
4 14.9 S 53 SW 
2 12.8 S 49 W 
2 11.6 Sw 48 SW,NW 
1 11.3 W 42 SW 
- 10.6 SW 36 W 
1 Il.7 SW 38 SE,NW 
2 12.9 SW 45 
W 
5 14,6 SW 58 W 
5 14.0 SW 50 NW 
- - - - - 
43 13.6 SW 66 NW 


Average 
no. days with 


Months 


Sunshine average. 
No. Per- 
of hours centage 
per of 
mont.... possible 
duration. 
- - 
76.0 34 
103.4 41 
145.9 45 
173.7 50 
204.6 51 
217.3 50 
238.4 59 
218.6 58 
171.5 53 
122.2 41 
68.5 30 
60.0 26 
- - 
1 800.1 - 


Average 
no. days 
com- 
pletely 
clouded. 


Thun- 
der. Fog. Hail. 


1 
2 
3 
5 
4 
3 
1 


C 
1 
2 
1 
1 


year.... 77 
.Days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 
tQUEBEC, QUE., lat. 46 0 48' N., long. 71 0 12' W. 


19 


9 


Jan...... 86 31.0 11 9 15.0 sW 62 KE - 1 - 
Feb..... 105 36.5 8 8 16.1 SW 69 NE - - - 
Mar.... . 152 41.4 7 8 15.3 SW 72 NE - 1 - 
April:. . . 174 42.5 5 7 14.4 NE 54 NE 1 1 - 
May.... . 197 42.1 4 6 14.4 NE 52 W 2 - - 
June..... 248 44.6 4 4 13.2 SE 46 NE 4 - - 
July..... 223 46,8 2 2 11.6 S 43 NE,::;\\' 7 - - 
Aug.... . 224 48.4 2 1 10.7 SW 39 NE,SW 5 - - 
Sept..... 153 45.2 5 3 11.5 SW 42 NE 2 1 - 
Oct...... 123 40.2 8 4 12.4 SW 66 NE 1 2 - 
Kov..... 65 24.0 10 5 14.0 S\V 58 NE - 1 - 
Dec..... 70 28,8 13 6 13.9 SW 68 NE - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - - - - 
year.... 1. 819 - 79 63 13.5 S 72 NE 22 8 - 


tSUIllihine, 1903-1912; days clouded, 1903-1920; wind, etc., 1896-1920. 


.WOLFVILLE, N.S., lat. 45 0 5' N., long 64 0 .YARMOUTH, N.S., lat. 45 0 53' N., long. 65 0 45'W. 
21'W. 
Jan...... 84.0 29.6 10 4 13.2 NW 53 SW,NW - 2 - 
Feb..... 99,6 34.4 10 4 13.1 NW 60 SW - 2 - 
Mar.... . 134.0 36.4 8 4 12.5 SW 60 NW - 4 - 
April.. . . 147.6 36.6 7 2 11.1 SW 43 NW - 4 - 
May.... . 200.8 43.8 5 1 9.9 SW 44 - 1 7 - 
June.... . 230.0 49.4 2 - 8.6 S 40 
E 2 7 - 
July.... . 235.6 50.2 2 - 7.7 SW 36 S 2 13 - 
Aug.... . 232.4 53.6 2 - 6.7 SW 65 SW 2 11 - 
Sept.. . . . 182.5 48.6 3 1 g.O SW 48 W 1 7 - 
Oct...... 151.4 44,8 7 2 10.0 S 54 SE 1 4 - 
Nov..... . 98.9 34.7 8 3 12.0 F-:W 60 - - 2 - 
Dec..... 67.2 24'8 Il 3 12.6 sW 62 SW - 2 - 
- - - - - ---.-- - - - - - 
year.... 1,864.0 - 75 24 10.5 SW 65 SW 9 65 - 


.Sunshine, 1
5-191O; days clouded, 1901-1920; wind, days wIth thunder, etc., 1896-1915. 
.FREDERICTOV, N .B., lat.45 0 56' N., long.66 0 40' W. 


Jan..... . IlO.3 39.2 10 2 8.2 NW 38 sW - 1 - 
Feb..... 124.2 43.1 8 2 9.3 NW 49 NW - 1 - 
Mar..... 154.8 42.0 8 2 9.5 NW 40 NW - 1 - 
April... . 184.6 45.6 7 1 8.2 NW 36 NW - 2 - 
May..... 205.4 44.4 I} 1 8.0 SW 37 NW 1 1 - 
June.... . 217.6 46.4 5 - 7.4 W 34 NW 2 1 - 
July.... . 236.8 50.2 3 - 6.6 SW 32 NW 3 2 - 
Aug..... 223.0 . 51.2 3 - 6.7 W 28 NW 2 2 - 
Sept... . . 179.0 47'8 5 - 6.0 NW 30 NW 1 4 - 
Oct... .. . 151.4 44.8 6 1 7.7 W 33 SE,NW - 3 - 
Nov.... . 91.3 33.3 11 1 8.1 NW 37 - - 2 - 
Dec.... . 94.1 35.9 12 2 8.5 NW 42 NW - 2 - 
- - - - - - - -- -- - 
Year.. 1,972.5 - 84 12 7.\1 W 4\1 NW 9 22 - 


.SunshiIie, 1881-19Il; days clouded. 1901-1920; wind, etc., 181:16-11:120. 



58 


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CA.VADA 


'i.-Averages of Sunshine, WInd and Weather at Selected Canadian Statlons- 
continued. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages. are based.) 
tCHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I.,lat. 46 0 14' N.,long. 63 0 8' W. 


Sunshine average. Wind. Average 
Average no. days WIth 
no. days Strongest wind 
No. Per- com- A ver- A ver- Prevail- recorded. 
Months. of hours cent age pletely age age ing Thun- 
per of clouded. no. of hourly direc- Miles der. Fog. Hail. 
month. possible gales. velo- tion. ppr Direc- 
duration city. hour. tion. 
Jan...... -----gg 
 
 
 NW N\V - - - 
8.8 46 - - - 
Feb..... 112 38.9 10 1 8.4 SW 55 8E - 1 - 
Mar... .. 1
0 35.3 9 2 8.6 S 41 HW - 1 - 
April.. . . 153 37.6 9 - 8.4 SE 33 HE 1 1 - 
May..... 195 42.1 7 - 8.1 S 32 NE 1 - - 
June..... 226 48.2 6 - 7.0 S 28 S 2 - - 
July.... . 238 50.2 4 - 6.3 SW 32 HW 2 - - 
Aug... . . 229 52.4 5 - 6.5 SW 31 sW 2 - - 
Hept... _ . 179 47,8 6 - 7.2 SW 32 S, NW 1 - - 
Oct..... . 114 33.9 11 1 8.2 SW 38 8 - 1 - 
Nov..... 73 25.9 13 1 9.1 W 38 NE - 1 - 
Dec..... 60 
 17 1 9.0 NW 38 S\V - - - 
-----u98 -wï -s:o 
 -ss 
 -s - 
year.... - 8 9 - 


tSun::.hine,1906-1916; days clouded, 1907-1920; wmd, etc., 1896-1920. 
.CALGARY, ALT\., lat. 51 0 2' N., long. lli O 2' \V. 


Wind. AverageoÐumber of days with 
Strongest wind 
:r.r onths. Average Average Pre" ailing recorded. 
number hourly direction. Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
of gales. velocity. Miles p. h. Direction. 
January. .......... 
 
 --w- -----s2 1I.Tw- - - - 
- - - 
February. .. . . . . . . . 1 6.6 W 48 W - - - 
March............ . 1 7.6 SW 48 SW - - - 
April. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8.5 W 56 NW - - - 
May............... 1 8.8 NW 48 N, NW 1 - - 
June............... 1 8.6 NW 50 W 1 - 1 
July.............. . 1 7.6 NW 48 NW 3 - - 
August........... . 1 7.3 NW 36 W 2 - - 
September... . 1 7.5 NW 62 NW - - - 
October. .. .. . . . . . . 1 6.5 NW . 40 W - - - 
November....... . 1 6.0 W 36 Sev<>ral. - - - 
December........ . 1 6.5 W 52 W - - - 
year.............. 
 --r.3 ---w- 
 
I----Y - 
 
- 


.Wind, days WIth thunùer, etc., 1897-1916. 
tPAS, 
1A",.,lat. 53 0 49' N.,long. 101 0 15' W. 


January........... 1 
February.......... 1 
March............ . 1 
April.............. - 
May............... - 
June.... . . . . .. .. . . . 2 
July... ............ 1 
August... .. .. .. . . . 1 
September......... 1 
October. . . . . . . . . 1 
November.......... - 
December........... - 
year.......... 9 


7.5 
7.2 
7.5 
8.3 
8.5 
7.8 
8.9 
7.7 
6.8 
7.5 
7.9. 
7.1 

 


W 
W 
8 
E 
E 
8E 
W 
W 
W 
W 
W 
8W 
-W- 


43 NW - - - 
40 W - - - 
45 W - 1 - 
41 8W - - - 
40 - - - - 
44 SW 2 - - 
M SW - 2 - 
48 NW 2 1 - 
41 NW - 1 - 
42 W - - - 
33 NW - - - 
38 W - - - 
-s4 sw- 4 ----s 
 


tWind, days with thunder, etc., 1910-1920. 
.PORT NELc;o
, )lAN., lat. 57 0 0' N.,long. 92 0 56' W. 


I 
F 
M 
A 
) 
J 
J 
A 
8 
o 
N 
D 


anuary. . . . . . . . . . . 2 12.4 W 34 W, NW - 1 - 
ebruary......... . 3 12.9 W 48 NW - - - 
arch............. 3 11.4 W 41 NE - 1 - 
pril.. . . 2 12.8 HE 51 NW - 1 - 
lay........ ....... 1 12.4 NE 40 NB - 3 - 
une............... 3 13.6 NE 38 NE,NW 3 2 - 
uly.............. . 2 13.8 NE 53 NE 3 1 - 
ugust........... . 2 12.4 HW 42 NB,NW 2 2 - 
eptember........ . 3 12.8 HW 42 SW,NW 1 1 - 
cOOber...__..... . 4 13.6 NW 40 - - 1 - 
ovember... ..... 5 13.1 NW 43 N - 2 - 
ecember.____... . 2 11.7 W . 42 NW - - - 

 
 Hw- --s3 
 -----g 
 - 
Year - 


.Wind, days \\ith thunder, etc., 1\11b-19:!0. 



SUNSHINE, WLVD AND WEATHER 


59 


'i.-Averages of Sunshine, Wind and Weather at Selected Canadian Statlons- 
concluded. 
(The years indicate the period of observation on which averages are .based.) 
fPORTARTHUR, ONT., lat. 48 c 27' N.,long., 89 0 13'W. 


Wind. A verage number of days with 
Strongest wind 
Months. Average Average recorded, 
number hourly Prevailing Thunder. Fog. Hail. 
of gales. velocity. direction. Miles 
per hour. Direction. 

 -- - - 
January.. _ _ _.. _... 1 6.9 NW 37 NW - - - 
February..... . . . . . 1 7.1 NW 50 NW - - - 
l\Iarch............ . 1 7,8 N\V 52 NW - - - 
ApriL... . . .. . . . . . . 1 7.8 S 39 NW,NE 1 1 - 
l\Iay.............. . 1 7.8 SE 41 NE 1 2 - 
June.............. . - 6.7 E 51 NW 2 2 - 
July............... - 6.4 S 34 N\V 4 1 - 
August. . . - 6.7 SW 41 NW 3 2 - 
September _. - 7.1 SW 62 NW 2 2 - 
October. .. . . . . . . . . 1 7.4 SW 42 NW 1 3 - 
November. ....... 1 8.1 
W 40 NW - 1 - 
December........ . 1 7.4 NW 52 NW - 1 - 

 
 
 -- - - -- - 
year............ 8 7.3 SW 62 NW 14 15 - 


tWind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 
tWmTE RIVER, OXT., lat. 51 0 30' N., long. 94 c 2' W. 


J 
F 

 
A 
l\ 
J 
J 
A 
S 
o 
N 
D 


anuary. . . . . . . . . . . - 4.2 
E 28 KW - - - 
ebruary. . . . . . . . . . - 3.3 E 22 S, NW - - - 
larch...... . - 4.4 E 30 
 - - - 
pril.... . .. . . . : : : : - 5.0 E 30 N - - - 
{ay...... . . . . . . . . . - 5.6 SE 28 SW 1 - - 
une.... . . . .. . . .. . . - 5.0 S 32 SW 1 - - 
uly..... .......... - 4.4 SW 23 N 2 1 - 
ugust........... . - 3.6 S 24 SW 2 1 - 
eptember........ . - 3.9 SW 24 S 2 1 - 
ctober. . . . . .. . . . . - 4.1 SE 25 SW - - - 
ovember....... . - 4.6 SE 25 NW,SW - - - 
ecember...... _.. - 3.7 S 24 S - - - 
- - 
 
 - - - - 
year............ - 4.3 SE 32 SW 8 3 - 


fWind, days with thunder, etc., 1896-1920. 
.COCHRANE, O:r-.T., lat. 49 0 4' N., long. 80 0 58' W. 


January.......... . - 7'8 W 34 NW - - - 
February.. . . . . . . . . - 7.2 NW 32 NW - - - 
March....... . . . .. . - 8.2 S\V 33 NW - - - 
April. .. . . . . . . . . . . . - 8.4 SE 35 NW - - - 
l\lay. . .. . . . . . _ _ . . . . - 8.5 S 35 NW 1 1 - 
June.... .. . . . . . . . . . - 8.4 S 34 SW 2 - - 
J u]y _ . . . . .. . _ . . . . . . - 7.1 W 29 SW 3 - - 
August........... . - 6.5 W 31 NW 2 - - 
September...... ... - 7.3 SW 30 SW 1 1 - 
October... ........ - 7.2 SW 35 SE - 1 - 
November.. ...... - 6.6 ::;W 30 SW - 1 - 
December.... ..... - 6.8 NW 27 SW - 1 - 
- - - - - - - - 
year............ - 7.5 SW 35 NW,SE 9 5 - 


. 


.Wind, days with thunder, etc., 1911-1920. 
fSOUTH WEST POINT, ANTICOSTI. QUE., lat. 49 0 23' N.,long. 63 c 38' W. 


January.......... . 16 21.9 NW 72 NW - - - 
February...... _... 13 19.9 SW 65 NW - 1 - 
March.. . .. . . . . . . . . 12 18.6 S 68 NW - 1 - 
April.. .. . . . . . . . . . . 8 15.8 :-;E 70 NW - 3 - 
l\Iay........ " . . . . . 6 13.8 SE 52 NW - 3 - 
June...... ......... 4 13.3 SE 56 \V - 5 - 
July............ ..-: 3 12.1 SE 44 W - 7 - 
August........... . 4 12.3 SE 68 W - 5 - 
September.... . . . . . 6 14.3 SE 58 NW - 3 - 
October. -- 10 16.6 S 67 W - 4 - 
Novembe
:::: - 11 18.8 SE 98 K - 1 - 
December......:: : 14 20.6 SW 71 NW - 1 - 
- - - - - 
 - - 
year............ 107 16.5 S 98 N - 34 - 


fWind, days \\ith thunder, etc., 1897-1920. 



II.-HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY. 


I.-HISTORY OF CANADA.1 


NOTE.-It has not been considered desirable to load the text of this section with numerous dates. For 
these the reader is referred to the chronological history printed at the end of this section of the Year Book. 


The Founding of the French Colony.- The year 1608 may be regarded as the 
birth-year of Canada. The country and the name had been made known by the 
voyages of the Brpton sea-captain, Jacques Cartier, of St. Malo, in the early half 
of the preceding century, and one or two ill-fated and wholly abortive attempts 
at settlement had subsequently been made; but in 1608, undf'r the leadership of 
Samuel de Champlain, of Brouages in Saintonge, the first permanent settlement 
was made. It was but a slender colony that he planted under the shadow of the 
great rock of Quebec; the germ of life, however, was there, a life which, surviving 
all perils and difficulties, finaJly struck its roots deep and branched out into a nume- 
rous and vigorous people. .. 
The claim of France to the St. Lawrence country was held to have been estab- 
lished by the discoveries made in the name of the French King, Francis I. It 
was assumed that what was then called Acadia, 
which may be described roughly as the region 
of our present Maritime provinces, had also 
become Frcnch territory, notwithstanding the 
fact that Cape Breton had been discovered in 
I 1497 by John Cabot, sailing under a commis- 
t sian from Henry Yll of England. During the 
five years preceding the arrival of Champlain's 
colony at Quebec, settlements in which Cham- 
plain took part had been attempted by the 
French at Port Royal (Annapolis) in Nova 
Scotia, and at the mouth of the St. Croi" river. 
The Fur Trading Companies.-The 
main motive for the occupation of the country, 
so far as the adventurers-Champlain perhaps 
alone exccpted-were conccrned, was the fur 
trade, though the royal commissions or patents 
JA("Ql.:f;S CARTn;R under which they operated invariably contained 
stipulations for actual colonization and for missionary work among the Indians. 
Thesè stipulations were systematically evaded by a succession of associations or 
companies to whom privileges were granted. Of course there were difficulties in 
the way; the native Indians were uncertain in their movements and at tÏU1es mena- 
cing; but this was not the real deterrent to settlement. The adventurers thought, 
and with reason, that settlement would hamper trade. 
Champlain's colony had at first consisted of about thirty persons. Twenty 
years later, when it barely exceeded one hundred, Charles I of England during his 
war on France granted letters of marque to David Kirke, authorizing him to attack 
the French possessions in Canada. After fitting out a small fleet of privateers, 
Kirke's first stroke, early in 1628, was to capture, in the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 


IRevi8ed and abridged from the history prepared under the direction of Arthur G. Doughty, C.
f.G.. 
LL.D., Deputy Minister, PublicArchivesofCanada,-forthe 1913 Year Book. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


61 


a French fleet of eighteen vessels, which were carrying out a number of new colonists 
for the settlement, as well as badly needed supplies of provisions, goods and military 
stores. Just at this time Cardinal Richelieu, moved by the representations Cham- 
plain had made as to the miserable condition and prospects of the colony, had 
resolved to create a company on a much wider basis than any previously formed. 
This was the Company of New France, more generally known as 'the Company of 
One Hundred Associates. The preamble of the edict issued set forth in forcible 
terms " the lamentable failure of all previous trading associations to redeem their 
pledges in the matter of colonization; and the new associates were, by the 
terms of their charter, bound in the most formal and positive manner to convey 
annuaJIy to the colony, beginning in the year 1628, from two to three hundred 
bonâ fide settlers, and, in the fifteen following years, to transport thither a total 
of not less than four thousand persons male and female." The charter contained 
other useful stipulations, including the maintenance of a sufficient number of clergy 
to meet the spiritual wants both of settlers and natives. So long as it fulfilled 
these conditions, the company was to have absolute sovereignty, under the French 
king, of all French possessions between Florida and the Arctic regions, and from 
Newfoundland as far west as it could take possession of the country. 
It was in furtherance of these plans that the fleet which Kirke captured had 
been sent out. Had l{irke sailed at once to Quebec the place would have fallen 
but he preferred to let starvation do his work. The following year he took the 
. town without a struggle and set up his brother as governor. Champlain and many 
of his associates returned to France. But in the meantime peace had been signed 
and in 1632 Canada was given back to France. 
It now. remained to be seen what Riche- 
lieu's company would effect. Crippled by the 
loss of the capital invested in the fleet of 1628, 
it did not accomplish much, although a beginning 
was made when Champlain returned to Quebec 
in May, 1633, bringing with him over a hundred 
settlers. His life was, however, drawing to a 
close, and he died on Christmas Day, 1635. 
Several eventf' of special importance may 
be noted here. In 1639, two ladies of distinction 
arrived from France, Madame de la Peltrie and 
Madame Guyard, the latter better known as 
Mère de I'Incarnation. Their monument is the 
Ursuline Convent of Quebec. In 1641 M. de 
Maisonneuve conducted a band of earnest 
followers to Montreal in order to folind there 
a strictly Christian colony _ Twelve years later 
Sister Margaret Bourgeoys established at Mont- 
real the Congrégation de Notre Dame for the education of girls. The year 1668 
is glorious in Canadian annals for what has been .c,alled the Canadian Thermopylae. 
To avert an attack on Montreal... Dollard, a young inhabitant of the place, and a 
score or so of companions threw themselves in the path of the Iroquois, and so 
sternly and heroically defended a position they had fortified on the river Ottawa 
that the Indians were disheartened and withdrew. Of the Canadians, all but one 
perished. 


CIIA'IPL.UN 



62 


HISTORY AKD CHRO_VOLOGY 


The year 1659 is marked by the arrival of Monseigneur de Laval, with the 
title of Bishop of Petræa, in partibu8, and the powers of Vicar Apostolic, to preside 
over the church in New France; from 1674 to 1688 he exercised full powers as 
Bishop of Quebec. In 1663, the Company of New France practically acknow- 
ledged its insolvency and made a surrender of all its rights and privileges to the 
King. It had not carried out its engagements; in fact its policy had differed little 
from that of its less distinguished predecessors. It had bound itself to plant in 
Canada not less than 4,000 settlers in fifteen years, :yet a census taken in 1666, 35 
years after it had begun operations, showed that the whole population of the country 
was less than 3,500. 
Royal Government.-The King accepted the surrender made by the company 
and proceeded to establish a still larger one under the name of the 'Vest India 
Company. Colbert, the great Minister of Marine and Colonies and the incarnat.ion 
of the mercantile system, was the inspirer of the idea; yet, as the prestige of Riche- 
lieu had not saved the Company of New France from shipwreck, neither did that 
of Colbert and his royal master save the Company of the 'Vest Indies. It lost 
its monopoly of Canadian trade in 1669. The country had been governed since 
1663 by the Sovereign Council of New France. 
The first governor of New France to make a name for himself in history is 
Louis de Buade, Count Frontenac, who arrived in Canada in the year 1672; but a few 
years earlier a man of greater note had been sent to Canada as intendant, an office 
involving financial and judicial authority exercised in nominal subordination to the 
Governor as the King's personal representative, but with a large measure of prac- 
tical independence. This was Jean Talon. He was the first to perceive the indus- 
trial and commercial possibilities of the country, and the first to take any effectual 
steps for their development. Mines, fisheries, agriculture, the lumber trade and 
one or more lines of manufacture all received his attention. He returned to France 
shortly after the arrival of Frontenac, but he had given an impulse which had 
lasting effects upon the economic life of Canada. 
Frontenac, a veteran soldier, established good relations with the Iroquois, 
who had been the most dangerous' enemies of the colony, but his relations with the 
intendant, Jacques Duchesneau, who succeeded Talon after an interval of three 
years, were most unhappy, and those with Bishop Laval were somewhat strained. 
So much troub1e did their disputes cause to the home government that both he and 
the intendant were recalled in 1682. Two mediocre governors, M. de la Barre. 
and the Marquis de Denonville, succeeded; after them Frontenac, now in his 
seventieth year, was again sent out. It was on the day of his departure from 
France, August 5, 1689, that the terrible massacre by the Iroquois, narrated in all 
Canadian histories, occurred at Lachine. 
A month or so before this, France had declared war on England as a sequel 
to the English Revolution of 1688, and Frontenac made it his first duty on arriving 
in Canada to organize attacks on the neighbouring English colonies. The massacre 
at Lachine was outdone by massacres by French and Indians at Schenectady, and 
other outlying English settlements. 
The English colonists did not remain passi.,.e UDder these attacks. In May, 
1690, an expedition under Sir \Villtam Phipps, a native of what is now the state 
of Maine, sailed from Nova Scotia, and took possession of Port Royal and other 
forts and settlements in that region. With a greatly increaf;ed force, some thirty- 
two ships in all and over two thousand men, he set sail for Quebec in full expect- 
ation of capturing that fortress and making an end of French power in North 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


63 


America, but the expedition proved a disastrous failure and involved the people of 
Boston in a very heavy financial loss. 
The remaining years of Frontenac's second administration were marked by 
border warfare and negotiations with Indian allies and enemies, followed by a 
general peace which was solemnly ratified a few years later. Frontenac died on 
Kovember 28, 1698. 
During the remainder of the French régime the history of Canada was marke<;l 
by no outstanding events. The war of the Spani::;h Succession caused a renewal 
of war on the Canadian frontier, two of the principal incidents being the massacres 
of English colonists at Deerfield and Haverhill in Massachusetts (1708). In the 
summer of 1711 a powerful expedition was despatched against Quebec by way of 
the St. Lawrence under the command of Sir Hovenden \Yalker. Had this force 
reached Quebpc it was amply sufficient to overpower any opposition that could 
have been made to it, but the elements seemed to be arrayed against the invader. 
A number of transports& crowded with troops, were wrecked at Sept Iles, and th e 
enterprise had to be abandoned. The war in Europe was, however, disastrous 
to France, and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) transferred to England the French 
possessions of Acadia and Newfoundland. The limits of Acadia were not at the time 
defined with any accuracy, and the French continued to occupy the mouth of the 
St. John river and what is now the city of St. John. Cape Breton, or as they called 
it, Ile Royale, was left by the treaty in their possession, together with Ile St. Jean 
 


.'all. 


-...... 


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 11) 
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CANADA 


b!i t.he 
P."oc!ømellon of 1763 


1"
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Reproduced by J'erm;ssion 01 Sir Charles Lucas and t
e IJelegates of the llarendoD Press, Olford 
CAN o\DA IN 1763. 


now Prince Edward I -;la.nd, and they perceived the importance of placing the former 
island in an adequate state of defence. Special attention was paid to the fortifica- 
tion of Louisburg. \Var having again broken out between England and France, 
an expedition was formed in New England under the command of Sir William 



64 


HISTORY AXD CHROl\
OLOGY 


Pepperell, to attack the French fortress. A small English squadron joined the 
expedition, and the capture of the place was accomplished on JlUle 16, 1745. The 
peace of Aix la.chapeJle, in 1748, restored the fortress and the whole island to France, 
to the great disappointment of the New Englanders. Ten years later (July 26, 
1758), the Seven Years' \Yar having broken out, it again passed into the possession 
of Great Britain after a siege in which General \Yolfe greatly distinguished himself. 
The Capture of Quebec and Cession of Canada.- The expedition against 
... ,'
'>'''', Quebec was part of the war policy of the great 
< I \\ïl1iam Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who chose 
@'L i 
 
t , ';)
 . \ 
 , \Volfe for the command. The story of how 
/' ,
-. _ -r. _ Wolfe's army scaled the heights above the city 


. . \
'I
 on the night of September 12-13, 1759, is among 
f . .
' c 
-:: '\':\j /, 

,
 the best known of historical incidents. The 
;
 __ - battle that ensued on the morning of the 13th 


_
, has becn rightly looked upon as one of the 
,...' !.. " most decisive events in the world's history. 
Wolfe died victorious; Montcalm, no less gallant 
;u a soldier, was carried from the field fatally 
wounded, and expired on the foIlowing day. 
Quebec surrendered to the British, and the 
capitulation of Montreal, a year later, placed 
the whole country in their possession, though 
the Treaty of Paris, by which Canada was 
ceded to Great Britain, was not signed till 
GENERAL WOLFE February 10, 1763. 
Military Government.-For a period of fifteen years after 1759, the govern- 
ment of Canada was of a military character, and no small amount of confusion 
existed in the administration of justice and the general application of law to the 
affairs of the community. In the year 17
4, an important step was taken in the 
passing of the Quebec Act, which established a council with limited legislative 
powers, sanctioned the use of French law in civil matters, confirmed the religious 
orders in the possession of their estates, granted full freedom for the exercise of the 
Roman Catholic religion and authorized the coJlection of the customary tithes by 
the clergy. The Act also defined the limits of Canada as extending south to the 
Ohio and west to the l\Iississippi. On that account, and also on account of t.he 
recognition granted to the Roman Catholic church, it gave great umbrage to the 
older colonies. The foIlowing year witnessed, in the battle of Lexington, the first 
bloodshed in their quarrel with the Mother Country. 
Towards the end of 1775 two bodies of colonial troops marched against 
Canada, one under Montgomery by way of lake Champlain, and the other 
under Benedict Aru.old through the woods of l\Iaine. l\Iontreal was captured 
and the two commanders joined forces some miles above Quebec. On December 
31, each led an attack on that city from different quarters. Both attacks 
were repulsed; Montgomery was slain and Arnold was wounded. In the spring 
the Americans retreated and shortly aftcrwards evacuated the country. Canada 
had been saved by the Fabian policy of Carleton. 
The Grant of Representative Institutions.-The task which devolved 
on Great Britain in the government of her new possession demanded an amount 
of practical wisdom which few of her statesmen possessed. The military men at 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


65 


the head of affairs in the colony-Murray, Carleton, Haldimand-were men of 
character and inteJIigence; but the questions arising between the two races which 
found themselves face to face in Canada, as an English immigration began to 
flow into the country, both from the British 
Isles and from the colonies to the south, hardly 
admitted of theoretical treatment. The Quebec 
Act, which created a nominative Council but not 
a representative Assembly, did not satisfy the 
new-comers. Racial antagonism was by this 
time causing friction, so the British Government 
decided to divide the Province of Quebec into 
the two provinces of 'C"pper and Lower Canada. 
and to- give each a legislature consisting of two 
houses-a nomirrative Council and an elective 
Assembly. The population of Lower Canada at 
this time was about 165.000 and that of Upper 
Canada probably 15,000. The population of 
the country as a whole had been greatly 
increased by the Loyalist emigration, partly 
voluntary, partly compulsory, from the United 
States. In Lower Canada the exiles found 
homes chiefly in that portion of the province 
known as the Eastern Townships and in the Gaspé peninsula, and in L'pper 
Canada in the townships fronting on the St. Lawrence river, around the bay of 
Quinte, in the Niagara distriet and along the Detroit river. 
It was not, however, only the Canadian provinces that received accessions to 
population from this source. Considerable bodies of Loyalists directed their steps 
to the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and some also to Prince Edward 
Island. \Yherever they chose to settle, lands were granted to them by the British 
government, and after a period of struggle with new conditions many began to find 
comfort and prosperity under the flag of their forefathers. These provinces all 
possessed what ha<; been called a " pre-loyalist," element in their population, 
consisting of settlers from New England and other parts of what subsequently 
became the United States. These, as difficulties developed between Great Britain 
and her American colonies, did not, as a rule, manifest any very strong British 
feeling, and the relations between them and the later Loyalllit settlers were not 
altogether cordial. 
Nova Scotia, which had been British since its cession under the Treaty of 
"C'trecht, received parliamentary institutIùns as early as 1758, though in practice 
the administration was mainly in the hands of the Governor of the province and his 
Council. Up to the year 1784 it was held to embrace what is now New Brunswick 
and also Cape Breton, but in that year these were both constituted separate pro- 
vinces. Cape Breton was reunited to Nova Scotia in the year 1820, not without 
considerable opposition on the part of the inhabitants. 
The representative institutions conferred upon the two Canadas by the Act 
of 1791 quickened political life in both provinces and stimulated emigration from 
the United States. After a time a demand began to be made in bmh provinces, 
but less distinctly in the lower than in the upper, for" responsible government. " 
In the absence of legislative control over executive administration, taxation 
was excessively unpopular, and without adequate appropriations, public works 
62373-5 


GENf
RAL 110NTCAL:\1 



66 


HISTORY A;"'-D CHROYOLCGY 


could not be undertaken on the scale which the public interest required. In Upper 
Canada antagonism grew up between the official party, to which the name of 
" Family Compact" was given, and those who de
ired more liberal institutions. 
In Lower Canada a similar condition developed, further embittered by racial feeling. 
The intentions of the home government were good, but the wants of the provinces 
were only imperfectly known, and the military govcrnors who were scnt out w('re 
not, as a rule, fitted to grapple with difficult political situations. The Go' ernments 
of both rprer anrf 10\, er Canada had at their disposal ccrtain revenuc::; collected 
under an lmperial Cu
toms Act passed in 1774 for the' express purpo
P of pro- 
viding a pennanent means of carrying on the civil government. In both 
provinces the liberal party demanded that the revenue in question should be 


THIt TWO C"'N"'DAS 
under CO'1.tltut..ønal Act pf 179. 
.nd 



 


,(..,
. . 
0' i>
 
<>0'\ 

t1 


THE MARITIME PROVI!'iCES 


FIoMt.....,"'..n 


Reproduced by permissioD of Sir Cbarles Lucas aud the Delegates o. Ibe Clare I-OD Press, O
ord. 
THE Two CANADAS IN 1791. 


placed under the control of the locallegi::;lature. In Upper Canada the matter was 
amicably arranged; the legislature took over the revenue and in return votcd a 
small permanent civil li
t. In Luwer Canada the legi
lature took over the revcnue 
as offered by the home government, but refused to vote a civil list. Several years 
of political conflict ensued, the legislature refusing supplies and the government 
being obliged to take money from the military chest in order to pay salaries to 
the public officers. FinalJy an imperial Act was passed (February 10, 1837) sus- 
pending the constitution of Lower Canada and authorizing the application of 
the provincial funds to necessary purposes. 
The War of 1812-15.-In following the course of the internal political develop- 
ment of the country, the present narrative has been carried past a very scrious 
crisis in its earlier history, the war of 1812-15. The causes of the conflict have no 
connection with Canadian history, but Canada was made the theatre of operations, 
and Canadian loyalty to the Mother Country was put to a crucial test. Thc war 
was opened brilhamJy by General Brock in the capture of Detroit, held by an 
American force much superior to his own (August 16, 1812), and at the battlc of 
Queenston Heights (October 13, 1R12), in which an invading force was driven back 
with heavy loss, but in which the gallant Brock fell. The subsequent course of the 
struggle was marked by alternate victory and defeat. In two naval battles, lake 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


67 


Erie (September 10, 1813) and lake Champlain (September 11, 1814), the British 
fleets sustained serious reverses; while in the engagements of Stoney Creek (June 
5, 1813) and Crysler's Farm (November 11, 1813) and the very decisive one of 
Chateauguay (October 26, 1813), victory rested with the defenders of Canada. 
The main effect of the war, which was brought to a close by the Treaty of Ghent 
(December 24, 181-1), was to strengthen British sentiment in Canada and to give 
to the Canadians of both provinces an increased sense both of self-reliance and of 
confidence in the protection of the Mother Country. Lower Canada suffered but 
little from the depredations of the enemy. Upper Canada, on the other hand, 
suffered seriously, her capital, York, having been captured and its public buildings 
burnt (April, 1813) and a large extent of her frontier devastated. Nevertheless, 
when Mr. Gore returned to the province in September, 1815, he reported that the 
country was in a fairly prosperous condition owing to the large amount of ready 
money which war expenditure had put into circulation. 
The Rebellion of 1837 and Lord Durham's Report.- Towards the close 
of the year 1837, to resume the domestic hi..,tory of the country, the political di::;agree- 
ments to which reference has been made resulted in attempts at armed rebellion 
in both the Canadian provinces. These attempts were speedily repressed, especiaHy 
in upper Canada, where the insurrection was confined to a comparatively small 
section of the population, and occurred at a moment when the provincial govern- 
ment, under Sir F. B. Head, was supported by a large majority of the legislative 
body. 
In consequence of these troubles, the Home GQvernment decided to send out a 
special commissioner to make a thorough investigation, not only in Upper and 
Lower Canada, but in all the North American provinces, for all had Euffered political 
restlessness. The person chosen was the Earl of Durham, son-in-law of the second 
Earl Grey, a man of marked ability and of advanced liberal views. His Lordship - 
arrived at Quebec on l\Iay 29, 1838, commissioned as governor-general of the whole 
of British -North America. His stay in the country b.sted only five months, but he 
was, nevertheless, able to lay before the British Government in January, 1839, 
an exhaustive report, dealing principally with the affairs of the Canadas. He 
recognized that the time had come for granting a larger measure of political inde- 
pendence to both provinces, and, without indi('ating the scope he was prepared to 
allow to the principle, made it clear that in his opinion the chief remedy to be applied 
was" responsible government". This, however, was to be conditional on a reunion 
of the provinces "as a means of balancing the two races into which the population 
of Canada was divided, and of procuring as far as possible their harmonious co- 
operation in working out the destinies of the country. The imperial authorities 
approved the suggestion, which, hQwever, they recognized as involving very consider- 
able difficulty. Lord Durham might have been entrusted with the duty of carrying 
it into effect had he not given up his commission on account of the criticism to which 
some of his plans had been subjech>d in the British Parliament. The man design- 
ated for the task was Charles Paulett Thomson, afterwards raised to the peeragé 
as tl,tron Sydenham and Toronto. 
Thomson arrived at Quebec in October, 1839, and applied himself vigorously 
to his task, the most difficult p Lrt of which was to render the proposition acceptable 
to the province I)f l:" pper Canada, already in full possession of its constitutional 
rights. The constitution of Lower Canada, as already mentioned, had been 
suspended, and had been replaced by the appointment of a special council with 
limited powers. After strenuous negotiations, Thomson succeeded in meetj
 
62373-5! 



68 


HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 


certain dE'mands of the western province, and, as the council in Lower Canada was 
favourable to the scheme, he was able to draft a Bill which, with a few modifica- 
tions, was enacted by the Home Government in 1840. General elections were held 
in February, 1841, and the legislature of the united provinces met in June. On 
September 3, Robert Baldwin, representing the constituency of North York, pro- 
posed certain resolutions which were carried with little or no opposition, affirming 
the principle of responsible government. 
The United Provinces under Responsible Government.-The French 
Canadians were almost without exception opposed to the union, and it was there- 
fore impossible at the time to obtain their co-operation in the fonlolation of a ministry. 
Sir Charles Bagot (Lord Sydenham had died in September, 1841) fully recognized, 
as had his predecessor, that the situation was a most unsatisfactory one; more- 
over, he saw how easily a combination might at any moment be formed with the 
French Canadian vote in the assembly to defeat his government. He saw, indeed, 
such a combination on the point of being formed, and resolved to ask Mr. Lafon- 
taine, the most influential French Canadian in the house, to take cabinet office. 
On condition that Baldwin should be taken in at the same time and that one or two 
other changes should be made in the cabinet, Lafontaine accepted the proposal, 
and the matter was arranged accordingly. The government so formed may be 
regarded as the first Canadian Ministry in the usual acceptation of the word. 
Sir Charles Bagot's successor, Sir Charles Metcalfe, had a misundcrstanding 
with his ministers on a question of patronage and with one exception they resigned. 
A general election followed, with the result that the Governor-General was over- 
whelmingly sustained in Upper Canada, while Lower Canada gave an almost equal 
majority in favour of the late government. The Draper-Viger government, which 
now came into power, had a most precarious support in the assembly, and in the 
general election of January, 1848, Lord Elgin being Governor-General at the time, 
Baldwin and Lafontaine were restored to office by a large majority. A leading 
member of their government was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Francis Hincks, who. occupied 
the post of Inspector General, or, as he would to-day be designated, Finance 
Minister. Baldwin and Lafontaine having both retired in 1851, the Government 
was reconstructed, with Hincks as Prime Minister and A. N. 
Iorin as reader of the 
Lower Canada section. 
Much useful legislation must be credited to the Baldwin-Lafontaine ministry. 
The session of 1849 alone produced the Judicature Act, the Municipal Corporations 
Act, which gave Canada a workable system of local governmcnt substantially the 
same as that which exists to-day, the Act for amending the charter of the University 
of Toronto and enlarging the ba
is of that institution, an Amnesty Act, which 
enabled any hitherto unparooned rebels of 1837-8 to rcturn to the country, and the 
Rebellion Losses Act. The latter Act, though carcfully framed to exclude any 
payments to persons who had actively participated in the rcbellion, was rcpresented 
by certain opponents of the government as designed to recompense such persons, 
and its signature by Lord Elgin was followed by rioting in Montreal, then the seat 
of government. The Governor-General was mobbed as he drove through the 
streets, and the legislative buildings were set on fire and totally destroyed 
(April 25, 1849). One result was the removal of the seat of government to Toronto 
in the fall of the same year and the adoption of a system by which that city and 
Quebec were alternately to be th..e seat of government. The IIincks ministry was 
chiefly remarkable for the steps taken to develop a railway system in Canada and 
for the adoption of a Reciprocity Treaty betwecn Canada and the United States. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


69 


In the making of this treaty Lord Elgin took the deepest interest, and it was largel 
due his skilful diplomacy and unusual powers of persuasion that thë negotiations 
proved successful. Hincks himself visited Washington and argued the case' 'in 
papers submitted to Congress. The treaty was undoubtedly beneficial to Canada, 
particularly when the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 caused a greatly 
increased demand for farm products of every kind. 
Although the union of the provinces and the introduction of responsible 
government gave a new stimulus to the political and social life of Canada, grave 
political difficulties were not long in developing. The differences between the 
eastern and western sect.ions of the province were very marked and any political 
party which rested mainly on the votes of either section was sure to incur keen 
opposition in the other. The Draper-Viger govemment, formed by Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, rested mainly on Upper Canada votes; the Baldwin-Lafontaine govern- 
ment, which followed, rested mait11y on Lower Canada votes. The Act of Union 
had given equal representation in the Assembly-forty-two members-to each 
section of the province. Lower Canada at the time had th larger population; 
but owing to immigration, the census of 1851 showed a balance in favour of Upper 
Canada. An agitation then sprang up in the west for representation by popula- 
tion, but the demand was stoutly resisted by Lower Canada. The Hincks govern- 
ment was defeated in 1854 by a combination of Conservatives and Reformers, 
and was succeeded in September of that year by a coalition under the premi<,rship 
of Sir Allan MacN'ab. Under the new government, two very important measures 
were carried,-the secularization of the clergy reserves, which for over twenty 
years had been a subject of contention in the country, and the abolition of what 
was known in Lower Canada as seigneurial tenure. Both were progres
ive 
measures, and the first was as strongly approved in Upper Canada as the second 
in Lower Canada. 
In 1855, the seat of government, which had been removed from Toronto to 
Quebec in the fall of 1851, was again transferred to the former city, where it remain- 
ed till the summer of 1859. In December, 1857, the question of a permanent seat 
of government was decided in favour of Ottawa by Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
to whom it had been left by a vote of the Canadian Parliament. 
In 1856 Mr. (afterwards Sir) John A. Macdonald, who, as Attorney General 
for the West, had b{'en the most influential member of the coalition government, 
succeeded to the premiership, after ill-health had compelled the retirement of Sir 
Allan MacNab. Party spirit from this time onwards ran very high. Although 
a certain section of the Reformers had supported the coalition government, the 
bulk of the party remained in opposition under the leadership of George Brown, 
whose policy, while it won him many adherents in Upper Canada, had an opposite 
effect in Lower Canada, and thus arrayed the two sections of the province against 
each other. I 
Improvements in Transportation.-Considerable progress was meanwhile 
being made in the material development of the country. Even before the union, 
some important steps had been taken towards the development of a canal system. 
The Lachine canal was opened for traffic in 1825; the WeIland canal in 1829; the 
Rideau canal, constructed entirely at the expense of the home government, in 1832, 
and the Burlington canal, which made Hamilton a lake port, in the same year. 
An appropriation was made by the legislature of Upper Canada in 1832 for the 
Cornwall canal, but various causes interfered with the progress of the work, and it 
was not till the end of the year 1842 that it was completed. Further developments 



70 


HISTORY A^-D CHRONOLOGY 


and improvements of the canal system followed, and the progress in this respect 
has been continuous to the present day. The total expenditure on canals in Canada 
down to Confederation is officially estimated at $20,962,244. 
The first steam railway in Canada was opened in 18
7, between Laprairie, 
at the foot of the Lachine rapids on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, and St. 
Johns, on the Richelieu river, supplying a link in the rajlway and water communi- 
cation between Montreal and New York. In 1847 a line was opened between 
l\lontreal and Lachine. The 'fifties were, however, pre-pminent.ly the pericd of 
railway e).pansion in pre-Conffderation times. In 1853 ar..d 1854 the Great 'Yest- 
ern railway was opened from Niagara Falls to Hamilton, London and 'Vindsor. 
In lR53 communication was completed between l\Iontreal and hland Pond, establish- 
ing connection with a line from that place to Portbnd, and in 1854 the line was 
opf'ncd h('tween Quebec and Richmond, thus giving railway communication between 
Quc1)('c and l\fontreal. In December, 1855, communication was established betwef'n 
Hamilton and Toronto, and in 1856, by the Grand Trunk railway, between Montreal 
and Toronto. T
 Northern railway from Toronto to Collingwood was completed 
in 18rí5 and the Buffalo and Lake Huron railway between Fort Erie and Goderich 
in 1
58, though sections of it had been completed and operated earlier. 
River and lake navigation developed steadily from the year 1809, when the 
" Accommodation," a steamer owned by John Molson of Montreal, began to 
ply between Montreal and Quebec. The year 1816 saw the" Frontenac" launched 
in lake Ontario. Year by year larger and faster vessels were placed on our 
inland waters, the chief promoters of steamboat enterpri'3es bping in Upper Canada, 
t.I
e Hon. John Hamilton of Kingston and in Lower Canada, the lIon. John Molson. 
A large and powerful steamboat interest had been created by the middle 'fifties 
when the competition of the Grand Trunk railway gave a serious blow to lake 
and river transportation. 
It was in the 'fifties also that steam navigation was established between Canada 
and Great Britain. l\lr. (afterwards Sir) Hugh Allan, of l\Iontreal was the pioI).eer 
in this important enterprise. As early as 1853 some vessels of about 1,200 tons 
capacity were placed upon the route between Montreal and Liverpool, and in 
1855 a mail contract was assigned to the Allan firm for a fortnightly service. The 
early history of this enterprise was marked by an unparalleled and most discour- 
aging series of disasters; but with unflagging courage the owners of the Allan line 
held to their task, repaired t heir los
es as best they could, and gradually succeeded 
in giving the service a high character for regularity and safety. 
The Genesis of ConfelJeration. 1 -The idea of a federation of the Briti
h 
provinëes in Korth A.merií'a had been mooted at various times. It had been 
. hinted at in the discussion in the House of Commons on the Constitutional 
or Canada Act in 1791. \\ïl1iam Lyon Mackenzie suggested it in 1825, and 
Lord Durham had given it his conRid('ration, but was led to believe it impracti('- 
ahle in his time. The idea was taken up and strongly advocated by the British 
American League, a ::;hort-lived political organization of a comwrvative c"haracter 
formed at Montreal in 1849, with branches in other cities. In 1851 the question 
was brought before the legislature, but a motion for an address to the (,lueen on 
the subject only secured bcv('n votes. In 1858, however, a strong speech in its 
favour was made by Mr. (afterwards Sir) A. T. Galt. Macdonald's government 
was defeated in 18.3H but was reconstructed Wlder Cartier with union of the 


IFor a more detailed account or the Conrederation negotiations, see Sir Joseph Pope's article, "The 
Story or Confederation," in the 1918 Year Book, pp. I-t3. 



HISTORY OF CAXADA 


71 


provinces as its policy. The political situation in Great Britain was not favour- 
able to any decisive action at the time, and some years elapsed before the 
question was taken up in a practical manner. 
Towards the close of the year 1861 the country had been greatly excited over 
the Trent difficulty with the United States. At one moment war between Great 
Britain and the republic seemed imminent. It was doubtless under the influence 
of the national feeling thus aroused, that the government led by Cartier intro- 
duced a Militia BiB of very wide scope. The government at his time was receiving 
an extremely precarious support; and on their Militia Bill they sustained a decisive 
defeat, largely owing to the unpopularity of the measure in Lower Canada. Upon 
the resignation of Cartier and his colleagues, J. S. Macdonald was entru--ted with 
t.he task of forming a government. Two short-lived administrations followed, 
when it became apparent that parliamentary government in Canada, as it was 
then constituted, had come to a dead stop. On several fundamental questions 
there was betwepn eastern and western Canada an antagonism of views which 
made it impos::;ible for any government to receive adequate support. Thus the 
idea of a larger union, with a relaxation of the bonds in which Upper find Lower 
Canada were struggling, forced itself on the attention of the leading men of both 
parties. The leader in this new path was undoubtedly Gcorge Brown, who, early 
in the session, had been appointed chairman of a committee to consider the best 
means of remedying the political difficulties referred to. The committee had 
recommended the adoption of a federative system, either as between Upper and 
Lower Canada or as between all the British North American colonies. Brown 
having consented to co-operate, if necessary, with his political opponents to that 
end, a coalition government was formed under the leadcrship of J. A. Macdonald, 
in which Brown accepted the position of President of the Council. 
At this very time the three l\Iaritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Bruns- 
wIck, and Prince Edward Island were considering the question of a federal union 
amongst themselves, and had arranged a meeting at Charlottetown in September, 
1864, to consider the matter. A delegation from the legislature of Canada attended 
to place their larger scheme before the Maritime delegates. It was agreed to 
adjourn the convention to Quebec, there to meet on the 10th October. From the 
deliberations which then took place sprang the Dominion of Canada as it exists to- 
day; for, although the federation as formed by the British North America Act only 
embraced the provinces of Ontario and Quebec (Cpper and Lower Canada), New 
Brunswick and Kava Scotia, provision was made for taking in the remaining pro- 
vinces and portions of Briti::;h 'North America, as opportunity might offer. The 
immediate effect of Confederation was to relax the tension between "Gpper and 
Lower Canada, and, by providing a wider stage of action, to give a new and enlarged 
political life to all the provinces thus brought into union. 
The political history of New Brum,wick and Xova Scotia in the period preceding 
Confederation ran paraHel in many respects with that of "Gpper and La" er Canada. 
As already mentioned, New Brunswick became a sepnrate province in 1784. Its 
first Legislative Assembly, consisting of twenty-six members, met at Fredericton 
in Jnnuary, 1785. It was to be expected that the home authorities, dealing with 
sparse populations scattered over the vast extents of territory acquired by British 
arms, should have provided for them institutions and mcthod::; of administration 
to some extent of a paternal character. It was natur,tl too that the point of view 
should in the first place be the imperial one. As result two conflicting tendencies 
arose, the tendency of the strictly colonial systcm to consolidate itself and to form 



7
 


HISTORY AND CHRO.VOLOGY 


vested interests, and the tendency of increasing population to demand for the 
people a ful1er measure of political initiative and a well defined responsibility of the 
gClvernment to the electors. The main difference between the Maritime provinces 
and the Canadas in this respect was that, while in the latter violent means were 
employed in order to bring about reforms, in the former, constitutional methods 
were strictly adhered to. In Nova Scotia, the cause of reform found its strongest 
champion in Joseph Howe; in New Brunswick the lead was taken by such men 
as E. B. Chandler aJPi L. A. 'Vilmot. For all the provinces the full recognition 
and establishment of the principle of responsible government may be as::>igned 
to the years of 1848 and 1849. 
The Confederation Agreement and the Extension of Canada.-The 
prinf'iple of representation according to population was put into operation by the 
Briti::>h North. America Act, so far as the com,titution of the elective chamber, 
henf'cforward to be called the "House of Commons," was concerned. In the 
old Canadian Legislature each section of the province returned sixty-five members. 
The new province of Quebec retained this measure of representation, and the 
other provinces wcre allowed repre:-5entation in the same proportion as sixty-five 
bore to the population of the province of Quebec. In the upper house, or "Senate," 
equality of representation was establiRhed as between Ontario and Quebec, twenty- 
four seats being given to each, while Ncw Brun::>wick and Nova Scotia were allowed 
twelve each. The debts of the several provinces were equitably provided for, 
and a payment at so much per head of population was madc for provincial expenses 
out of the federal revenue arising from customs, excise, etc. In the course of a 
few years, certain financial readjustmcnts which local circumstances seemed to call 
for were madc in the ca.';;;e of both Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
In the old province of Canada the extinction of the Hudson's Bay Company's 
claims in Rupcrt's Land and the Xorthwest and the acquisition and organization 
of those vast territories had at different times occupied the attention of the govern- 
ment. In the year 185G the subject was mtlch debated in the press, and in 1857 
Chief Justice Draper was sent to England to discuss the matter. In the speech 
from the throne in the year following the governor-general said; " Correspondence 
in relation to the Hudson's Bay Company and its territory wil1 be laid before you. 
It will be for you to consider the propositions made by Her Majesty's Secretary 
of State for the Colonies to the company and to weigh well the bearings of these 
propositions on the interests and rights of Canada. Papers will al::>o be submitted 
to you showing denrly the steps taken by the provincial government for the asser- 
tion of those intere::>ts and rights and for their future maintenance." 
It was not, however, till after Confederation that definite action was taken. 
In the first session of the Dominion Parliament an address to the Queen was adopted 
cmbodying certain resolutions moved by the Hon. William l\IcDougaH. McDougall 
and Cartier wcre sent to England to follow the matter up, and after some months 
of negotiation they succeeded in arranging for the transfer. 
The first province formed out of the ceded territory was Manitoba. The appre- 
hensions of the half-breed population that certain rights, regarded by them as 
prescriptive, would not be duly protected, retarded for some months the accession 
of the new province to the Dominion. An expeditionary force under Sir Garnet 
(later Field-Marshal Viscount) Wolseley was scnt to the disturbed region, but 
before its arrival at Fort Garry (September 24, 1870) all opposition had ceased. 
The date of the legal creation of. the province was July 15, 1870, on which date 
the Northwest Territories were also placed undcr à territorial government. The 



HISTORY OF CAN ADA 


73 


.N 


r 


7' 



 


D 


S r 


CANAD-\ AT CO
FEDER."-TION IX" 1861. 
(O
TARIO, QrEBEe, KO\'A :SCOTl.-\ AND NE\\ ßRL"X"S\HCK). 


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.,
 
+"1 


.-.....
... 

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.4' 
Z 
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E D 
S l' S 


CANADA IN 1870, SHO\\ ING TOE NEW PROVINCE OF }IAl'i--':TOßA AND THE 
NORTHWEST TERRITORIES AS THEN ORGANIZED. 



74 


HISTORY AXD CHRONOLOGY 


',J
::l" 


2' 


E 


D 


1- 
.
 
A(
> 


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1 


..... 


./I' 


s 


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C."-NAD.-\ I:S 1873, SHOWING THJ<
 ADDITION OF BRITISH CULl. 1IßIA (18ì1) AXD 
OF PRIX('E J<:UWARD I1SLAND (1873). 


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l 

 
/f"
/ ...,. 

 J 


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l7- 


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S T 


CANADA IN 1905, SIIO\H
G Tin; Nt;W PROHX('J<;S Of<' SASKATf'lIIm.-\N AND 
ALBERTA AND TIlE YI;KUN TI.;RRITUR1:". 


NOTE.-The political divisions of Canada in 1923 are sho\\n in the coloured map inserted immediately 
.beCore the table or contents. 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


75 


subsequent dcvelopment of the wholc western region, the enlargement (twice) of 
the limits of Manitoba, the creation out of the Northwest Territories of the two 
provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta and of the Yukon Territory are matters 
within recent memory. The maps on pages 73 and 74 illustrate the political 
development of Canada from 1867 to 1905. 
In 1867 British Columbia had a separate provincial Go"ernment, established 
in 1858. After the provincial Legislature had passed resolutions in favour of union 
with Canada on certain specified conditions, including the construction of a trans- 
continental railway and the maintenance of a sea service between Victoria and 
San Francisco, the Pacific province on July 20, 1871, joine! the Confederation. 
Two years later (July 1, 1873) Prince Edward Island also was admitted. 
In 1866, the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States of 1:-:G-l had been 
abrogated. The effect was temporarily depressing so far as Canada was conccrned, 
but the main result was to c.reate an active search for other markets, and in the 
same year a commission, headed by Hon. 'Ym. 'McDougall, was f'ent to the ',"est 
Jlldies and South America with that object. In the same year an attack was inade 
by the }'enians, chiefly soldiers from the disbanded armies of the northern states, 
-on t he Niagara frontier. In an engagement which took place near the village of 
Ridgeway, the Canadian volunteers sustained, for their numbers, considerable loss; 
but the enemy, hearing of the advance of a body of regular troops, made their 

scape to the American side, where they were arrested by the civil authorities. 
An important event in the early history of the Dominion was the negotiation 
of t1
e Treaty of 'Vashington (1871). The abrogation of the Reciprocity Treaty, 
had put an end to the fishing rights in British waters which, under that treaty, 
.the Americans had enjoyed. American fishermen were, however, slow to recognize 
or accept the change, and werc bpnt on enjoying the privileges to which they had 
grown accustomed. 'Yhen some of their vessels were seized and confiscated much 
ill-feeling arose; and, as the Alabama claims were still unsettled, relations between 
Great Britain and the United States were in a highly unsatisfactory condition. 
In these circumstances it was decided to refer the principal matters in dispute 
between the two countries to a joint commission, consisting of five members from 

ach; the Canadian Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, was appointed as a 
member on the British side in order that the interests of Canada might ha
e full 
representation. The Commission accomplished some useful work, inasmuch as 
. it provided a means for the settlement of the Alabama claims and of the San Juan 
qucstion; but while the Canadian Parliament ratified thc clauses relating to 
Canadian intcrests, the fecling was gencral that those interests had in a measure 
been sacrificed. The fisheries were to be thrown open to the Americans for a period 
of ten years, and a commission was to decide as to the compensation to be paid to 
Canada for the privilcge. The Americans were to havc frce navigation of the St. 
Lawrence and the w;,e of the Canadian canals on the same terms as Canadians, 
while thc latter were to have the free navigation of lake Michigan. It had been 
hoped that some compensation might be obtained for losscs inflicted by the Fenians, 
but the Americans refused absolutely to entertain the proposition. 
The government that was formed to carry Confederation undcrwent an impor- 
tant change before that event took place. George Brown resigned in the month 
of December, 1865, t.he assigned reason being that he could not agree with his col- 
leagues as to the expediency of pushing negotiations with the government at 
'Yashington on the subject of reciprocity. Later, when Confederation had been 
fully accomplished, a political question arose, namely, whethcr or not the govcrn- 



76 


HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 


ment should retain its coalition character. Sir John Macdonald was desirous of 
ret.aining his Reform colleagues, while Brown held that they should retire; they 
decided to remain. 
The first election under Confederation gave the Government a decided majority. 
The second, held in ISï2, was again favourable to the Government, tl10ugh its- 
popularity had been somewhat lessened by the dissatisfact ion with t.he Treaty 
of \Vashington, ratified the year before. Revclations maðe in 1873, as to the means 
by which election funds had been öbtained by the government brought on a Cabinet 
crisis. To avoid impcnding defeat in the House of Commons, Sir John l\Iacdonald 
resigned (Novemb
 5, 1873) and Alexander Mackenzie, the recognized lcader of 
the opposition, was called upon to form a government. A general election held 
early in the following year gave a large majority to the new administration. 
The Canadian Pacific and Intercolonial Railways.-The agreement with 
British Columbia was that the transco
tinental railway should be begun within two- 
years after its becoming a province of the Dominion and the question was engaging 
the attention of Sir John Macdonald's Government in 1872, whcn an Act was passed 
defining the conditions on which a contracting company might construct the line. 
The change of Governmcnt involved to some extent a change of policy on the rail- 
way question, but the defeat of the Mackenzie Government in September, 1878, 
threw the conduct of the enterprise again Ïhto the hands of :Macdonald. The 
plan first adopted was that the railway should be built in sections by the govern- 
ment, but the difficulties involved were such that in 1880 the work was turned 
over to a syndicate which undertook to form a company to build a road from a 
point near North Bay, Om., to the Pacific, for a cash payment of $25,000,000 and 
25,000,000 acres of land in what was known as the" Fertile Belt". The contract 
embraced other points which cannot be detailed. Certain sections of the line 
which the Government had already built, or was building, were also turned over to- 
the company. This '" as the origin of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, which 
has since become one of the most powerful corporations in the world, controlling 
13,442 miles of railway. The last spike on the main line was driven on November 
7, 1885. · 
In connection with Confederation a guarantee had been given by the Imperial 
Government of a loan of .f:3,000,000 sterling towards the construction of the Inter- 
colonial rnilway. There was considerable delay in the construction of this line, 
.which was not opened through its entire length till the year 1876. That year was 
further marked by the establishment of the Supreme Court of Canada as a court 
of appeal from provincial jurisdictions. In the following year an International 
Commission, created under the terms of the Treaty of Washington to determine 
the amount to be paid to Canada for the ten years' concession made to the United 
States in the matter of fisheries, gave an award known as the Halifax award of 
$5,500,000 in favour of Canada. 
The National Policy.-The change of Government in 1878 was generally 
recognized as due to a growing feeling in favour of a protective policy for Canad3, 
a policy which the Conservative party had adopted, but to which the Liberal 
leader, Mackenzie, was strongly opposed. A tariff, which may be taken as consti- 
tuting the first phase of what has f:ince been known as the" National Policy," 
was introduced by the then Finance Minister, Sir Leonard Tilley, in the session 
of 1879, the effect of which was to raise the customs duties to an average of about 
30 per cent. The first tariff adopted under Confederation, while establishing free 
trade among the provinces, had imposed duties averaging 15 per cent on all goods 



HISTORY OF CANADA 


77 


from abroad. This had been increased to In per cent during the Liberal régime, 
which had coincided, in the main, with a period of great financial depression. The 
new tariff was thus a decided step in the direction of protection, and was heJd to 
be justified by its effect on the trade of the country. 
The year 1880 was marked by the transfer to Canada by Imperial Order in 
Council of all Britisll possessions on the North American continent not previously 
specifically ceded. In the same year the Canadian Academy of Arts was establisll- 
cd and in the following year the Royal Society of Canada, both of which have been 
influential in promoting the cultural life of the Dominion. 
Reference lUts been made to certain troubles incident to the organization of 
a government for the province of Manitoba in 1869-70. After a lapse of fifteen years 
the same elements in the population which had tllen resisted the political change 
a.gain broke out into open rebellion (March, 1885) in the Prince Albert district of 
the territory of Saskatchewan. Militia regiments were despatched from eastern 
provinces under the command of General Sir :F. Middleton, and order was complete- 
ly restored but not without some loss of life. The same year witnessed the com- 
pletion of the Canadian Pacific railway, the last spike having been driven by Sir 
Donald A. 
mith (later Lord Stratllcona and l\Iount RoyaJ) at a point called 
Craigellachie on November 7. Canada now possessed within her territory a line 
from ocean to ocean, though the first through train from Montreal tv Vancouver 
did not pass over the line till the month of June foJIowing. 
General elections were held in the years 1882, 1887 and 1891, and on each 
occasion the Government of the day was sustained. On the last occasion, Sir John 
Macdonald, with his accustomed energy, threw himself into the campaign at a very 
inclement season of the year, but the strain was too great for his years and, when 
parliament met on April 29, he was in visibly impaired health. On June 6, 1891, 
he died, aged 76. By common consent he had done much to shape the political 
history of Canada. His gifts as leader and statesman were acknowledge I not less 
freely by opponents than by his supporters. He was succeeded as premier by Sir 
John Abbot, who had only held the position for a year and a half when the state 
of his health compelled him to retire. Sir Jolm Thompson, who su('cceded him, 
reconstructed the Government but died while in England on public business in 1894. 
Three Conservative premiers had now died in the space of three years and 
a half. Sir Mackenzie Bowell was then placed at the head of an administration 
in which certain elements of disunion soon began to manifest themselves, as a 
result of which Sir Mackenzie, on April 27, 1896, yielded the reins of Government 
of Sir Charles Tupper, who had for some years been filling the office of High Com- 
missioner for Canada in London. A question relating to the public schools of 
Manitoba had now become acute. Upon the establishment of the province a system 
of " separate schools" was organized under which the control of Catholic schoolf'l 
was left in the hands of the Catholic section of a general school board. The cancell- 
ing of this arrangement in 1890 led to protests and a demand for the "remedial 
legislation" provided for by tlle British North America Act in cases in which 
educational rights enjoyed by any section of the population before Confederation 
were abridged or disturbed by subsequent legislation. The Privy Council, to whom 
the case had finally been appealed, decided that such remedial legislation was 
called for, and the Dominion Government was consequently under obligation to 
introduce it. The question was much discussed before and during the general 
election of June, 1896, but to what extent it influenced the result is doubtful. The 
Government sustained a decisive defeat (June 23, 1896). 



78 


HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 


The Period of Rapid Development.-The death of Sir John Macdonald 
had been followed within a year by that of the Ron. Alexander Mackenzie (April 
17, 1892). The latter had not, }JOwever, been leader of the Liberal party for the 
last five years of his life, the Ron. (afterwards Sir) \Vilfrid Laurier having been 
elevated to that position after the general election of 1887. On the accession to 
office of his Government on July 13, 1895, it wa'3 recognized that the business of 
the country had adapted itself to the measure of protection provided and that any 
abrupt change would be unwise. One of the earliest measures adopted was thereduc- 
tion" by one-fourth of the customs duties chargcd upon articles the growth, produce, 
or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of certain specified British colonies, 
or of any others, the customs tariff of which was as favourable to Canada as the 
proposed preferential tariff to the colonies in question. An impediment to the 
immediate carrying into effect of tlÜs arrangement was found in the existence of 
certain commercial treaties made by Great Britain with Germany and Belgium; 
after this difficulty had been removed by the denunciation of the treaties in question, 
the reduced inter-Imperial tariff went into operation on August 1, lS
8. From 
the application of this tariff, wines, spirituous liquors and tobacco were excepted. 
This" British Preference," as it was called, was further increased to one-third in 
the year 1900, but in 1904 this method of granting a preference was abandoned in 
favour of a specially low rate of duty on almost all imported dutiable commodities. 
In a general election which took place on December 7, 1900, the Government 
was sU8tained. Rhortly afterwards Queen Victoria died and was succeeded by 
King Edward YII (January 22, 1901). It had been suggested by the Colonial 
Secretary (Mr. Clmmberlain), at the accession of the King, that advantage should 
be taken of the presence in London of the premiers and probably other ministers 
of the self-governing colonies of the Empire, on the occasion of the coronation, to 
discuss various matters of imperial import, and a conference at which he presided 
was opened on June 30 and rcmained in session till August 11. At this conference 
a number of important resolutions were a
opted, including one recognizing the 
principle of preferential trade within the Empire and favouring its extension, and 
another recommending the reduction of postage on newspapers and periodicals 
between different parts of the Empire, to which effect was subsequently given. 
The development of Canada during tIle last twenty years, in pùpula.tion, 
commerce and industry has been very marked, and has been especially conspicuous 
in her western provinces. The Northwest Territories, which at first were governed 
from \Vinnipeg-the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba being also Lieutenant- 
Governor of the territories-were organized as the provisional districts of Assi- 
niboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Athabaska on May 17, 1882, under a Lieutenant- 
Governor of their own and with the seat of government at Regina. \Vith the 
growth of population they rapidly advanced towards provincial status, and on 
September, 1905, the four territories were organized as the two provinces of Saskat- 
chewan and Albcrta, with capitals at Regina and Edmonton respectively. Their 
subsequent progress has been even more remarkable, owing to the large volume of 
population they have annually received both from the United States and from 
European countries, in addition to settlers from eastern Cn,nn,da. The discovery 
of gold in the Yukon country led to its organization as the Yukon Territory (June 
13, 1898), and as such it rcturns a member to the House of Commons. The 
mining of gold and silver in Canada led to the establishment at Ottawa (January 
2, 1908) of a branch of the Royal Mint, where gold, silver, nickel and copper coins 
are struck for circulation in the Dominion. 




 


HISTORY OF CANA.DA 


79 


Two very important arbitrations in wllich Canada was much interested have 
taken place since 1890, the first relating to the rights possessed by British subjecte 
in the seal fisheries of Behring sea, and the second as to the bOlmdary between 
Alaska (purchased by the United States from Russia in 18(7) and Canada. In 
the first case the claims advanced, mainly on behalf of Canada by Great Britain, 
were fully upheld (September, 1893). In the second there was some disappoint- 
ment in Canada over the award (October, 1903), which did not, however, in any 
serious degree affect Canadian interests. 
Canada's Part in the South African War.-In the year 1899, the difficulties 
which had arisen between the British government and the Transvaal, on the sub- 
ject of the legal disabilities under which British subjects in that country were labour- 
ing, resulted in a declaration of war by the Republic. Sympathy with the MotHer 
Country became so acute in Canada-as also in New Zealand and Australia- 
that the Government felt impelled to take a share in the struggle by sending Cana- 
dian troops to the scene of action. A first cont.ingent of the Royal Canadian 
Regiment left Quebec on the steamer Sardinian on October 30, 1899. Others of 
this force followed, numbering in all 1,150 officers and men, while Mounted Rifles, 
Royal Canadian Dragoons and an artillery corps were also despatched to the front. 
In addition, Lord Strathcona sent out, at hi
 own e
pense, a special mounted force 
of 597 officers and men. A total of 3,Om officers and men were despatched to 
South Africa in the years 1899 and 1900. The Canadian troops distinguishcd them- 
selves by their bravery, part.icularly in the battle of Paardebcrg (February 27, 
1900) in which the Boer general, Cronje, WI'J.S forced to surrender. In 1901 there 
was a further enlistment in Canada of Mounted Rifles to the number of 900, at 
the expense of the Imperial Government, and also of 1,200 men for service in the 
South Mrican constabulary. 
Conclusion.-Politically, during the greater part of the pre-war period, 
Canada remained under the Government of Sir 'Wilfrid Laurie.r, which, however, 
was defeated in 1911 on the issue of freer trade relations with the United States. 
The succeeding Conservative Government, under Sir Robert L. Borden, held office 
during the earlier 'part of the Great 'Yar, but toward its close broadened out to 
include Liberals who beli{'ved in the application of a measure of conscription to re- 
inforce the Canadians at the front. The Union Government, still under Sir Robert 
Borden, was sustained at tlle election of December, 1917, and remained in office 
throughout the remainder of the war ånd demobilization period, but the Liberals 
who had consented in a great emergency to support it, one by one retraced their 
steps. Finally, the increasing weakness of the Government led its new lender, Mr. 
Arthur Meighen, to appeal to the country, which, in December, 1921. returned to 
power the Liberals under Mr. Mackenzie King, who had succeeded Sir \\ïlfrid 
Laurier as Liberal leader on the death of the latter in 1919. A notable feature of 
the election wn,S the return to the House of Commons of 65 Progressive members, 
mainly agriculturists from Ontario and the Prairie provinces, their number consider- 
ably exceeding that of the Conservatives in the new Parliament. 
Economically, the period between 1900 and the outbreak of the war was one 
of rapid expansion, owing largely to the great influx of immigrant labour (see sub- 
section "Immigration "), and of capita], the total outside capital invested in 
Canada in 1914 being estimated at 
3,500,000,OOO, nearly 80 p.c. of which was 
British. This capital was largely inve-,;tcd in the construction of the new trans- 
continental railways, which had been enabled to secure it partly through the 
guaranteeing of their bond
 by Dominion and Provincial Governments. The 



80 


HISTORY Az...-D CHRONOLOGY 


untimely ending of the rapid growth period owing to the war, revealed that these 
railways could not meet their ob]igations, and the result was nationalization along 
the lines of the Drayton-Acworth report. (See sub-section" Steam Railways "). 
During and since the war, investments in Canada by the capitalists of the 
United StatEs have greatly increased and at the commencement of 1923 Canada's 
total indebtcdness to the outside world has been estimated at $5,250,000,000, about 
$2,750,000,000 to the United Kingdom and $2,500,000,000 to the United States. 
, But while indebtedness has thus increased, nationaJ weahh and national income 
have grown at least proportionately with these obligations to the people of other 
countrics. Our intelligent and industrious population can still face the future 
with confidence. 
The history of Canada has now been covered in briefest outline down to the 
commencemcnt of the war. The history of the war and Canada's part in it was 
dealt with in the leading article of the 1919 Year Book; the story of reconstruction 
in Canada h[ts been summarized in the leading article of the 1920 Year Book; a 
dcscription of the changes brought about by the war in the imperial and inter- 
national status of Canada will be found in the next section of the present volume; 
to these articles the interested reader is referred. 


II.-CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CANADA, 1497 to 1923. 


1497. June 24, E:lstern coast of North 
America discovered by John Cabot. 
1498. Cabot discovers Hudson strait. 
1501. Gaspar Corte Real visits New- 
foundland and Labrador. 
1524. Verrazano explores the coast of 
Nova Scotia. 
1534. June 21, Landin/1; of Jacques Cartier 
at Esquimaux bay. 
1535. Carticr's second voyage. lIe as- 
cends the St. Lawrence to Stada- 
cona (Quebec), (Sept. 14), and 
Hochelal1;a (Montreal), (Oct. 2). 
1541. Cartier's third voyage. 
1542-3. Dc Rouerval and his party winter 
at Cap Rouge, and are rescued 
by Cartier on his fourth voyage. 
1557. Sept. I, Death of Cartier at :::)t.Malo, 
France. 
1592. Straits of .Juan de Fuca discovered 
by df' Fuea. 
lß03. June 22, Champlain's first landing 
in Canada, at Quebec. 
lßO.3. Founding of Port Uoyal (Anna- 
polis, N.S.). 
lß08. Champlain's seeond vi
it. July 3, 
Founding of Quebec. 
lß09. .July, Champlain discovers lake 
Champlain. 
1610-11. Hmlson f'xplores Hudson bay 
and James bay. 
1611. Brulé ascends the Ottawa river. 
1612. Oct. 15, Champlain made lieu- 
tenant-general of New Franee. 
1613. June, Champlain ascends the Ottawa 
river. 
1615. Champlain e"\plores lakes Nipis- 
sing, Huron and Ontario. (Dis- 
covered by Brulf anù Le Caron). 


1616. First schools opened at Three Rivers 
and Tadoussac. 
l(j20. Population of Quebec, 60 persons. 
1621. Code of laws issued, and register 
of births, deaths and marriages 
opened in Quebec. 
1622. Lake Supprior discovered by Brulê. 
1623. First British settlement of Nova 
Scotia. 
1627. New France and Acadia granted 
to the Company of 100 Associates. 
1628. Port Royal taken by Sir David 
Kirke. 
1629. April 24, Treaty of Susa between 
France and England. July 20, 
Quebec taken by :::;ir David IGrke. 
1632. March 29, Canada and Acadia 
restored to France by the Treaty 
of St. Gf'rmain-en-Laye. 
1633. May 23, Champlain made first 
governor of New France. 
1634. July 4, Founding of Three Rivers. 
1634-35. E"ploration of the Great Lakes 
by Nicolet. 
1635. Dec. 25, Death of Champlain at 
Quebec. 
1638. June 11, First recorded earthquake 
in Canada. 
1640. Discovery of lake Erie by Chau- 
monot and Bré heuf. 
1641. Resident population of New France, 
240. 
1642. May 17, founding of Ville-Marie 
(:Montreal) . 
1646. Exploration of the Saguenay by 
Dablon. 
1647. Lake St. John discovered by de 
Quen. 



CHROYOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CiLYAIJA. 


81 


1648. :March 5, Council of New France 
ereated. 
1649. March 16-17, 
lurder of Fathers 
Brébeuf and Lalemant by Indians. 
16J4. Aug., Amdia takpn by an expe- 
dition from New England. 
16.55. Nov. 3, Aeadia restored to France 
by the Treaty of Westminster. 
1639. June 16, François de Laval arrives 
in Canada as Vicar-Apostolic. 
1660. :May 21, Dollanl dps Ormeau"'{ and 
si"teen companions killed at the 
Lon!!: Sault, Ottawa river. 
1663. Company of 100 Associates dis- 
solved. Feb. 5, severe earth- 
quake. April, Sovereign Council of 
Kew France f'stahlislwd. Popula- 
tion of Kew France, 2,WO, of whom 
800 were in Quebec. 
1664. May, Company of the West Indies 
founded. 
1665. Mar. 23, Talon appointed intendant. 
Population of New France, 3,21.';. 
1667. July 21, Aeadia restored to Franee 
by the Treaty of Breda. White 
population of New France, 3,918. 
1668. Mission at Sault Ste. Marie founded 
by Marquette. 
1670. :May 13, Charter of the Hudson's 
Bay Comp'lny grant d. 
1671. Population of Af'adia, 441. 
1672. Population of Kew France, 6,705. 
April 6, Comte de Frontenac 
governor. 
1673. June 13, Cataraqui (Kingston) 
founded. 
1674. Oct. I, Laval becomes first Bishop 
of Quebee. 
1675. Population of Kew Franre, 7,832. 
1678. Xiagara Falls visited by Hennepin. 
1679. Ship Le Griffon built on Kiagara 
river above the falls by La Salle. 
Population of New France, 9,400; 
of Aeadia, 51!í. 
1682. Frontenac recalled. 
1683. Population of New France, 10,2.51. 
16R,'). C'ard money issued. 
1686. Population of New France, 12,373; 
of Acadia, 88.5. 
1687. March 18, La Salle assassinatpd. 
1689. June 7, Frontcnac reappointed gover- 
nor. Aug. 5, Massac.re of whites by 
Indians-at Laehine. 
1690. May 21, Sir William Phipps captures 
Port Royal, but is repulsed in an 
attack on Quebec (Oct. 16-21). 
1691. Kelsey, of the Hudson's Bay Co.. 
reaehes the Rocky Mountains. 
1692. Population of New Franee, 12,431. 
Oct. 22, Defence of Verchères 
against Indians by Magdeleine 
de Verchères. 
1693. Population of Acadia, 1,009. 
1697. Sept. 20, by the Treaty of Rys- 
wiek, places taken during the 
war are mutually restored. 
D'Iberville defeats the Hudson's 
Bay Co.'s ships on Hudson Bay. 
1698. Nov. 28, Dpath of Frontenac. Popula- 
tion of K ew France, 15,355. 
62373-6 


1703. June 16, SovereiJ:m Couneil of Canada 
becomes Superior Council and 
membership increased from 7 to 12. 
1706. Population of Kew France, 16,417. 
1709. British invasiol1 of Canada. 
1710. Oct. 13, Port Royal taken by Nichol- 
son. 
1711. Sept. 1, Part of Sir H. Walker's 
flcet, procpeding against Quebec, 
\\ re(' ked off the Sew'n Islands. 
'1713. April 11, Trpaty of Utref'ht; Hud- 
son bay, Acadia and N e" found- 
land ceded to Great Britain. 
Aug., Louisbourg founc!('d by the 
Freneh. Population of New France, 
18,119. 
1720. Population of New Fmnre, 24.234, 
of Isle' St. Jean (P.E.I.), about 
100. April 2.), Gon
rnor and 
C'oundl of 
ova Scotia appointed. 
1721. June ]9, burning of about one half 
of Montreal. 
1727. Population of New Francp, 30,613. 
1728. Population of Isle 
t. Jean (F.E.I.), 
330. 
1731. Population of the north of the penin- 
sula of A('adia, 6,0.00. 
1734. Road opened from Quebec to Mon- 
treal. Population of New France, 
37,716. 
1737. Iron smelted at St. Maurire. French 
population of the north of the 
Acadia peninsula. 7, !í{18. 
1739. Population of l'\ew Franre. 42,701. 
174,5. June 17, Taking of Louisbourg by 
Pf'ppcrell and Warren. 
1747. Marquis de La Jonquière appointed 
govprnor, raptured at sea by the 
English, took offiee A Jig. I.';, 1749. 
1748. Ort. ]8, Treaty of Aix-Ia-Chapelle. 
Louisbourg restored to France in 
e"chan!!:e for :\Iadras. 
1749. June 21, Founding of Halifax. British 
immigrants brought to Nova Srotia 
by Governor Cornwallis, 2,544 
persons. Fort Rouillé (Toronto) 
built. 
1750. St. Paul's Church, Halifa" (oldest 
An
dÌC'an church in Canada) huilt. 
1752. :\larch 2.5, Issue of the Halifax 
"Gazette," first pappr in C'an- 
ada. British and German popula- 
tion of Kova Smtia, 4,203. May 
17, Death of. La .Jonquière. 
1754. Population of Kcw Fraure, !),'J,OOO. 
1755. July 10, 
Iarqui8 de Vauùreuil- 
C'avagnal govprnor. Sept. 10, 
E"pulsion of the A.cadians Crom 
Nova 
cotia. 
1756. f1even Years' ,,,oar between Great 
Britain and Franre. 
1758. July 26, :Final capture of Louis- 
bourg by the British. Oct. 7, 
First mpeting oC the Legislature 
of Noya Seotia. 
1759. July 2.';, Taking of :Fort Niag3;ra 
by the British. July 26, Beg;m- 
ning of the Sicge of Quebec. July 
31, Frenrh virtory at Beauport 
Flats. Sept. 13, Defeat of the 



82 


HISTORY AND CHROSOLOGY 


French on the Plains of Abraham. 
Death of Wolfe. Sept. 14, Death 
of Montcalm. Sept. 18, Surrender 
of Quebec. 
1i60. April 28, Victory of the French 
under Levis at Ste. Foy. Sept. 8, 
Surrender of Montreal. Military 
rule set up in Canada. Popula- 
tion of New France, 70.000. 
1762. British population of Nova Scotia, 
8.104. First British settlement in 
New Brunswick. 
1763. Feb. 10, Treaty of Paris by which 
Canada and its dependencies arc 
ceded to the British. May, 
Rising of Indians undcr Pontiac, 
who take a number of forts and 
defeat the British at Bloody Run 
(July 31). Oct. 7, Civil govern- 
ment proclaimed. Cape Breton 
and Isle St. Jean annexed to Nova 
Scotia; Labrador, Anticosti and 
Magdalen islands to Newfound- 
land. Nov. 21, General Jas. Murray 
appointed governor in chief. First 
Canadian post offices established 
at Montreal, Three Rivers and 
Quebec. 
1764. June 21, First issue of- the Quebec 
"Gazette." Aug. 13, Civil goyern- 
ment established. 
1765. Publication of till' first book printed 
in Canada, "Catéchisme du Diocèse 
de Sens." May 18, 
lontreal nearly 
de!-.troyed by fire. Population of 
Canada, 69.810. 
1766. July 24, Peace made with Pontiac 
at Os\\ego. 
1768. Charlottetown, P.E.I. founded..April 
] 1, Great fire at Montreal. April 
12. Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dor- 
chester) governor in chief. 
1i69. Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island) 
separated from 
ova Scotia, with 
governor and council. 
li7Q-72. Hearne's journey to the Cop- 
permine and Slave rivers and 
Great Slave lake. 
1ï73. Suppression of the order of Jesuits 
in ('anada and escheat of their 
estates. 
1íi4. Junf' 22, Thf' QUf'her Act passed. 
1775. May 1, The Quehec Act comes 
into force. Outbreak of the 
American Revolution. M 0 n t- 
gomery and Arnold invade Canada. 
N ov. 12, Montgomery takes Mon- 
treal; Dec. 31, is defeated and 
killed in an attack on Queber. 
1776. The Americans are defeated and 
driven from Canada by Carlf'ton. 
1777. Sept. 18, General Frederick Haldi- 
mand governor in chief. 
1778. Captain Jas. Cook explores Noot- 
ka sound and claims the north- 
west coast of America for Great 
Britain. June 3, First issue of 
the Montreal "Gazette." 
1783. Sept. 3, Treaty of Versailles, recog- 
nizing the independence of the 
Unitf'd States. Organization of 
the Northwest Company at Mont- 


1784. 


real. Kingston, Ont.. and Sf. John. 
N.B., founded by United Empire 
Loyalists. 
Population of Canada, 113,012. 
Aug. 16, New Brunswick and (Aug. 
26) Cape Breton separated from 
N ova Scotia. 
May ]8, Inrorporation of Parrtown 
(St. John, K.B.). 
April 22, Lord Dorchester again 
governor in chief. Oct. 23; Govern- 
ment of New Brunswick moved 
from St. John to Fredcricton. 
C. Inglis appointed Anglican bishop 
of Kova :-;cotia-first colonial 
bishopric in the British Empire. 
King's College, Windsor, N.S. 
opened. Sailing packet service 
established between Great Brit- 
ain and Halifax. 
Quebec and Halifax Agricultural 
Societies established. 
Spain surrenders her exclusive rights 
on the Paci fic coast. Population 
of Canada, 161,311. (This census 
does not include what becomes in 
the next year Upper Canada.) 
The Constitutional Act divides the 
provinre of Quebec into Upper 
and Lo\\er Canada, each with 
a lieutenant-governor and legis- 
lature. The Act goes into force 
Dec. 26. Sept. 12, Colonel J. G. 
Simcoe, first lieutenant-governor 
of Upper Canada. 
Sept. 17, Fin,t legislature of Upper 
Canada opened atN ewark(Niagara). 
Dec. 17, First legislature of Lower 
Canada opened at Quebec. Van- 
couver island circumnavigated by 
Vancouver. 
April 18, First issue of the "Ppper 
Canada Gazette." June 28, Jacob 
Mountain appointed first Angliran 
bishop of Quebec. July 9, Importa- 
tion of slaves into Upper Canada 
forbidden. Rocky M 0 u n t a ins 
crossed by (Sir) Alexander Marken- 
zie. York (Toronto) founded by 
Simcoe. 
Nov. 19, Jay's Treaty betwf'en 
Great Britain and the "Lnitl'd 
States. 
Pacific Coast of Canada finally 
given up by the Spaniards. 
Government of Upper Canada moved 
from Niagara to York (Toronto). 
St. John's Island (population 4.500) 
rc-named Prince Edward Island. 
Founding of New Brunswick 
College, Fredericton (now Uni- 
versity of N .B.). The Rocky 
Mountains crossed by David 
Thompson. 
Settlers sent by Lord Selkirk to 
Prince Edward Island. 
Nov. 22, Issue of "Le Canadien" 
-first wholly French ne\\spaper. 
Population- t pper Canada, 70.718; 
Lower Canada, 2....0.000; New Bruns- 
wick, 35,000; P.E.I., 9,676. 


1i85. 
1786. 


1787. 


li88. 


1789. 
1790. 


1i9!. 


1792. 


1793. 


1794. 


1795. 
1796. 


1798. 
1800. 


1803. 
1806. 



CHROXOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CAXADA. 


83 


1807. Simon Fraser explores the Fraser 
river. Estimated population of 
Nova Scotia, 65,000. 
1809. Nov. 4, First Canadian steamer 
runs from Montreal to Quebec. 
1811. Lord Selkirk's Red River settle- 
ment founded, on land granted by 
Hudson's. Bay Company. 
1812. June 18, Declaration of war by 
the United States. July 12, 
Americans under Hull cross the 
Detroit river. Aug. 16, Detroit 
surrendered by Hull to Brock. 
Oct. 13, Defeat of the Americans 
at Queenston Heights and death 
of Gen. Brock. 
1813. Jan. 22, British victory at French- 
town. April 27, York (Toronto) 
taken and burned by the Ameri- 
cans. June 5, British victory at 
Stoney Creek. June 24, British, 
warned by Laura Secord, captured 
an American force at Beaver 
Dams. Sept. 10, Commodore Per- 
ry destroys the British flotilla on 
lake Erie. Oct. 5, Americans 
under Harrison defeat the British at 
Moraviantown. Tecumseh killed. 
Oct. 26, Victory of French-Cana- 
dian troops under de Salaberry 
at Chateauguay. Nov. 11, Defeat 
of the Americans at Crysler's 
Farm. British storm Fort Niagara 
and burn Buffalo. 
1814. March 30, Americans repulsed at 
La Colle. ::\Iay 6, Capture of 
Oswego by the British. July 5, 
American victory at Chippawa. 
July 25, British victory at Lun- 
dy's Lane. July. British from 
Nova Scotia invade and occupy 
northern Maine. Sept. 11, British 
defeat at Plattsburg on lake Cham- 
plain. Dec. 24. Treaty of Ghent 
ends the war. Population - Upper 
Canada, 95,000; Lower Canada, 
. 335,000. 
1815. July 3, Treaty of London regulates 
trade with the United Htates. 
The Red River settlement destroy- 
ed by the Northwest Company 
but restored by Governor Semple. 
1816. June 19, Governor Semple killed. 
The Red River settlement again 
destroyed. 
1817. July 18, First treaty \\ ith the 
Northwest Indians. Lord Hdkirk 
restores the Réd River settlement. 
Opening of the Bank of Montreal; 
first- note issued Oct. 1. Popula- 
tion of Nova Scotia, 81,351. 
1818. Oct. 20, Convention at London 
regulating North American fish- 
eries. Dalhousie College, Halifax. 
founded. Bank of Quebec founded. 
1819-22. Franklin's overland Arctic ex- 
pedition. 
1820. Oct. 16, Cape Breton re-annexed to 
Nova Scotia. 
1821. March 26, The Northwest Com- 
pany absorbed by the Hudson's 
62373-6! 


1822. 
1824. 
1825. 


Bay Company. Charter given to 
McGill College. 
Population of Lower Canada, 427,46.5. 
Population of Upper Canada, 150,066; 
of New Brunswick, 74,176. 
Oct. 6, Great fire in the Miramichi 
district, N.B. Opening of the 
Lachine canal. Population of 
Lower Canada, 479,288. 
Founding of Bytown (Ottawa). 
Sept. 29, Convention of London 
relating to the territory west of 
the Rocky mountains. Popula- 
tion of Nova Scotia, including 
Cape Breton, 123,630. 
The Methodist Church of Upper 
Canada separated from that of the 
United States. 
Nov. 27, First WeIland canal opened. 
Upper Canada College founded. 
June 1, The North Magnetic Pole 
discovered by (Sir) James Ross. 
Population Upper Canada, 
236,702; Lower Canada, 553,131; 
Assiniboia, 2,390. 
Outbreak of cholera in Canada. 
Incorporation of Qupbec and Mon- 
treal. Bank of N ova Scot ia 
founded. May 30, opening of the 
Rideau canal. 
Aug. 18, The steamer 1coyal William, 
built at Quebec, leaves Pictou for 
England. 
Feb. 21, The Ninety-two Resolu- 
tions on public grievances passed 
by the Assembly of Lower Can- 
ada. Mar. 6, Incorporation of 
Toronto. Population of Upper 
Canada, 321,143; of New Bruns- 
wick, 119,457; of AssiniiJoia, 3,3:>6. 
July 21, Opening of the first rail- 
way in Canada from Laprairie to 
St. John's, Que. Victoria Uni- 
versity opened at Cobourg (after- 
wards moved to Toronto). 
Rf'port of the Canada Commis- 
sioners. Rebellions in Lower 
Canada (Papineau) and Upper 
Canada (W. L. :Mackenzie). Nov. 
23, Gas lighting first used in 
Montreal. 
Feb. 10, Constitution of Lower 
Canada suspended and Spccial 
Council created. March 30, The 
Earl of Durham governor in chief. 
April 27, Martial law revoked. 
June 28, Amnesty to political 
prisoners proclaimed. Nov. 1, Lord 
Durham, censured by British parlia- 
ment, resigns. Populat.ion- Upper 
Canada, 339,422; Assiniboia, 3,966; 
Nova Scotia, 202,575. 
Feb. 11, Lord Durham's report 
submitted to parliament. John 
Strachan made first Anglican bishop 
of Toronto. 
July 23, Passing of the Ac
 of Un
on. 
First ship of the Cunard lme arnveð 
at Halifax. July 28, death of Lord 
Durham. 


1826. 
1827. 


1828. 


1829. 
1831. 


1832. 


1833. 


1834. 


1836. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 



84 


HISTORY AND CHROKOLOGY 


1841. Feb. to, Union of the h\o provinces 
-as the province of Canaùa, with 
I\.ing::.ton as eapital. Feb. 13, 
Draper-Ogden administration. 
April 10, Halifax incorporated. 
June 13, Meeting of first united 
Parliament. Sept. 19, Death of 
Lord 
ydenham. Population of 
Upper Canada, 45.),688; of P.E.I., 
4ï ,042. 
1842. :March 10, Opening of Queen's Univer- 
sity, King::.ton. Aug. 9, The Ash- 
hurton Treaty. Sept. 16, Baldwin- 
Lafontaine admini::;tration. 
1843. June 4, Vietoria, B.C. found('d. 
Dcc. 12, Draper-Viger administra- 
tion. King's (now l'niversity) Col- 
lege, Toronto, opened. 
1844. May 10, Capital moved from I\:ing- 
:,.ton to Montreal. Knox College, 
Toronto, founded. Population of 
Lo" ('r Canada, 697,084. 
184.5. May 2R and June 28, Great fires 
at Quebec. Franklin starts on 
his last Aretir e}..pcdition. 
1846. May 18, Kingston ineorporated. June 
15, Oregon Boundary Treaty. June 
18, Draper-Papineau ad ministration. 
1847. May 29, Shen\Ood-Papineau admin- 
istration. Electric tplpgraph s( r- 
vicp opened; Aug. 3, 1\1ontreal to 
Toronto; Oct. 2, 1\[ontreal to Que- 
her. Nov. 23, Montreal-Laehine 
railway opened. 
1848. Man'h 11, Lafontaine-Baldwin 
administration. May 30, Frf'df'r- 
icton incorporated. Responsible 
gOH'rnment granted to Nova Scotia 
and Xew Brunswiek. 
1849. April 2.'), Signing of the Rebellion 
Losses Act, rioting in Montreal 
and burning of the Parliament 
buildings. K ov. 14, Toronto made 
the Capital. Yancouver island 
granted to the Hudson's Bay ('om- 
pany. Population of Assiniboia, 
5,391. 
18.51. April 6, Transfer of the postal systf'm 
from the British to the Provincial 
Government: uniform rate of post- 
age introduced. April 23, Pm,tage 
stamps issued. Aug. 2, Incorpora- 
tion of Trinity Collf'gf', Toronto. 
Sept. 22, Queb('e lwcomes the 
Capital. Oct. 2S, Hinrks-!\iorin 
admini::;tration. Res p 0 n sib 1 e 
government grantt.d to Prince 
Edward Island. Population - 
Fpper Canada, 9:")2,0.04; Lo\\er 
Canada, 890,261; Kew Brunswick, 
HJ3,800; Nova Scotia, 276,854. 
1852. July 8, Great fire at Montreal. Dec. 
8, Laval University, Quebec, open- 
ed. The Grand Trunk railway 
chartered. 
1854. June 5, R('ciprocity Treaty with the 
Pnited 
tates. Sept. 11, MacNab- 
:\Iorin m ini::;try. 
eign('urial tenure 
in Lower Canada aholished. Secu- 
larization of the rl<< rgy r('s('rv('s. 
1855. Jan. 1, Incorporation of Ottawa. 
Jan. 27, 
[arNab-Taché administra- 


tion. March 9, Opening of the 
Niaf!:ara suspension bridge. April 
17, Incorporation of Charlottetown. 
Oct. 20, Government moved to 
Toronto. 
1836. The Legislative Counril of Canada 
is made elertive. First meeting 
of the kgislature of Vancouver 
island. l\lay 2;!, Taché-J. A. :\Iac- 
donald administration. Oct. 27, 
Opening of the Grand Trunk rail\\ay 
from 1\lontr('al to Toronto. Popu- 
lation of .Assiniboia, 6,691. 
1857. Nov. 26, J. A. Macdonald-Cartier 
administration. Dec. 31, Ottawa 
ehosen by Quecn VictOJia as 
future capital of Canada. 
1858. Feh., Dis('overy of gold in Fraser 
River valley. July I, Intro- 
durtion of Canadian decimal cur- 
rency. Aug. 2, Bro-wn-Dorion 
administration. Aug. 5, Comple- 
tion of the Atlantic cable: first 
message ::;ent. Aug. 6, Cartier- 
J. A. Mardonald administration. 
Aug. 20, Colony of British Columhia 
established. Control of Van('ouver 
island surrendered by the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 
1859. Jan., Canadian silver coinage issued. 

ept. 24, Government moved to 
Quebf'c. 
1860. Aug. 8, The Prince of Wales (King 
Erh\ard VII) arrives at Quebec. 
Sept. I, Laying of the corner stone 
of the Parliament buildings at 
Ottawa by the Prince of \Vales. 
Prince of \\ales College, Charlotte- 
to"n, founded. 
1861. Aug. 14, Great flood at 1\Iontreal. 
Sept. 10, Meeting of the first 
Anglican provincial synod. Popula- 
tion- Upper Canada, 1,396,091; 
lower Canada, 1,1l1,
66; New 
Brunswick, 2.j2,04i; 
O\'a Scotia, 
330,S.5i: Prince Edward Island, 
80,R.'jï. 
1862. May 24, 8andfield Macdonald-Sicotte 
administration. Aug. 2, Victoria, 
B.C., incolporated. 
1863. May 16, 
andficld Macdonald-Dorion 
administration. 
1864. March 30, Tarhé-J. A. Macdonald 
administration. Conferences on 
confederation of Briti::;h North 
A.meril'a; 
ept. I, at Charlotte- 
to\\n; Oct. 10-29, at Quebec. 
Oct. 19, Raid of Amf'rican Con- 
CPderates from Canada on St. 
Albans, Y crmont. 
1865. Feb. 3, The Canadian J,egislature 
resolves on an address to the 
Queen praying for union of the 
provinee::; of British 
 orth Amerira. 
AUf!:. 7, Belleau-J. A. Macdonald 
administration. Oct. 20, Proclam- 
ation fixing the scat of government 
at Ottawa. 
1866. :Mar. 17, Termination of the Reci- 
procity Treaty by the United 
States. May 31, Raid of Fenians 
from the Gnited Statcs into Can- 



CHROXOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CA.I\-ADA. 


85 


ada; they are defeated at Ridge- 
way (June 2) and retreat across the 
border (June 3). June 8, First 
meeting at Ottawa of the Canadian 
legislature. Nov. 17, Proclamation 
of the union of Vancouver island 
to British Columbia. 
1867. March 29, Royal assent given to 
the British North America Act. 
July 1, The Act comes into force; 
Union of the provinces of Canada, 
Kova Scotia and New Brunswick 
as the Dominion of Canada; Upper 
and Lower Canada made separate 
provinces as Ontario and Quebec; 
Viscount Monck first governor 
gpneral, Sir John A. Macdonald 
premier. Kov. 6, Meeting of the 
fi rst Dominion Parliament. 
1868. April 7, Murder of D' Arcy McGee 
at Ottawa. July 31, The Rupert's 
Land .Act authorizes the acqui- 
sition by the Dominion of the 
Northwest Territories. 
1869. June 22, Act pro\'iding for the govern- 
ment of the ::-Jorthwest Territories. 
!'\ov. 19, Deed of surrender to the 
Crmvn of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's territorial rip:hts in the 

orthwest. Outbreak of the Red 
Rivèr Rebellion under Riel. 
1870. May 12, Act to establish the province 
of Manitoba. July 15, Northwest 
Territories transferred to the Dom- 
inion and Manitoba admitted into 
Confederation. Sept. 24, Wolseley's 
expedition reaches Fort Garry (Win- 
nipeg); end of the rebellion. 
1871. April 2, First Dominion census 
(populations at this and succeeding 
enumerations given in :<cctior1 on 
population). _\.pril 14, Act estab- 
lishing uniform currency in the 
Dominion. )J ay 8, Treaty of 
\Yashington, dealing with questions 
outstanding bet ween the U mted 
Kingdom and enited States. July 
20, British Columbia enters Con- 
federation. 
1873. l\Iareh 5, Opening of the second 
Dominion Parliament. ::\J ay 23, 
Act establishing the l\orthwest 
Mounted Police. July 1, Prince 
Fd\\ard Island enters Confedera- 
tion. Koy. 7, Ale:\.ander Mac- 
kenzie premier. Kov. 8, Incor- 
poration of Winnipeg. 
1874. Mareh 26, {ìpening of the third 
Dominion Parliament. May, Ont- 
ario .\gricultural rollege, Guelph, 
opened. 
1875. April 8, Thë Northwest Territories 
Act establishes a Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor and rouneil of the Korthwest 
Territories. June 15, Formation of 
the Presbyterian rhurrh of Canada. 
1876. June I, Opening; of the l{oyalMilitary 
College, Kingston. June 5, First 
sitting of the 
upreme Court of 
ranada. .July 3, Opening of the 
Intercolonial Railway from Quebec 
to Halifax. 


1877. June 20, Great fire at St. John, N.B. 
Oct., First e\.portation of wheat 
from Manitoba to the "Lnited 
King;dom. :Founding of the Uni- 
versity of ::\J:anitoba. 
1878. July 1, Canada joins the International 
Postal Cnion. Oct. 17, Sir J. A. 
::\Iacdonald premier. 
1879. Feb. 13. Opening of the fourth Dom- 
inion Parliament. ::\ray 15, .\dop- 
tion of a protective tariff ("The 
K ational Policy"). 
1880. Royal Canadian Academy of Arts 
founded, first meeting and exhi- 
bition, l\J arch 6. l\T ay 11, Sir 
A. T. Galt appoint'd first Cana- 
dian High Commissioner in Lon- 
don. Sept. 1, All British posses- 
sions in North America and 
adjacent islands, except K ew- 
found land and its dependencies, 
anne\.ed tú Canada by T mperial 
Order in Council Gt July 31. Oct. 
21, Signing úf the contract for 
the construction of the Canadian 
P'1cific rail\\ay. 
1881. April 4, Second Dominion census. 
}]ay 2, First sod turned of the 
Canadian Pacific railway. 
1882. )Tay 8, Provisional Districts of 
Assmiboia, 
askatchewan, Atha- 
baska and Alberta formed. May 
25, l'ïrst meeting of the ROYái 
Soeiety of Canada. Aug. 23, 
Hegina established as seat of 
government of K orthwest Terri- 
tories. 
1883. Feb. 1, Opening of the fifth Dom- 
inion Parliament. f'ept.5, 
Formation of the Methodist Church 
in Canaùa; "Cnited Conference. 
1884. May 24, Sir Charles Tupper High 
Commissioner in London. .Aug. 11, 
Order in Council settling the 
boundary of Ontario and Mani- 
toba. . 
1885. March 26, Outbreak of Rid's second 
rebellion in the Korthwest. 
ð,pril 
24, Engagement at Fish Creek. 
May 2, Engagement at Cut Knife. 
:May 12, Taking of I3atoche. May 
16, Surrender of Hiel. _\u
. 
-t, 
First census' of the Korth west 
Territories. K ov. 16, Execution 
of Riel. 
1886. April 6, Incorporation of Vancouver. 
June 1, Archbishop Taschereau 
of Quebec made first Canadian 
cardinal. June 13, Yanmuver de- 
stroyed by fire. June 28. First 
through train on the Canadian 
Pacific railway from ::\J ontreal to 
VaurouYer. July 31, First quin- 
quennial censuS of )J anitoua. 
1887. Interprovincial Conference at Quebec. 
April 4, First Intercolonial Con- 
ference in London. 
-\pril 13, Open- 
ing of the si\th Dominion Parlia- 
mpnt. 
1888. Feb. 15, Sigmng of Fishery Treaty 
between L"nited Kingdom and 
United States at \, ashington. 



86 


HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 


Aug., Rejection of Fishery Treaty 
bv United States Senate. 
1890. l\Ia;ch 31, The l\Ianitoba Bchool 
Act abolishes separate schools. 
1891. April 5, Third Dominion census. 
April 29, Opening of the seventh 
Dominion Parliament. June 6, 
Death of Sir J. A. Macdonald. 
June 15, Sir John Abbott premIer. 
1892. Feb. 29, Washington Treaty, pro- 
viding for arbitration of the Behring 
Sea Seal Fisheries question. July 
22, Boundary convention between 
Canada and the United States. 
Kov. 25, Sir John Thompson 
premier. 
IR93. April 4, First sitting of the Behring 
:'ea Arbitration Court. Dec. 18, 
Archbishop Machmy, of Rupert's 
Land, elected first Angliran primate 
of all Canada. 
189.L!June 28, Colonial Conference at 
Ottawa. Dec. 12, Death of Sir 
John Thompson at Windsor Castle. 
Dec. 21, (
ir) Mackenzie Bowell 
premier. 
IS!).'). Sept. 10, Opening of new Sault Ste. 
Marie canal. Oct. 2, Proclama- 
tion' naming the T.:ngava, }"rank- 
lin, l\J ackenzie and Yukon dis- 
tricts of Northwest Territories. 
1896. April 24, Sir Donald Smith (Lord 
Strathcona) High Conu'li.;;;sioner 
in London. April 27, 
ir Charles 
Tupper premier. July 11, (f'ir) 
Wilfrid Lallric>r premier. Aug., 
Gold discovered in the Klondyke. 
AUI?;. 19, Opening of the eighth 
Dominion Parliament. 
1897. July, Third Colonial Conference 
in London. Dec. 17, Award of 
the Behring Sea Arbitration. 
1898. June 13, The Yukon district estab- 
lished as a separate territory. 
Aug. I, The British Preferentml 
Tariff of Canaäa goes into - force. 
Aug. 23, :Meeting at Quebec of the 
Joint High Commission between 
Canada and the C"nited 
tates. 
Dec. 25, British Imperial Penny 
(2 cent) Postage introduced. 
1899. Oct. 11, Beginning of the South 
African war. Oct. 29, First Can- 
adian Contingent leaves Quebec 
for 
outh Africa. 
1900. Feb. 27, BattIe of Paardeberg. April 
26, Great fire at Ottawa and Hull. 
1901. Jan. 22, Death of Queen Victoria 
and accession of IGng Edward 
VII. Feb. 6, Opening of tho 
ninth Dominion Parliament. April 
I, Fourth Dominion eensus. Sept. 
16-0ct. 21, Visit to Canada of the 
Duke and Duchess of Cornwall 
and York (King George V and 
Queen :Mary). 
1902. May 31, End of South African War, 
peace signed at Vereenigmg. June 
30, Meeting of fourth Colonial 
Conference in London. 
1903. Jan. 24, Slgmng of the Alaska Boun- 
dary Convention. June 19, Incor- 


poration of Regina. Oct. 20, 
A ward of the Alaskan Boundary 
Commission. 
1904. Feb. 1, Dominion Railway Com- 
mission established. April 19, 
Great fire in Toronto. Oct. 8, 
Incorporation of Edmonton. 
1905. Jan. 11, Opening of the tenth Domin- 
ion Parliament. Sept. 1, Creation 
of the provinces of .\lberta and 
Saskatchewan. 
1906. University of Alberta found(,)d. Oct. 
8, Interprovincial Conference at 
Ottawa. 
1907. :March 22, Industrial Disputes 
Investigation Act passed. .\pril 
15-l\Iay 14, Fifth Colonial Con- 
ference in London. New customs 
tariff including introduction of 
intermediate tariff. Sept. 19, Npw 
Commercial Convention with 
France signed at Paris. Oct. 17, 
First message by wireless tele- 
graphy bet"\\een Canada and the 
United IGngdom. universIty of 
Saskatchewan founded. 
1908. Jan. 2, Establishment of (ìttawa 
braneh of Royal ::\Jint. .Apnl 11, 
Arbitration treaty between 
T.:nited Kingdom and United 
States. May 4, Ratifiration of 
Treaty for demareation of hound- 
ary betw('en ranada and United 
States. June 21-23, Bicentenary of 
Bishop Land celebrated at Quebec. 
July 20-31, Quebec tercentenary c('le- 
blation::;; ViSIt to Quebec of Prim'e 
of \\ ales. .Au
. 
. C rf'at fire in 
J{ootenay Valley, B.C. Pniver- 
sity of British Columbia founded. 
909. Jan. 11, Signing of International 
Boundary \\ aters Convention 
bet\\een Canada and enited 
States. Jan. 20, opening of 11th 
Dominion Parliament. May 19, 
Appointment of Canadian Com- 
mission of Conservation. July 28. 
Conference on Imperial Defence in 
London. 
1910. May 4, Pas:-ing of Naval Service Bm. 
:M ay 6, Death of JGng Edward 
VII and accession of King George 
V. June 7, Death of Goldwin 
Smith. Sept. 7, Korth Atlantie 
Coast Fisheries Arbitration award 
of the Hague Tribunal. Kew 
trade agreement made with Ger- 
many, Belgium, Holland and 
It:'lly. 
1911. May 23-.June 20, Imperiai Conference 
in London. June I, Flfth Dominion 
census. July 11. DIsastrous fires 
in Porcllpme district. Sept. 21, 
General election. Oct. 10, (::5ir)R. L. 
Borden premier. Oct. 11, In- 
au
uration at Kitrhener of Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Power Transmis- 
sion Rystf'lll. Kov. 15, Opening 
of 12th Dominion Parliament. 
1912. April 15, Logs of the steambhip 
Titanic. April 15, Appointment 
of Dominions Royal Commis
JOII. 



CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY-OF CANADA 


87 


. 


May 15, Extension of the bound- 
aries of Quebec, Ontario and 
Manitoba. June 17, Judgment 
delivered by the Imperial Privy 
Council on the marriage question 
raised by the ne temere decree. 
1913. April 10, Japanese Treaty Act 
assented to. June 2, Trade agree- 
ment with ',"est Indiea came into 
force. 
1914. Jan. 21, Death of Lord Strathcona 
and )Iount Royal, aged 94. May 
29, Loss of the steamship Empress 
of !rel md. Au!!;. 4, war with Ger- 
many; Aug. 12, with Austria-Hun- 
gary; Kov. 5, with Turkey. Aug. 
18-22, 
pecial war session of Can- 
adian Parliament. Oct. 16, First 
Canadian contingent of over 33,000 
troope land at Plymouth, Eng. 
1915. Feb., First Canadian '.contingent 
lands in France and proceeds to 
Flandels. Apri122, :-'econd battle of 
Y pres. April 24, Battle of St. Julien. 
}Iay 20-26, Battle of Festubert. 
June 15, Battle of Givenchy; 
gallantry of Canadian troops highly 
eulogized by F .-)1. 
ir John 
French. Oct. 30, Death of Sir 
Charles Tupper. Xov. 22, Issue 
of Canadian ,\ ar Loan of $50,000,000. 
Xov. 30, War loan increased to 
8100,000,000. 
1916. Jan. 12, Order in Council author- 
izing increase in number of Cana- 
dian troops to 500,000. Feb. 3, 
Destruction of the Houses of 
Parliament at Ottawa by fire. 
April 3-20, Battle of 
t. Eloi. 
June 1, Census of prairie 
provinces. June 1-3, Battle of Sanc- 
tuary Wood. Sept. 1, Corner- 
stone of new Houses of Parliament 
laid by Duke of Connaught. Sept., 
Issue of second ,var 10an,$100,000,000. 
HH7 Feb. 12-May 15, Visit to England 
of Prime :Minister and colleagues 
for Imperial Conference. Feb. 21, 
Final Heport of Dominions Royal 
Commission. March, Third war 
loan, $150,000,000. March 20-)lay 
2, Meetings in London of Imperial 
War Cabinet. March 21-April 27, 
Imperial War Conference. April 5, 
Declaration of "ar against Ger- 
many by C'nited States. April 9, 
Capture of Yimy Ridge. .June 21, 
Appointment of Food Controller. 
Aug: IS, Battle of Loos, capture of 
Hill 70. Aug. 29, Passing of !\Iili- 
tary Service Act. Sept. 20, Com- 
pletion of Quebec bridge. Sept. 20, 
Parliamentary franchi5e extended 
to women. Dominion Government 
authorized to purchase 600,000 shares 
of C. 
 . R. stock. Oct. 26-:r\ ov. 10, 
Battle of Passchendaele. Nov. 12, 
Fourth Voar loan (Victory Bonds). 
Dec. 6, Disastrous explosion at 
Halifax, N.S., Dec. 17, General 
election and Union Government 
sustained. 


1918. Mar. 18, Opening of first session of 
13th Parliament. ::\Iar. 21, Germans 
launch critical offensive on west 
front. Mar.-April, Second battle 
of the Somme. April 17, Secret 
session of Parliament. June-July 
Prime Minister and colleagues 
attend Imperial War Conference 
in London. July 18, Allies assume 
successful offensive on west front. 
_\ug. 12, Battle of Amiens. Aug. 26- 
28,Capture of Monchy Ie PreU"'{. Sept. 
2-4, Breaking of Drocourt-Quéant 
line. Sept. 16, Austrian peace note. 
Sept. 27-29, Capture of Bourlon 
Wood. Sept. 30, Bulgaria surrend- 
ers and signs armistice. Oct. 1-9, 
Capture of Cambrai. Oct., Serious 
influenza epidemic. Oct. 6, First 
German peace note. Oct. 20, Cap- 
ture of Denain. Oct. 2.}..-Nov. 2, 
Capture of Valenciennes. Oct. 28, 
Issue of fifth war loan for S300,OOO,000 
in the form of Victory Bonds. 
Oct. 31, Turkey surrenders and 
signs armistice. :!\ov. 4, Aus- 
tria-H ungary surrenders and signs 
armistice. Nov. 10, Flight into 
Holland of German Emperor. 
Capture of1\lons. Kov.ll, Germany 
surrenders and signs armistice. 
1919. Feb. 17, Death of Sir \\ ilfrid Laurier. 
Feb. 2O-July 7, Second session of 
13th Parliament of Canada. )'Iar. 
7, \ Appointment of government 
receiver of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
railVoay. 
Iay 1-June 15, Great 
strike at \\ innipeg and. other 
western cities. June 23, General 
election in Quebec, and retention of 
Liberal administration. June 28, 
Signing at Yersailles of Peace 
Treaty and Protocol. July 24, 
General election in Prince Ed ward 
Island and defeat of Conservative 
administration. Aug. 5, Election 
of Right Hon. W. L. :Mackenzie 
King as leader of Libf'ral party 
in Canada. Aug. 15, Arrival 
of H. H. H. the Prince of 
Wales for official tour in Cana- 
da. Aug. 22, Form
l opening 
of Quebec Bridge by H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales. Sept. 1, II.R.H. 
the Prince of Wales lays founda- 
tion stone of tower of new Par- 
liament Buildings at Ottawa. Sept. 
I-Nov. 10, Third or special peace 
session of 13th Parliament of Can- 
ada. Sept. 15, Opening at Otta\\a 
ot the National I ndustrial Con- 
ference. Oct. 20, General election in 
Ontario, and formation of ministry 
by E. C. Drury, Cnited Farmers' 
Orrranization. Issue of sixth ,var 
loa
 for $300,000,000 in the form of 
Victory Bonds. Dec. 20, Organ- 
ization of "C'anadian K ational 
Railways" by Order in Council. 
1920. Jan. 10, Ratifications of the Treaty 
of Yersailles. Feb. HI, Share- 
holders ratify agreement for sale 



88 


HISTORY A.YD ClIROXOLOGY 


of the Grand Trunk railway 
to the Dominion Government. 
Feb. 26-July I, Fourth sf'ssion 
of the thirteenth Parliament of 
Canada. 
lay 31-.June 18, Trade 
Conference at Ottawa between 
Dominion and West Indian Govern- 
ments. June 7-19, Convention ot 
American Federation of Labour at 
Montreal. June 29, Provin('ial gen- 
eral election in :\Janitoba, Liberal 
government retained in office. July 
10, :--ir Robert Borden is succeeded 
by HÜ!;ht Hon. Arthur ::\feighen 
as Premier. July 16, Ratifications 
of the Treaty of St. Germain- 
en-Laye. July 27, Provincial gen- 
eral election in Nova Scotia, 
Liberal government sustained. 
Aug. 5-7, Imperial Press Conference 
at Ottawa. Aug. 9, Ratifications 
of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. 
Sept. lR-23, Ninth Congress of 
Chambers of Commerce. of the 
Empire at Toronto. Oct. 9, Provin- 
cial general election in New Bruns- 
wick, Liberal government is sus- 
tained. Oct. 20, Prohibition defeat- 
ed in British Columbia. Oct. 25 
Referendum re complete prohi- 
bitIOn of the liquor traffic is carried 
in Kova 
cotia, Manitoba, Saskat- 
chewan and Alherta. Kov. 15, 
First meeting of League of Kations 
Assem blY begins at Geneva, Swit- 
zerland. Dec. I, Provineial genf'ral 

>lection in British Colum bia, 
Liberal government is I>ustained. 
1921. Feh. 14_June 4, Fifth Session of 
Thirteenth Parliament of Canada. 
Apnl 18, Ontario votes for pro- 
hihition of the manufa('ture, im- 
portation and sale of akoholic 
lIquors. May I, Government 
control of liquor traffic becomes 
effe('tive in Quebec. )Iay 10, 
Preferential tariff arran1-'ement with 
British West Indies becomes effe('t- 
ive. June 20-August 5, Imperial Con- 
ference at which Canada is represent- 
ed by Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen. 
June 9, At general ele('tion in Saskat- 
chewan, Liberal government is 
sustained. July 18, At gf'neral 
. election in Alherta, the 'Cnited 
}'armers secure majority of seats. 
Sept. 5-0ct. 5, 
econd meeting of 
Assembly of League of Kations 
at Geneva; Canada represented 
by Rt. Hon. C. J. Doherty. Kov. 
1], Opening of ('onference on limita- 
tion of armament at Washington, 

ir Hobt. Hordf'n reprf'senting 
Canada. Dee. 6, Dominion general 
election. Def'. 29, :\ew ministry 
(Liberal). \\ith Hight Hon. W. L. 
:Mackenzie h.ing as premier, is 
sworn in. 
1922. Feb. I, Arms Conference at \\"ash- 
ington approves 5-power treaty 
limiting capital fighting ships and 
oled
ing again,>t unrestricted sub- 


marine warfare and use of roison 
gas. Feh. 10, Hon. P. C. Larkin 
appointed High Commisf:ioner for 
Canada in tile Lnited Kingdom. 
Mar. 19, \ïlhjalmur Stf'fansl>on 
announcf'S tahing possession of 
Wrangell island in f'ept., 1921. 
April 10, General Economic Con- 
ference opened at Genoa, 
ir 
Chas. B. Gordon representing Can- 
ada. July 13, Conferenf'e between 
Canada and the Lnited States re 
perpetuating the Ru'-'h-Bagot 
Treaty regarding armament on 
the Great Lakes. Aug. 2, Alex- 
ander Graham BeU, inventor of 
the telephone, died. Aug. 7, Allies' 
Conferen('c on war debts and repar- 
ations opened at London. Sept. 
4, Third assembly of League of 
Nations opened at Geneva. Uct.4, 
Order in Council consolidating 
separate lines in Canadian K ational 
Rail\\ay system and appointing new 
board of directors. Oct. 5, Serious 
forest fires in northern Ontario; 
town of Haileybury destroyed. 
Oct. 10, M udania Armistice signed 
by Britain, France and Turkey. Oct. 
14, Fourth International Labour 
Conference at Geneva. Nov. :'0, 
Turkish Peace Conference opened 
at Lausanne. Dec. 4, Opening of 
First International Postal ('on- 
ference at Ottawa, between repre- 
sentatives of the "Cnited t;tates and 
Canada. De('. Ü, Irish Free State 
inaugUJated as one of the Domin- . 
ions in the British I:mpire. Dec. 
9, Reparations ('onfcrence opened 
at London. De('. 15, Signing of 
trade agreement b('t\\een Canada 
and Fram'e, Hon. W. S. }ïelding 
and Hon. E. I apointe repre::;enting 
('anada. rassing of -\.ct by Imper- 
ial parliament removing embargo 
on Canadian ('attic. 
1923. Jan, 1, :r\ational Dcfenr'e Act, 1922, 
comes into effect amalgamating 
Militia, Kaval and Air I'or('e de- 
partment:". Jan. 4, Signing of trade 
agreement het\\een Canada and 
Italy, Hon. \Y. S. Fielding and 
Hon. E. Lapointe representing 
Canada. April 1, Removal of 
British embargo on Canadian ('attIc 
effective. .June 25, Provin('ial elec- 
tions in Ontario; ('onscrvative 
party under }- on. G. F.o
ard Fergu- 
son returned to power. .July 2U, PIO- 
vincial elections in Prin('e Ed\\ard 
Island; Conservative pa,ty under 
}-; on. J. D. Hte" art rf'turnpd. to 
pO\\'pr. SI'pt. 3, Fourth ses::;ion of 
League of Nations at (;eneva, 
Canada represl'nted by Hon. :--ir 
L. Gouin and j on. Geo. P. Graham. 
Oct. J, Imperial Conference and 
Imperial l' conomic ('onferpn('e at 
London. Canada repJ'escnted at 
the former bv Rt. lIon. W. L. 

Iac h.enzie Kiñg. 



III.
THE CONSTITUTION AND GENERAL 
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA.! 


The Dominion of Canada is the largest in area and the most populous cf the 
great self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, which also include the 
Commonwealth of Australia, the Union of South Africa, the Dominion of New 
Zealand and the island colony of Kewfoundland (with Labrador). These Domi- 
nions enjoy re:-:ponsiblc government of the Eritish type, administered by Executive 
Councils (or Cabinets) acting as advisors to the representative of the Sovereign, 
themselves responsible to and possessing the confidence of the rEpresentatives 
elected to Parliament by the people, and giving place to other persons more accept- 
able to Parliament whenever that confidence is shown to have ceased to exist. 
Of these Dominions, Canada, Amitralia, and South Africa extend over enor- 
mous areas of territory, the first two approximating in area to Europe. Each 
section has its own problems and its own point of view, so that local parliaments 
for each scction ,as well as the ccntral parliamcnt for the whole country, are required. 
These local parliaments, established when transportation and communication were 
more difficult and expensive than at present, were chronologically prior to the 
central body. to \\ hich on its formation they either rei3igned certain powers, as in 
the case of Australia, or surrender('d all their powers with certain specified except- 
ions, as in Canada and South Afriea. Of such local parliaments, Canada at the 
present time has nine, Australia six and South "Africa four. 
Bcsidcs the Dominions above enumerated, the Irish Free State (Saorstat 
Eireann) now possesses fuU Dominion status. The great Empire of India has 
internationally been accepted as' a member of the League of Nations, and in its 
internal administration has been placed on the rOßd, formcrly traverbed by the 
Dominions which are now fully self-governing, tûwaFds responsible government. 
Indeed, the wholc evolution of the Empire, throughout a]] its parts which are more 
than mere fortresses like Gibraltar or trading stations like Hong Kong, is in the 
direction of responsible government, to be attained in the dependencies as it has 
been in wh3t used to be called the colonies, by the gradual extension of self-govern- 
ment in proportion to the gro\\ ing capacities of their respective populations. It 
is the recognized aim of Britii3h admini:,;trators, by t he extension of educational 
facilities and by just administration, to develop these capacitics to t hc utmost, 
so that in the dependencic:5, as well as in the Dominions and in the Mother Country, 
the constitutional history of the future may be a record of " freedom slowly broad- 
ening down from prccedent to precedent." 
It is the purpose of this article to relate as briefly as possible, thc process of 
this development of free government in the Dominion of Canada. 


I.-CONSTITUTIONAL DEYELOPl\fENT OF THE COLONIES 
PRIOR TO CONFEDERATION. 


The French Régime.-The settlement of Canada commenced at a time 
when the extension of European trade and commerce throughout the world was 
being mainly carried on by chartered comp
nie8 of merehants belonging to various 
nations, more partieularly EIl
land, Francc and Holland. Thef'e companics each 
tried to monopolizc the trade of the l"C'giOIls in which th('y established the1ll8elves, 
lAdapted frolll an article by S. A. Cudmore, :\1..\., F.S.S., published in the Can"1.da Year Boo", 1921. 



90 THE COKSTITUTION AND GOVERNJIENT OF CANADA 


receiving from their sovereign charters which, theoretically at least, gave them a 
monopoly so far as their compatriots were concerned, while against foreign competi- 
tion they maintained their position with the sword, even when their respective 
mother countries, thou:;ands of miles and months of time distant, were at peace. 
Among such companies of this period were the English and Dutch East India 
Companies, the Guinea Company, the Russia Company, the Virginia Company, 
and a little later, the Hudson's Bay Company. Similarly, we find in the earliest 
stage of French enterprise in Canada that several short-lived companies successively 
possessed a monopoly of trade and employed such men as Champlain as governors 
and explorers of the new territories. The charters of these companies were, however, 
cancelled for violation of their terms, and at last in 1627, the monopoly _of trade 
and the right to make grants of land was conferred upon the Company of One 
Hundred As
ociates, in consideration of its undertaking to Eettle the countr
 and 
3Upport mÏsf'ionaries to christianize the Indians. Governmentally, therefore, the 
fir:;t stage in Canadian histocy may be said to have been the autocratic government 
of a trading company. This company, however, failed to live up. to its agreement 
and its charter was cancelled in 1663, when Canada became a royal province, 
governed like an ordinary French province of those days, by a Governor to whom, 
as personal rerresentative of the King, were entrusted the general policy of the 
country, the direction of its military affairs and its relations with the Indian tribes. 
The Bishop, as the head of the Church, was supreme in matters affecting religion. 
and the Intendant, acting under the authority of the King, not of the Governor, 
was respon!'ible for the administration of justice, for finance and for the direction 
of local administration. A Superior Council also existed, with certain adminis- 
trative powers which were more formal than real. . This system continued until 
the end of the French régime. 
The British Colony.-From the capitulation of Quebec on Sept. 18, 1759, 
and of Montreal on Sept. 8, 1760, to the signing of the Treaty of Paris on Feb. 10, 
1763, Canada was ruled by British- military officers who instit.uted courts which 
applied French law and administered the country as an occupied territory, the 
final disposition of which was as yet unsettled. 
'Cpon the final surrendcr of the country by France under the Treaty of Paris, 
a Royal Proclamation of Oct. 7. 1763, defined the frontiers of the new rrovince 
of Quebec, and provided that as soon as circumstances would 'admit, General Assem- 
blics should be summoned, with power to enact laws for the public welfare and good 
government of the colony. In the meantime, courts were constituted for "dealing 
with civil and criminal cases according to the laws of England," with an appeal 
to the Privy Counci1. Under the Quebec Act of 1774, passed with the purpose of 
conciliating the ll(W colonies at a time when the old colonies were falling off from 
their allegiance, the use of the old French civil law was resumed, while English 
criminal law continued to govern throughout the province, which was now extend- 
(,(I to the banks of the Ohio and the Mississippi. These boundaries were. how- 
cver, abandoned at the Treaty of Yeri":ailles, 1783, when the Great Lakes became 
thé dividing line. The influx of the United Empire Loyalists, English-speaking 
people accustomed to English laws, tlecessitated the division of the colony and the 
establishment of representative institutions. The Constitutional Act was passed 
in 1791, dividing the Canada of those days (the St. Lawrence valley) into two 
provinces, establishing in each province a nominated Legislative Coun('il and an 
elected Legislative Asscmbly. Under this Act, upon which the govcrnmentlof 
Canada was based throughout half a century, " the Executive was (t hrough Crown 



THE CONSTITUTION AT CONFEDERATION 


91 


revenue and military grants from the Home Government) financially, and worse 
stilJ, constitutionally independent, and the House of Assembly, in seeking vaguely 
to cure a disease which it had not in reality diagnosed, frequently overstepped its 
:;:phere, with the result that it was dissolved time after time."-(Lefroy, Constitu- 
tional Law of Canada, pp. 20-21). 
The Constitutional Act was at first accepted as an improvement on the previous- 
ly existing method of government, but as time went on, the increasing population 
and wealth of the provinces, combined with the narrow and selfish policy of the 
privileged few, led to frequent clashes between the Executive and the Assembly, 
complicated in Lo\\"er Canada by the difference of races. In 1837, a rebellion in 
each province. though speedily stamped out, led to the appointment of Lord Durham 
by the Home Government as a special commissioner clothed with more extensive 
powers than had ever before been held by a representative of the Crown in British 
N ()rth America. 
The famous report made by Lord Durham to the British Government is ahnm;t 
universally regarded as the greate
t political document in Canadian history. He 
saw clearly tbe necessity of re-establishing harmony between the executive and the 
legislative branches of the government by making the former, as in the Mother 
Country, re::,.ponsible to the latter. He in:;;isted also upon the de::,irability of establish- 
ing a free democratic system of municipal government, by participation in which 
citizens would secure a training which would be of u:se in fitting them for the wider 
duties of public life. Upper and Lower Canada were to be united under a single 
Parliament, and in the Act provision was to he made for the voluntary admission 
to the union of the other British North American rrovinces. 
\Yhile Lord Durham was disavowed by the Home Government, his report 
formed the basis of the Act of union of 1841, which united upper and Lower Canada 
under a single Parliament, in which each province "a5 equally represented. This 
equality of representation in a single Parliament, applied to provinces of differing 
race, religion and institutions, finally became unworkable; deadlock became the 
parent of Confederation, under which each province could legislate on its own local 
affairs, while a common Parliament was established for all the provinces agreeing 
to enter the federation. 
Confederation.-\Yhile suggestions for the union of the British North 
American provinces date as far back as 1789, the first legislative action looking to 
this end was taken by the Assembly of Nova Scotia in 1861. In 1864 delegates 
from Nova Scotia, Kew Brunswick and Prince Edward Island assembled in Charlotte- 
town to confer in reference to a union of these provinces. A sécond convention 
at which the province of Canada was represented, met in Quebec on Oct. 10, 1864, 
at which seventy-two resolutions, which afterwards formed the basis of the Briti:sh 
North America Act, were adopted and referred to the respective legislature8 for 
their concurrence, which was finally given. The British North America Act received 
the Royal Assent on March 29, 1867, and came into force on July 1 of that year. 


II.-THE CONSTITUTION OF THE DOMIl\'ION AT 
CONFEDERATION. 
Constitution of Canada.-In the preamble to the British North America 
_Act, it is stated that the provinces of Canada, Kava Scotia and New Brunswick 
.'. have expressed their desire to be federally united into onC' Dominion, with a 



92 THE C01YSTITUTIOX A.VD GOrERXJfE^
T OF CA
VADA 


Constitution similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom." Thus the' Canadian 
constitution is not an imitation of that of the united States; it is the British Consti- 
tution federalized. Like the British and unlike the American Constitution, it is 
not wholly a written constitution. The many unwritten conventions of the British 
Constitution are also recognized in our own; what we have in the Briti:-;h North 
America Act is a written delimitation of the rf'spective powers of the Dominion 
and Provincial Govcrnments, and an enactement of the terms of the Confpderation 
agreement. The Briti8h North Amcrica Act simply divides the sovereign powers 
of the State between the provincial and the central authorities. 
The British Korth America Act deolares that the executive 
overnment of 
Canada shall continue to be vested in the sovereign of the Vnited Kingdom (sec. 
9), represented for federal purposes by the Governor General, as for provincial 
purposes by the Lieutenant-Governor. The Governor General is advised by the 
King's Privy Council for Canada, a committee of which constitutes the ministry 
of the day 
The Dominion Parliament consists of the King, the Senate and the House of 
Commons. It must meet at least once a year, so that twelve months do not elapse 
hetween the last meeting in one session and the first meeting in the ne'xt. Scnators, 
now 96 in number, appointed for life by the Governor Gf'neral in Council, must 
be 30 years of age, British subjects, residents of the province for which they are 
appointed, and possess $4,000 over and above their liabilitif's. Members of the 
House of Commons (235 in 1921, but subject to increase as a result of the census 
of that year), are elected by the people for the duration of the rarliament, which 
must not be longer than five years. 
Dominion Finance.-Among the most important provisions of the British 
North Amf'rica Act are those relating to the appropriation of public money and the- 
rai8ing of taxes for Dominion purposes. The House of Commons has the sale right 
of initiating grants of public money and of directing and limiting appropriations, 
yet thf' House of Commons must not (sec. 54) adopt or pass any votf', hill, resolution 
or address for the payment of any part of the public funds for any purpose that 
has not first been recommended to the house by message from the Governor 
General in Council during the session in which such vote or bill is proposed. This 
rule is of the most vital importance in promoting public economy, as it eliminates 
all pos8ibility of private mcmbers combining to secure expenditures of public money 
in their constituencies, and leaves to the executive authority the initiation of all 
legi8lation requiring the expenditure of public funds; it is also operative in the Pro- 
vincial Legislatures. 
Powers of Parliament.-The powers of the Dominion Parliament include all 
subjects not assigned exclu:--ively to the provincial legislatures. More especially, 
under section 91, it has exclusive legislative authority in an matters relating to the 
following: public d('bt and property; regulation of trade and commerce; raising of 
money by any mode of taxation; borrowing of money on the public credit; p08tal 
service; census and statistics; militia, military and naval service and ddf'nce; 
fixing and providing for salaries and allowances of the officers of the government; 
beacons, buoys and lighthouses; navigation and shipping; quarantine and the 
establishment and maintenance of marine hospitals; sea-coast and inland fi8heries; 
ferries on an international or interprovincial frontier; curr('ncy and coinage; bank- 
ing, incorporation of banks, and issue of paper money; savings banks; weights 
and measures; bills of exchange and promi:"sory notes; interest; legal Ìf'nder; bank- 
ruptcy and insolvency; patents of invention and discovery; copyright
; Indians 



THE COYSTITUTIO.V AT COXFEDERA. TIOX 


93 


and lands reF'erved for Indians; naturalization and aliens; marriage and divorce; 
the criminal law, except the constitution of courts of criminal jurisdiction, but 
including the procedure in criminal matters; the pstablishment, maintenance 
nd 
management of penitentiaries; such clas."es of subjects as are expressly excepted 
in the enumeration of the classes of subjects by this Act exclusively assigned to the 
legislatures of the provinces. 1 
Judicature.-The appointment, salaries and pensions of judges arp dealt with 
under sections 96 to 101. The judges (except in the courts of probate in r{pw 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia) are appointed by the Dominion Government from 
the bars of their respective provinces, and hold office during good behaviour, being 
removable by the GovErnor General only on address of the f:cnate and House of 
Commons. Their salaries are fixed and provided by Parliament. 
ruder the provisions of section 101, empowering Parliament to establii'h a 
general Court of Appeal, the Dominion Parliament passed. in 1875, an Act to 
('stablish a Supreme Court and Court of Exchequer for the Dominion (38 Vict., 
c. 11). In 1877, however, these courts were separated and the ExC'hequer 
Court of Can3da, with one judge, a registrar, and other proper officers, was establish- 
ed. An additional judge was added to this court in HH2. 
The Supreme Court of Ca
ada has appellate jurisdiction from all the courts 
of the provinces, and questions may be referred to it by the Gm;ernor General in 
Council. It has also jurisdiction in certain cases between the provinces, and in 
cases of controversies between provinces and the Dominion. 'Yhile its jud
ent 
is final in criminal cases, there is in civil cases, subject to certain limitations, an 
appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in England, which also enter- 
tains appeals direct from the provincial Courts of Appeal. The decisions of the 
Supreme Court and of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council constitute the 
case-law of our constitution, the legal interpretation of the constitution and of the 
varied powers of the Dominion and provincial legislatures. 
Finance.-Under Part VIII of the British North America Act, the revenues 
which had previously accrupd to the treasuries of the provinces were transferred 
to the Dominion, nótably the customs duties. The public works, cash assets and 
other property of the provinces, except lands, mines, miner31s and royalties, also 
became Dominion property. In its turn, the Dominion became respon:,;ible for 
the debts of the provinces. Since the main source of the revenues of the provinces, 
customs duties, was. now taken over by the Dominion, the Dominion was to pay 
annual subsidies to the provinces for the support of their goverrunents and iegis- 
latures. These subsidies have from time to time been increased. 
Miscellaneous.-Among the miscellaneous provisions contained in Part IX 
of the British North America Act, are sections providing for the rptention of existing 
legislation of the provinces in force until repealed, the transfer of existing officials 
to the Dominion, and the appointment of new officials. The Parliament of Canada 
was also given powcr necessary to perform treaty obligations of Canada, as a part 
of the British Empire, towards foreign countries. 
Pnder section 133, either the English or the French language may be used by 
any person in the debates of Parliament or of the Legislature of Quebec, all Acts 
of which bodies are to be printed in both languages. Either language, too, may be 
used by any person in any court of Canada established under t he Act, or in the 
courts of Quebec. 
1 Powers of Prol'incial Legislatl/res. -For details of the general powers of Provincial L
islatures in Can8:da 
and their special powers in respect of education, as stated in sections 92 and 93 of the BritIsh North America 
Act, see commencement of the sub-section on Provincial and Local Government in Canada. 



94 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF CAXADA 


Veto Power.-Lnder section 56, it is provided that Acts of the Dominion 
Parliament, after receiving the assent of the Governor General, may within two 
years be disallowLd by the Sovereign in Council. Similarly Acts of the rrovincial 
Le
islature, after receiving the as"'-ent of the Lieutenant-Governor, may be disallow- 
ed wit hin one' year by t he Governor General in Council. 
This veto power. on Dominion legislation has practically never been exercised 
by the Sovereign in Counci1. 1 In the case of controverRies between the Dominion 
and the rrovince!", while the veto power has been exercised in the past, the present 
tendency is to let the matter be decided by the courts rather than di
:;allow by an 
executive act legislation duly passed by the provincial1egi:-;latures. The argument 
is that if such legi!"lation is annulled as ultra vires of the rrovincial legislature, 
then the Dominion Government, an executive body, has made itself the judge in 
its own case, which could be more properly decided by the courts; if legislation, 
admittedly intra vires of the provincial legislature, is annulled, on the ground of 
its immorality or unwisdom, then the anDuJIing power has set itself up as an author- 
ity on morality and wi<:dom. The Dominion Minister of Justice, in 1909, on the 
que-;tion of disaJJowing the Ontario legislation with respect to the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission, stated the case as follows:-' . 
" In the opinion of the undersigned, a suggestion of the abuse of power, 
even so as to amount to practical confiscation of property, or that the exercise 
of a power has been unwise or indiscreet, should appeal to 'your Excellency's 
government with no more effect than it does to the ordinary tribunals, and 
the reIl1efly in such case is an appeal to those by whom the legislature is 
elected. .. 


IlL-EVOLUTION OF THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTION 
SINCE CONFEDERATION.2 


Since no attempt was made in the British North America Act to define the 
relations between the British and the Canadian Governments, those relations have 
nec.essarily passed and are still passing through a stage of gradual development in 
which they are influenced to a remarkable extent by custom and convention and the 
creation of "new conventions of the Constitution." From the very commence- 
ment of our history as a nation there has been a gradual development of the powers 
of the Canadian Government, accompanied by a more liberal attitude on the part 
of British statesmen, largely due to the more advanced ideas of government which 
have permeated the administration of the mother country itself. In 1876, for 
example, the then Colonial Secretary proposed to issue permanent instructions to 
the Governor General providing that the latter should preside at meetings of the 
Council (a right which in the case of the Sovereign had long fallen into desuctude); 
that he might dissent from the opinion of the major part of the whole; and that 
in the exercise of the pardoning power in capital ca5es, he was to receive the advice 
of ministers, but to extend or withhold pardon or reprieve according to his own 
judgment (one of the last prerogatives to disappear in the case of the Sovereign). 


IThis right has only b3en exercised i I one rather technical case. In 1873 an Act of the Dominion Parliament 
empowered any committee of the Senate or House of Commons to examine witnesses upon oath when so 
authorized by resolution. "There wu" a confusion of opinion as to the competency of Parliament to enact 
it. The law officers of the United Kingdom eventually advised that the Act was ultra "ires, and it was 
accordingly disallowed for that rea.'!on and not upon considerations of policy."-Borden, Canadian Consti- 
tutional Studies, p. 65. 
2In this part of the article, con<;ider Ible use has been made of Sir Robert Borden's recently published 
volume, "Canadian Constitutional Stuùies." 



EYOLUTIOiY OF THE CONSTITUTION SINCE CONFEDERATION 95 


The then Canadian Minister of Justice, Hon. Edward Blake, secured in 1878 the 
issuance of a new set of instructions, in whir'h the only provision that the Governor- 
General might act except on the advice of Ministers, related to the exercise of the 
pardoning power, providing that in cases where a pardon or repricve might affect 
Imperial interests, the Governor-General should take these interests into his person- 
al consideration in conjunction with the advice of his MinistC'rs. 
The development of inter-Imperial relations up to the Great War may be 
studied in the records of the Colonial Conference. In tll(' first Colonial Conference 
of 1887, we have a purely consultative gathering in calling which the chief aim of 
the British Government was to devise a mC'thod of more effective co-operation in 
defence. After - a second, but constitutionally unimportant Conference had been 
held in Ottawa in 1894, the third Colonial Conference, attended only by Prime 
Ministers, was held in London in 1897, and the fourth, which Dominion Ministers 
attended to assist their Prime Ministers, in London in 1902. At the latter Confer- 
ence a resolution was passed favouring the holding of sueh Conferences at intervals 
not e:.\..ceeding four years at which t, questions of common interest could be discuss- 
ed and considered as bdween the Colonial Secretm'y and the Primp Ministers of 
the self-governing ColoniC's." In 1905 the Colonial Secretary, l\Ir. Lyttleton, 
suggested to the Don
inion'" that the Colonial Conference should be changed into 
an Imperial Council, consisting of the Colonial Secretary and tllf' Prime Ministers 
or their representatives. On Canada objecting to the use of the term" Council It 
the name was changpd to "Imperial Conference." In 1907 the first "Imperial 
Conference" assembled; by an extraordinarily significant change, it was provided 
that future Confermce" should hf' bctwf'en thC' Government of the rnited King- 
dom and the Governnwnts of the self-governing Dominions, and that the Priml: 
:Minister of the rnited Kingdom (not the Colonial Secretary) was to be ex officio- 
President of the Conferenr'e, "hile the Prime l\Iinisters of the Dominions and the 
Colonial Secretary were to be e:r officio membl'rs. This was a move toward recogniz- 
ing that the Home Government was simply 1)rÙ1WS inler pm'cs among. the nat.ions 
of the Empire. The ConfC'rence of 1911 met under thi., arrang('ment, and in 1912 
the British GovernmC'nt gave Canada an assurnnte that a Dominion l\Iinister 
resident in London would be rcgularly summonf d to all meetings of the Committee 
of Imperial Defence and that no important step in foreign policy would be taken 
without commltation with such representatives. In 1917 there was evolved what 
was known as tl
e Imperial \Var Cabinet, a gathering of the five mf'mbers of the 
Briti8h \Yar Cabinet and the Prime l\Iinisters of thf' 8plf-governing Dominions. 
A resolution on the qupstion of future constitutional relations passed unani- 
mously at this Confercnce is of profound significance. It was as follows:- 
" The Imperial \Yar Conference are of opinion that the rf'adjustment of 
the constitutional relations of the component parts of the Empire is too 
important and intricate a subject to be dealt with during the war, and that 
it. should form the subject of a special Imperial Conference to be summoned 
as soon as possible after the cessation of hostilities. . . 
"They deem it their duty, however, to pl
ce on record .their .-VIew that 
any such readjustment, while thoroughly preservmg all domestIC affmrs, sh<?uld 
be based upon a full recognition of the I?ominion
 as autonomOl
s natIOns 
of an Imperial Commonwealth, and of India as an Important portIon of the 
same, should recog-nize the right of the Dominions and India to 
 adequ
te 
voice in foreign policy and in foreign relations, and should provIde effectIve 
arrangements for continuous consultation in all important matters of common 
Imperial concern, and for such necessary concerted action, founded on consult.- 
ation, as the several Governments may determine." 



96 THE COXSTITUTIO.V Al\?D GO"VERNlIfENT OF CANilDA 


In regard to the first paragraph of the above, the 14th r{'!':olution of the Confer- 
ence of 1921 stated that "havin
 regard to the constitutional dcvelopmcnts since 
1917, no advantage is to be gained by holding a constitutional Conferenf'e." This 
scntence had reference to the conf"ultation of the Dominions in regard to the tcrms 
of pcacc and their membprship in the League of Nations. On Oct. 29, 1918, the 
quest ion of rcpresentation of t he Dominions in the peace negotiations was raised 
by the Prime Mini
ter of Canada in a dcspatch to the Primc 
linister of the Unitcd 
Kingdom. The Imperial 'V fir Cabinet evpntually acccpted the proposal, but whcn 
the qu('stion came before the Peace Conference at Paris on January 12, 1919, strong 
oppof>ition waf:' encountered, which was finally overcome. Through 
 combination 
of thc panel system, by which the rcpresentatives of the British Empire might be 
selected from day to day as the nature of the subject dcmanded, with di
tinctive 
representation of caeh Dominion, the Dominions secured eff
ctivc representation, 
and took no inconsiderable part in the Confcrence. 
As a natural development of this rcpresentation came the signature by the 
Dominion plcnipotcntiaries of ,the various treaties concluded at the Conference, 
the submission of these treat ips for the approval of the Dominion Parliaments, 
and the appenrance of the Dominions as Signatory Powers. Further, the Domi- 
nions claiml.d that they should be accepted as members of the new League of 
Kat ions, and rcpresented on its Council and Assembly. This claim was finally 
accepted, and the status of thc Dominions as to membership and representation 
in the Assembly is precisely the samc as that of other signatory members. As to 
representation on the Council, thc Prime Minister of Canada obtained from Presi- 
dent Wilson and Messrs. Clemenccau and Lloyd George, a signed dcclaration that 
"upon the true construction of the first and second paragraphs of that Article, 
represcntatives of the sclf-governing Dominions of the British Empire may be 
sclected or named as membcrs of tlH' CounciL" At the first Assembly of the League 
of Nations at Geneva, from Nov. 15 to Dec. 18, 1920. Canada was represented by 
the Rt. Hon. Sir Geo. E. Foster, the Rt. Hðn. Chas. Jos. Doherty and Hon. N. 'V. 
Rowell, the first of whom acted as a Vice-President of the Assembly.I 
The participation of Cana
a in the Peace Treaty and in the League of Nations 
made it necessary for an official definition of Canadian nationals and Canadian 
nationality to be made, since among different measures arlopted in connection 
with the operations of the League of Nations, were provisions defining certain 
rights and privileges to be enjoyed by the nationals of members of the Lcague. A 
Canadian national was accor(lingly defined by 11-12 George V, chap. 4, as: (a) 
any British subject who is a Canadian citizen 2 within the meaning of The 
Immigration Act, chapter 27 of the Statutes of 1910, as heretofore amended; (b) 
the wife of any such person; (c) any person born out of Canada, whose father 
was a Canadian national at the time of that person's birth, or with regard to 
persons born before the passing of this Act, any person whose father at the time 
of such hirth, po!':ses!':cd all the qualifications of a Canadian national as defined 
in this Af't. In the debates on this Act it was thoroughly established that its 
effect was not in any way to l'ìupers('de the term .. British subject," but to 
create a sub-class of .. Canadian nationals" within" British subjects." 
IAn account of the proceedings of this first Parliament of the Nations was given on pages 738 to 742 of 
the 1920 edition of the Year Book. 
2According to the Immigration Act, 1910. a "Canadian citizen" is 
., (I) a person born in Canada who has not become an alien; 
(ii) a British subject who has Canadian domicile; 
(iii) a person naturalized under the laws of Canada who has not suhsequently become 
an alien or lost Canadian domicile. 



EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION SINCE CONFEDERATION 97 


A similar advance toward recognition of the existence of a Canadian nation 
is to be found in the gradual tendency toward direct negotiation instead of negotia- 
tion through London with the diplomatic or consular representatives of other 
powers. For many years the consuls-general of other countries at Ottawa or Mont- 
real, more especial1y the consuls-general of the United States, Japan, Italy and 
Germany, discharged diplomatic or semi-diplomatic functions in Canada, and Sir 
'Wilfred Laurier in 1910 considered that while (C this has been done without autho- 
rity and is contrary to the rules that apply among civilized nations, it became a 
necessity because of the development of the larger colonies of the British Empire, 
which have become practical1y nations." Further, Mr. Blake in 1882, Sir Richard 
Cartwright in 1889, and Mr. Mills in 1892 moved resolutions in favour of Canadian 
diplomatic representation at "\'Vashington, emphasizing the fact that a Canadian 
diplomatic representative would be an envoy of the Queen, that he would act in 
co-operation with the British Ambassador at 'Yashington, that he would be in 
direct communication with the Government of Canada, to whom he would be 
responsible, and that the growing importance of Canada's relations with the United 
States made such an appointment desirable. 'Yhile at that time these proposals 
were regarded as premature, in 1918, when Canada and the United States were 
both devoting their energies to the great struggle against a common foe, it was 
found necessary to establish a Canadian War Mission at Washington, which in 
effect, though not in form, was a diplomatic mission. This brought to a head 
the question of Canadian diplomatic representation at Washington; the authorities 
in London were consulted, with the result that on May 10, 1920, it was announced 
to Parliament that H it has been agreed that his l\Iajesty on advice of his Canadian 
ministers, shall appoint a Minister Plenipotentiary who will have charge of Canadian 
affairs and will at all times be the ordinary channel of communication with the 
United States Government in matters of purely Canadian conCHn, acting upon 
instructions from, and reporting direct to the Canadian Government. In the 
absence of the Ambassador, the Canadian Minister will take charge of the whole 
embassy and of the representation of Imperial as well as Canadian interests. He 
wiH be accredited by His Majesty to the President with tbe necessary powers for 
the purpose. This new arrangement will not denote any departure either on the 
part of the British Government or of the Canadian Government from the principle 
of the diplomatic unity of the British Empire." The principle involved in this 
arrangement had, as a -matter of fact, already been accepted in the appointment 
of the International Joint Commission. Up to October, 1923, however, no Cana- 
dian Minister to Washington had been appointed. 
Negotiation of Treaties.-The right to negotiate commercial and other 
treaties has been developing almost from the beginning. In 1871, the Prime 
Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald, became one of the British commis- 
sioners acting under instructions from the British Government, at the conference 
that resulted in the Treaty of Washington. This dual function, however, he found 
a very difficult one. In 1874, Hon. Geo. Brown was associated with the British 
Minister at Washington for the purpose of negotiating a commercial treaty between 
Canada and the United States. In 1878, Sir A. T. Galt, later High Commissioner, 
was commissioned to undertake negotiations with France and Spain for better 
commercial relations, these negotiations, however, to be conducted by the British 
Ambassador. In 1884, the High Commissioner for Canada, Sir Charles Tupper, 
in conjunction with the British Ambassador to Spain, was given full powers to 
.conduct negotiations for a commercial treaty between Canada and Spain, the 
62373-7 



98 THE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNJIENT OF CANADA 


negotiations to be conducted by Sir Charles Tupper and the convention to be 
signed by both plenipotentiaries. In 1891, the Canadian Parliament petitioned 
for the denunciation of the commercial treaties with thc German Zollverein and 
Belgium, which prevented Canada from extending preferential treatment to British 
products. The Canadian tariff of 1897 provided for the grant of prefercntial treat- 
ment to British goods, and at the Colonial Conference of that year, the Premiers 
of the self-governing colonies unanimously recommended "the denunciation at 
the earliest convenient time of any treaties which now hamper the commercial 
relations between Great Britain and her colonies." The treaties were accordingly 
denounced. In 1907, Mr. Fielding and Mr. Brodeur negotiated a commercial 
convention between Canada and France, and in 1911, the negotiations regarding 
reciprocity with the United States were carried on directly between the Govern- 
ment of Canada and the government of the United States. In 1914, the Arbitra- 
tion Treaty concluded between the British Empire and the l'"nited States, made 
provision that in case the British interests affected were mainly those of some 
one or other of the self-governing Dominions, the minister of the International 
Commission of Arbitration chosen from the British Empire might be selected 
from the Dominion principally interested. In December, 1918, commissioners 
were appointed by Canada and the United States to make a joint inquiry into 
fisheries questions arising between the two countries. As a result, a treaty looking 
to the preservation of the Pacific coast fisheries was signed by the Commissioners, 
but failed to secure ratification by the United States Senate. 
Defence.-As early as 1862 the Government of Canada, following British 
precedents, successfully asserted the principle that the raising and maintenance 
of Canadian military forces were subject to the absolute control of the represent- 
atives of the Canadian people. During the South African war, the last of the 
British garrisons was temporarily, and in 1905, permanently withdrawn and the 
defence of the naval stations at Halifax and Esquimalt was taken over by the Cana- 
dian Permanent Force. "When on the outbreak of war in 1914 Canadian forces 
were sent overseas, an important constitutional question was the sufficiency of 
Canadian legislation for the control and discipline of the forces when outside the 
Dominion. However, the Governor in Council is authorized by section 69 of the 
Militia Act to place the militia on active service beyond Canada for the defence 
thereof, and by section 4 of the same Act, the Army Act, the King's Regulations 
and other relevant laws not inconsistent with Canadian enactments have force 
and effect for the governance of the militia as if enacted by the Parliament of 
Canada. But the Army Act, in section 177, provides that where a force of militia 
is raised in a colony, any law of the colony may extend to those belonging to that 
force, whether within or without the boundaries of the colony. This settled the 
question of extra-territorial jurisdiction. Another important development was 
the establishment in London in October, 1916, of a Canadian Ministry of Over- 
seas Military Forces with a resident Ministel. In course of time this became an 
Overseas Canadian 'Var Office, with an adequate staff and a systematic arrange- 
ment of branches, administering the Canadian forces as a thoroughly autonomous 
body, under the primary direction of the Overseas Ministry, but finaIJy re
ponsible 
to the Canadian Parliament. 
ImmilÞ"ation.-Though provinces may legislate in the matter of immigra- 
tion, their lcgislation falls to the ground if it is inconsistent with the legislation or 
with the international obligations of the Dominion. Several Acts of the province 
of British Columbia restricting immigration have been disallowed on this account. 



EVOLUTION OF THE COVSTITUTIO.V SINCE COYFEDERATION 99 


Under the Dominion law, Chinese immigrants are subjected to a head tax of $500, 
while Japanese immigrants are handled under a CI gentlemen's agreement JJ with 
the Imperial Japanese Government, Japan undertaking to restrict the flow of 
Japanese to Canada. The restriction of immigration from other parts of the 
Empire, and more particularly from India, is, however, a very difficult question 
because of its reaction on the loyalty of the Indian peoples to the Empire. The 
question was discussed at the Colonial Conference of 1897 and at the Imperial 
Conference of 1911, when it was pointed out th
t the reasons for existing restrictions 
were purely economic and did not involve the question of the inferiority of those 
restricted. In 1917: the matter was discussed at the Imperial War Conference. 
The principle of reciprocity of treatment was accepted, and at the 1918 Conference 
it was agreed that "It is an inherent function of the Governments of the several 
communities of the British Commonwealth, including India, that each should enjoy 
complete control of the composition of its own population by means of restriction 
on immigration from any of the other communities." Provision was, however, 
made for permitting temporary visits. This srrangement has settled, at least for 
the time, a dispute which endangered the stability of the Empire. 
Naturalization.-For a long period a very vexed question was the right of 
naturalization. Up to 1914, the Dominions were unable to grant full naturaliza- 
tion which would hold good throughout the Empire. In that year an Act of the 
British Parliament (4-5 Geo. V, c. 17), provided for the issue of a naturalization 
certificate to an alien by the Secretary of State on proof of five years' residence, 
and the fulfilment of certain other conditions. Where the Parliaments of the 
Dominions enforced the same conditions of residence, their Governments were 
given power to issue certificates of naturalization. taking effect in all parts of the 
Empire that had adopted the Act. This was done by Canada in 1914 (4-5 Geo. 
V, c. 44). 
Copyright.-A difficult and anomalous situation with regard to copyright 
was similarly cleared up in 1911, the Imperial Copyright Act of that year being 
based on the principle that the Dominions must be free to legislate as they saw fit. 
The Act of 1911, therefore, does not extend to any Dominion unless the Parliaments 
of these Dominions have declared it to be in force; similarly, Dominion Parliaments 
may repeal it where it is in force. 
Granting of Titles.-Another source of difficulty between the British 
Government and the Dominions has been the granting of titles by the former to 
citizens of the latter who have rendered services to the Empire as a whole. Oppor- 
tunities of rendering such service came to many citizens of the Dominions during 
the war, and the British Government was generous in its recognition of these ser- 
vices. Exception was taken in the Canadian Parliament to the granting of titles 
to Canadians, and in 1919 Parliament passed an address to His Majesty praying 
that he should U refrain from conferring any title of honour or titular distinction 
upon any of his subjects domiciled or ordinarily resident in Canada, save such 
appellations as Me of a professional or vocational character or which appertain 
to an office. JJ 
General Conc1usion.-While it can hardly be maintained that the Domin- 
ions have as yet secured an adequate voice and influence in the direction of the 
Empire's foreign policy, it is to be observed that the powers of the Dominions 
have hitherto developed as the need for more extended powers has arisen. Without 
any violent break with the past, the Dominions have secured through the League 
62373-7-l 



100 THE CO.vSTITUTION AND GOVERNME^
T OF CANAf)r1 


of Nations a voice in international affairs at least as powerful as that of such inde- 
pendent nations as Argentina and Brazil. Ten years ago this would have been 
considered unthinkable without a total. separation from the Empire, yet it has 
actually occurred. This progress of the Dominions in international status in the 
past decade is thus set forth by Oppenheim, in the third edition of his International 
Law, Vol. 1, secs. 94a and 94b: 
"94a. Formerly the position of self-governing Dominions, such as Canada, 
Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, did not, in Inter- 
national Law, present any difficulties. Then they had no international position 
whatever, because they were, from the point of view of International Law, 
mere colonial portions of the Mother Country. It did not matter that some 
of them, as, for example, Canada, and Australia, flew as their own flag the 
modified flag of the Mother Country, or that they had their own coinage, their 
own postage stamps, and the like. Kor did they become subjects of Inter- 
national Law (although the position was somewhat anomalous) when they were 
admitted, side by side with the Mother Country, as parties to the adminis- 
trative unions, such as the Universal Postal Union. Even when they were 
empowered by the Mother Country to enter into certain treaty arrangements 
of minor importance with foreign States, they still did not thereby become 
subjects of International Law, but simply exercised for the matters in question 
the treaty-making power of the Mother Country which had. been to that extent 
delegated to them." 
"94b. But the position of self-governing Dominions under,,-ent a fundamental 
change at the end of the 'Vorld War. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South 
Africa, and also India, were not only separately represented within the British 
Empire delegation at the Peace Conference, but also became, side by side 
with Great Britain, original members of the League of Nations. Separately 
represented in the Assembly of the League, they may, of course, vote there 
independently of Great Britain. Now the League of Nations is not a mere 
administrative union like the Universal Postal Union, but the organized Family 
of Nations. Without doubt, therefore, the admission of these four self-govern- 
ing Dominions and of India to membership gives them a position in International 
Law. But the place of the self-governing Dominions within the :Family of 
K ations at present defies exact definition, since they enjoy a special position 
corresponding to their special status within the British Empire as " free com- 
munities, independent as regards all their own affairs, and partners in those 
which concern the Empire at large." Moreover, just as, in attaining to that 
position, they have silently worked changes, far-reaching but incapable of 
precise definition, in the Constitution of the Empire, so that the written law 
maccurately represents the actual situation, in a similar way they have taken 
a place within the Family of Nations, which is none the less real for being hard 
to reconcile with precedent. Furthermore, they will certainly consolidate the 
positions which they have won, both within the Empire and within the Family 
of Nations. An advance in one sphere will entail an advance in the other. 
For instance, they may well acquire a limited right of legation or limited treaty- 
making power. But from this time onward the relationship between Great 
Britain and the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire is not likely 
to correspond exactly to any relationship hitherto recognized in International 
Law unless the British Empire Rhould turn into a Federal State." 
A list of the Departments of the Dominion Government, of the Acts which 
they administer and of the principal publications of each Department will be found 
in the section U Statistics and other Information relating to Canada." See, in 
the index, the entries U Acts of Parliament administered by Departments of 
Dominion Government," and U Publications of the Dominion Govcrnment." 


, 



IV.-PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
IN CANADA. 


The source of the powers of the provincial governments of Canada is the 
British North America Act, 1867 (30-31 Yict., c. 3 and amendments). Under 
section 92 of the Act, the legislature of each province may exclusively make laws 
in relation to the following matters :-amendment of the constitution of the 
province, except as regards the Lieutenant-Governor; direct taxation within 
the province; borrowing of money on the credit of the province; establishment 
and tenure of provincial offices and appointment and þayment of provincial 
officers; th3 management and sale of public lands belonging to the province 
and of the timber and wood thereon; the establishment, maintenance and 
management of public and reformatory pr;sons in and for the province; the 
establishment, maintenance and management of hospitals, asylums, charities 
and eleemosynary institutions in and for the province, other than marine 
hospitals; municipal institutions in the province; shop, saloon, tavern, auctioneer 
and other licenses issued for the raising of provincial or municipal revenue; local 
works and undertakings other than interprovincial or international lines of ships, 
railways, canals, telegraphs, etc., or works which, though wholly situated within 
one province, are declared by the Dominion parliament to be for the general advant- 
age either of Canada or of two or more provinces; the incorporation of companies 
with provincial objects; the solemnization of marriage in the province; property 
and civil rights in the province; the administration of justice in the province, inclu- 
ding the constitution, maintenance and organization of provincial courts both of 
civil and criminal jurisdiction, and including procedure in civil matters in these 
courts; the imposition of punishment by fine, penalty, or imprisonment for enforcing 
any law of the province relating to any of the aforesaid subjects; generally all 
matters of a merely local or private nature in the province. 
Further, in and for each province the Legislature may, under section 93, exclu- 
sively make laws in relation to education, subject to the following provisions.- 
" (1) Nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any right or 
privilege with respect to denominational schools which any class of persons 
have by law in the province at the union. 
(2) All the powers, privileges and duties at the union by law conferred 
and imposed in Upper Canada on the separate schools and school trustees of 
the Queen's Roman Catholic subjects shall be and the same are hereby extend- 
ed to the dissentient schools of the Queen's Protestant and Roman CatholiC' 
subjects in Quebec. 
(3) "
here in any province a system of separate or dissentient schools 
exists by law at the union or is thereafter established by the legislature of the 
province, an appeal shall lie to the Governor-General in Council from any 
act or decision of any provincial authority affecting any right or privilege 
of the Protestant or Roman Catholic minority of the Queen's subjects in 
relation to education. 
(4) In case any such provincial law as from time to time seems t? the 
Governor-General in Councii requisite for the due execution of the prOVISIons 
of this Section is not made, or in case any decision of the Governor-General 
in Council on any appeal under this Section is not duly executed by the proper 
provincial authority in that behalf, then and in every such case, and as far 
only as the circumstances of each case require, the Parli
Ir?ent of Ca!lada 
ay 
make remedial laws for the due execution of the prOViSIOns of thIS SectIOn 
and of any decision of the Governor-General in Cou'ncil under this Section." 



102 PROVINCIAL AKD LOCAL GOVERXJrfEXT IN CANADA 


The purpose of these sections was to preserve to a religious minority in any 
province the same privileges and rights in regard to education which it had at the 
date of Confederation, but the provincial legislatures were not debarred from 
legislating on the subject of separate schools provided they did not thE'reby pre- 
judicially affect privileges enjoyed before Confederation by such schools in the 
province. 
These powers, given to the four original provinces in Confederation, have, 
with some slight changes, been retained ever since and the more recently admitted 
provinces have assumed the same rights and responsibilities on their inclusion as 
units in the federation as were previously enjoyed by the older members. 


I.-NOVA SCOTIA. 1 


The province of ."Kava Scotia has made no important changes in its constitu- 
tion since it became one of the original members of Confederation in 1867. In 
that year the Legislative Council consisted of 36 members and the Legislative 
Assembly of 55 members. The number of members of the Council is now 21 and 
of the Assembly 43. Legislative councillors are appointed for life, and the mem- 
bers of the Assembly are elected for four years, the maximum duration of its exist- 
ence. The constitutional relations of the Ministry to the Assembly are based on 
the principles of responsible government by which it retains office only so long 
as it is supported by a majority in the Legislative Assembly. The local Ministry 
or Cabinet., styled the Executive Council, consists of the Prime Minister 
and President of the Council, the Provincial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the 
Minister of 'Yorks and Mines and the Minister of Highways. These are salaried 
officials; six other members have office without salaries. Agriculture, immigra- 
tion and education are under the control and management of the government 
through certain boards and councils, each with its secretary and staff of officials. 
Municipal Institutions.-Previous to Confederation, the local government 
of counties and townships was confided to.the magistracy, which was an appointed 
body, holding commissions for life and not responsible in any way to the electorate. 
In the early years of its history this body did much useful and important public 
service, yet abuses here and there existed on account of the irresponsible nature of 
their tenure of office, which rendered reform and public accountability very difficult 
to obtain. Public opinion, however, and the controlling influence of the legislatures 
operating steadily upon even irresponsible bodies of life-appointed magistrates 
made the institution as it existed fairly acceptable to the people generally. In 
1875, the incorporation of the counties and certain townships, hitherto an optional 
action, was made compulsory, twenty-four municipalities being then establishëd. 
In 1895, the Towns Incorporatiòn Act was passed, making the incorporation of 
towns throughout the province optional. In 1921 there were 41 incorporated 
towns. 
The county councils consist of councillors elected by the ratepayers every 
three years. The warden or presiding officer is chosen by the council and holds 
office until the next election of councillors. The mayors of towns are elected by the 
ratepayers and hold office for one year. Halifax, the capital of the province, has 
a special charter, the mayor being elected annually and the eighteen aldermen for 
three years, six retiring each year but being eligible for re-election. 


1 This article, as well as those on the government of the other Maritime Provinces, is adapted from the 
article by the late Thomas Barnard Flint, D.C.L., Clerk of the House of Commons, in the Canada Year 
Book, 1915. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 


103 


Judiciary.-The provincial courts consist of (1) the supreme court, which is 
a court of appeal and also a circuit court, and (2) the county courts. Presiding 
over the supreme court are a chief justice and six other judges. One of these is a 
judge in equity, who also acts in divorce cases and one is admiralty judge of the 
()xchequer court of Canada. The county courts have a limited original jurisdiction 
and an appeal jurisdiction from probate and magistrates' courts in certain cases. 
The judges of this court are seven in number, each having a district of jurisdiction 
covering a county or group of counties and holding terms of court in the county 
towns of their respective districts. 
The judges of the supreme and county courts are appointed and paid by the 
Dominion Government, but the procedure of the courts in all civil matters is regu- 
lated by provincial legislation. The purely provincial courts and courts of probate 
have jurisdiction over wills and intestate estates. Stipendiary and police magistrates' 
courts and courts of justices of the peace are also under provincial jurisdiction. 
The judges of these courts and justices of the peace are appointed by the local 
government and are paid, in some cases by salaries and in others by fees. The 
sheriffs, clerks, registrars and officers of all the courts are appointed by the pro- 
vincial authotities. 
In criminal cases the jurisdiction and procedure of all the courts are fixed by 
federal statutes. The procedure as to the selection of grand and petit jurors, of 
revisers of voters' lists and assessment courts is fixed by the provincial statutes. 
In each county, and in some counties in one or more districts of a county, are offices 
for the registry of deeds and of all documents pertaining to transfers of or affecting 
. titles to real estate as well as those creating and discharging liens on personal pro- 
perty. 


II.-NEW BRUNSWICK. 


The province of New Brunswick in all essential features of provincial adminie- 
tratiop is similar to its neighbour, Nova Scotia. The province entered Confeder- 
ation with a Legislative Council of 40 members holding their seats for life, a Legis- 
lative Assembly of 40 members and an Executive Council of nine members. Under 
its powers of changing the provincial constitution, the Legislative Council was 
abolished by an act passed on April 16, 1891. The Assembly at present is com- 
posed of 47 members, and the Executive Council is composed of (1) the Premier, 
(2) the Minister of Lands and Mines, (3) the Minister of Public 'V arks, (4) the 
Provincial Secretary-Treasurer, (5) the Minister of Agricultl1re, (6) the Minister 
of Public Health, and (7) the Attorney-General. 
In New Brunswick the subject of public instruction is under the managelI'ent 
of a Board of Education consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor of the province, 
the memberp of the Executive Council, the Chancellor of the University of New 
Brunswick and the Chief Superintendent of Education. 
Municipal Institutions.-In the matter of municipal institutions and the 
establishment of responsible local government, New Brunswick has passed through 
several stages of development very similar to those of Nova Scotia, and the old 
régime of county government by magistrates, who were in no way responsible to 
the people, in time gave way to more modern forms. Municipal incorporation 
was rendered optional by an early Act of 1851, which, however, had but little effect 
beyond the division of counties into parishes with a certain amount of local auto- 



104 PROVI.V'f'IAL AXD LOC.L1L GOVERY
"'fE^
T IN CANADA 


nomy and some limited powers of administration which have been recognized in 
subsequent legislation. Later, however, an Act of 1877, providing for compulsory 
incorporation, was put into force, and, with its amendments, is substantially effect- 
ive at the present time. It provides that county counci]s be constituted as bodies 
corporate, having two councillors elected yearly from each parish'in the county. 
The councils elect from among their members a presiding officer who is styled the 
warden and who holds office until the next election of councillors. Councils may 
themselves, however, provide by by-law for their election biennially, a provifion 
which does not apply to the municipality of the city and county of St. John which 
still holds a charter granted in the year 1785. In addition to a warden, each council 
elects a secretary, a treasurer and an auditor who may not be a counciJIor nor hold 
any office under the counci]. Thp councils also appoint overseers of the poor, 
constables, commissioners of highways, coJlectors of rates and other parish and 
county officials as may be nece,,;sary. 
The qualifications of voters for the councils are very liberal. In general every 
British subject of legal age, having real property of any value if a resident, or if 
not, having real property to the value of one hundred dollars, is entitled to vote. 
Judiciary.-The provincial courts of Kew Brunswick, similar to those of 
Nova Scotia, consist of the supreme court and of county courts, the supreme court 
consisting of the appeal division presided over by the chief justice of New Bruns- 
wick and t" a pUisne judges, and the King's bench division, presided over by a chief 
justice and three puisne judges. There are six county court judges with juris- 
diction in the fifteen counties of the province. Parishes are provided with local 
courts presided over by commissioners who are ex officio justices of the peace, and 
in some cases they are provided with stipendiary or police magistrates. These 
commissioners have civil jurisdiction in debts not exceeding eighty dollars and in 
cases of tort when the damages claimed to not exceed thirty-two dollars. 


IlL-PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 


At the time of entering the Union, the government of Prince Edward Island 
consisted of a Governor and an Executive Council, a Legislative Council of 13 
members, and a House of Assembly of 30 members. The Legislative Council was 
made elective in 1862 and so continued until its abolition after the union in 1873. 
The former Legislative Council districts, after the passage of the Abolition Act, 
electro members to the Legislative Assembly, fifteen in number, while the same 
districts elected members to the Assembly on a different franchise, thus practically 
amalgamating the two houses into one Assembly of 30 members. The electoral 
system, as far as voting is concerned, is practical1y one of manhood suffrage. The 
Executive Council of Prince Edward Island consists of (1) the President of the 
Council, and Attorney-General, (2) the Provincial Secretary-Treasurer, who is also 
Commissioner of Agriculture, (3) the Commissioner of Public 'Yorks, and (4) 
ix 
members without portfolio. 
l\ïth regard to the judiciary, the supreme court has a chief justice and two 
assistant judges. The judge of the ('òLnty court for Queen's county is 
also the local judge in admiralty of the exchequer court. The supreme 
court is also a court of appeal and has jurisdiction in appeal chancery 
cases. It has original jurisdiction botp in civil and criminal matters. In 
civil cases of debt the action must be for an amoWlt above $32, and 



QUEBEC' 


105 


all cases beyond the jurisdiction of the county court may be tried before a judge 
of the supreme court. The assistant judges of this court have also chancery powers. 
There is a surrogate and probate court for the province with one judge. A system 
of county courts is established consisting of three judges, one for each county. 
These are appointed and paid by the federal government and have jurisdiction 
in suits up to the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars. Education is under the 
direction of a Board of Edùcation consisting of the members of the Executive 
Council of the province, the Superintendent of Education, who is also secretary 
of the Board, and the Principal of Prince of'W ales Collegf'. 


IV.-QUEBEC.l 


Political and Administrative Organization.-The first assembly of repre- 
sentatives of the people to be elected by popular vote sat at Quebec, the capital 
of Lower Canada, in 1792, after the establishment of the parliamentary government 
which still exists and which originated in the Constitutional Act of 1791. A similar 
form of government was at the same time establjshed in the province of Upper 
Canada. This state of affairs lasted down to 1840, when the two provinces were 
united, and the territory formed by the union of the two Canadas received the 
name of province of Canada. Finally, in 1867, a confederation of four provinces 
was set up. The provinces of Ontario. Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia 
were the first to join in establishing a central government, the seat of which was 
fixed by the Imperial Government at Ottawa. 
The legislature of Quebec is composed of three branches: the Legislative 
Assembly of eighty-five members representing the eighty-six electoral divisions 
of the province (the counties of Charlevoix and Saguenay have the same repre- 
sentative); the- Legislative Council of twenty-four members nominated for life by 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council; and finally an Executive Council composed 
of the Lieutenant-Governor and his advisors, the ministcrs of the Crown. 
The Legislative Assembly and also the Legislative Council have the power 
to bring forward bills relating to civil and administrative matters and to amend or 
repeal the laws which already exist. A bill, to bE' approved by the Lieutenant- 
Governor, must have received the assent of both Houses. Only the Legislative 
Assembly can bring forward a bill requiring the e
penditure of public money. The 
extreme lcngth of a Parliament is five years. The premier is assisted by sevcn 
ministers, each with departmental portfolios (one of them, the treasurer, having 
two portfolios) and by two ministers without portfolio. 
Municipal Organization.-For the purposes of local or municipal adminis- 
tration, the province of Quebec is divided into county municipalities, 74 in number; 
these include rural municipalities and villages, as well as town municipalities hitherto 
organized under the former municipal code. In 1922 there were 22 city, 87 town 
and 261 village municipalities, as well as 9-13 rural municipalities, a total of 1,313 
local municipalities. Each local municipality is administered by a corporation 
composed of seven members in the rural municipalitics and of a number varying 
according to the municipality in the cities and to"'ns. In rural municipalities, the 
election of candidates for the municipal council takes place annually in the month 
of January when three of the six council]ors are replaced, while the mayor is elccted 


lAdapted from the article by G. E. Marquis, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of Quebec, in the 1921 
Year Book. 



106 PROVIKCIAL AI\.D LOCAL GOVERNAfENT IN CANADA 


for a two year term. The county council is composed of all the mayors of the 
villages and rural municipalities in the county. The head of this body bears the 
name of warden and is elected at the March quarterly meetings of the council. 
Most of the towns and cities are organized into separate corporations inde- 
pendent of any county council, in virtue of special charters granted by the legis- 
lature. The composition varies in different municipalities. The powers of the 
municipal councils are very extensive, being applicable, however, only to questions 
of purely local interest, while their regulations must contain no provisions incom- 
patible with the municipal laws of the country. They can appoint officials to 
manage the business of the municipality; form committees to undertake particular 
branches of the administration; make all highway regulations; nominate a local 
board of health; see to the maintenance of order; and finally aid colonization and 
agriculture by imposing direct taxes upon the taxable property of municipalities. 
All sums necessary for local public administration may be raised by the muni- 
cipal council by means of direct taxation on the property in the municipality as 
well as on certain business stock. 
Every two years assessors are named by the council who establish the value 
of the real property of their municipality. These assessors must make a new 
assessment ran every three years, but must amend and correct this roll every year. 
With this assessment as a basis, the municipal council raises the taxes which it 
needs to meet the expenses of administration. A few years ago a Department of 
Municipal Affairs was established to supervise more closely the carrying out of 
the municipaJ law and especiaUy the borrowing of money. 
School Organization.-Public instruction in the province of Quebec 
is governed by a single act ca]]ed the Law of Public Instruction, although there 
are two kinds of schools, one for the Catholics and the other for the Protestants 
or non-Catholics. This is what is called the confessional system. Regulations for 
each of these religious units are prepared by the Catholic Committee or the Pro- 
testant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction, respectively, and submitted 
for the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council before going into force. 
The territorial unit administered by a school corporation is called a school muni- 
cipality. This may differ in boundaries from the parish and even from the local 
municipality. There are 1,746 of these school municipalities, of which 1,394 are 
Catholic and 352 Protestant. School municipalities are constituted at the request 
of a group of ratepayers by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council on the recommend- 
ation of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or occasionally by an Act of the 
legislature. Each of them must be divided into school districts, except in cities 
and towns. School administration is in the hands of five commissioners- or three 
trustees. In the same municipality the dissentients or religious minority elect the 
trustees to direct the affairs of the dissentient schools whilc the majority clcct the 
commissioners. 
The school commissioners and trustees are elected for three years, five of the 
former or three of the latter forming a school corporation. Their duties are nume.- 
rous, but in brief it may be said that they must erect a school in each school district, 
look after the maintenance, provide the necessary equipment, engage teachers, 
supervise their teaching and settle the differences which may arise between teachers 
and parents. 
Like the municipal corporations, the school corporations have the right to 
impose taxes for the construction and maintenance of schools and for the payment 
of the teaching staff. School taxation is distributed over all the taxable property 



ONTARIO 


107 


of the school municipality; the assessment roll prepared by the Municipal Council 
must, except in rare cases, serve as a basis for the taxation imposed by the school 
corporations. 
Formerly the school corporations had under their control schools of four kinds; 
kindergartens, elementary primary, intermediate primary and superior primary 
schools. A modification of the above classification was m:lde in September, 1923, 
under which the last three types of schools were reduced to two which are the 
primary course (4 years) and the intermediate course (4 years). The programme 
of studies has been modified so as to give a more suitable type of education to country 
children, so as to keep them on the land, and to provide for town and city children 
an education which will fit them for industry, commerce and finance. 
Besides the schools under control of the school corporation, there are also the 
classical colleges where secondary instruction is given, as well as four universities, 
not including several special schools. The whole school organization is directed by 
the Council of Public Instruction, which prepares the school regulations and the 
programme of studies. It chooses also the professors and principals of the Normal 
schools, as well as the examiners of candidates for teachers' certificates; finally, 
it approves as it E'ees fit, the textbooks which are submitted to it. When the two 
Committees of the Council sit together, thus constituting the Council, its 
chairman is the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who also directs the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction. He is named for life by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, but the Provincial Secretary is the spokesman of this department, and is 
responsible before the provincial legislature for its administration. 


V.-ONTARIO.l 


Historica1.-The northern part of what is now the province of Ontario came 
under British rule in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht, the southern part in 1763, 
by the Treaty of Paris. At the latter date the whole white population was only 
about 1,000, mainly settled along the Detroit river. By Royal Proclamation of 
Oct. 7, 1763, the eastern part of the province, and by the Quebec Act of 1774 (14 
Geo. III, c. 83), the whole of what is now southern Ontario, became part of the 
province of Quebec, under French civil and English criminal law and without any 
representative government. The immigration of the United Empire Loyalists 
and their settlement in the country led to an increasing demand both for English 
civil law and for representative institutions. This demand was met by the passing 
of the Constitutional Act of 1791 (31 Geo. III, c. 31), which established the pro- 
vince of Upper Canada with a Lieutenant-Governor, a Legislative Council of not 
fewer than seven, and a Legislative Assembly of not fewer than sixteen members, 
to be elected by the people. These representatives of the people, however, had 
little control over the Executive Council, and the result was the struggle for respon- 
sible government which culminated in the rebellion of 1837, after which Lord 
Durham's report paved the way for its introduction and the union of the Canadas 
by the Act of Union (3-4 Vict., c. 35). 
Present Constitution.-The Legislative Assembly of Ontario, the single 
chamber of the legislature of the province, was originally composed of 82 elected 
members, the number, however, having been increased un
il the present when 
lAdapted from the article by S. A. Cudmore. Editor Canada Year Book. in the 1921 Year Book. 



108 PROVINCIAL AXD LOCAL GOVERl\
1
[E.VT IN C.4NADA 


its total is 111. It is elected for four years on an adult suffrage basis and holds 
annual sessions so that 12 months shall not intervene between the last sitting in 
one session and the first sitting in the next. 
The Executive Council consists (1923) of thirteen members, nine of them 
holding tJortfolios as follows: Prime Minister and Minister of Education; Attorney- 
General; Secretary and Registrar; Treasurer; Lands and Forests; Agriculture; 
Public Works and Highways; Labour; Mines. 
Besides the regular departments, certain commissions have been created for 
specific purposes. They include the Niagara Falls Park Commission, the Railway 
and Municipal Board, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission and the Timiskaming 
and Northern Ontario Railway Commission. 
Municipal Government.-Under the system established by the Constitu- 
tional Act of 1791, municipal administration was carried on in the main by the 
courts of quarter sessions, whose members were appointed by and responsible to 
the governor in council. As urban communities began to grow, there commenced 
an agitation for local self-government, which after many rebuffs, resulted in 1832 
in the grant to Brockville of a limited measure of control of the local police. In 
1833 Hamilton and in 1834 Belleville, Cornwall, Port Hope and Prescott received 
similar powers, while in the latter year York became a self-governing city with a. 
mayor, aldermen and councillors under the name of Toronto, Kingston receiving 
in 1838 a similar constitution, though bping denied the name of city. 
Upon the introduction of responsible government, the District Councils Act 
of 1841 was passed, giving a considerable measure of local self-government with a. 
large measure of contr"ol by the central authorities and a. few years later, a. more 
comprehensive measure, the Municipal Act of 1849 came into force. 
This Act has been called the l\1agna Charta of municipal institutions, not only 
for Ontario, but for the newer provinces which largely copied Ontario institutions. 
Its main features are still clearly visible in the municipal system of to-day. 
Under this system there existed in 1868, when the first legislature of Ontario 
assembled, 539 local self-governing units, including 36 counties, 399 townsbips, 
and 104 cities, towns and villages. In 1921, there were in the province 911 local 
self-governing units, including 38 county municipalities, 557 townships, 149 villages, 
143 towns and 24 cities. There was thus in that year a local self-governing body for 
every 3,200 of the population of the province, and the general effect has been to 
init iate the masses of the people in the problems of self-government, so that Ontario 
has been described by eminent students of democratic governments as one of the 
most perfect democracies in existence. 
Townships and Villages.-Township municipalities may be organized in 
hitherto unorganiz{'d territory when the population of the geographical township 
of six miles square is not less than 100, and where the inhabitants of an area Dot 
surveyed into townships e:xceed 100 on not more than 20,000 acres. The township 
is governed by a chief executive officer styled reeve, and four others who may be 
deputy reeves or councillors, depending on tbe number of municipal electors. These 
provisions apply also to villages, which may be created out of districts or parts 
of townships where a population of 750 exists on an area not exceeding 500 acres. 
Police villap;es with certain limited rights of self-government may be formed by 
county councils where a population of not less than 150 exists upon an area of not 
less than 500 acres and where the majority of freeholders and resident tenants of 
the locality petition therefor. Police villages are administered by three trustees 
who may be created a body corporate where the population exceeds 500. 



ONTARIO 


109 


Towns.- Towns may be incorporated on conditions prescribed by the Ontario 
Railway and Municipal Board, but must have not less than 2,000 population. A 
town in unorganized territory is governed by a mayor and six councillors, or if the 
population is not less than 5,000, by a mayor and nine councillors. A town not in 
unorganized territory is governed by a mayor, a reeve, as many deputy reeves 
as the town is entitled to have as its representatives in the county council, and three 
councillors for each ward where there are less than five wards, or two councillors 
for each ward where there are five or more wards. Towns having not less than 
5,000 population may, by by-law approved by the electors, withdraw from the 
jurisdiction of the county council. 
Cities.-Cities, which are always entirely separate in government from their 
counties, must have, when constituted, a population of 15,000. They are governed 
by a mayor, a Board of Control if such exists, and, at the option of the council, 
two or three aldermen for each ward. Boards of Control, who may be elected by 
general vote in any city of more than 45,000 people and must be so elected in cities 
of over 100,000, form a sort of executive authority for the larger cities 
giving a large portion of their time to the public service, and being paid a salary 
considerably higher than the alderman's indemnity. The duties of the Board of 
Control include the preparation of estimates, the awarding of contracts, the inspec- 
tion of municipal works, and the nomination of officers and their dismissal 01' sus- 
pension. The Board reports to the council, in which its members also have a vote, 
and its action is subject to approval or reversal by the whole council. The council 
may not make appropriations or expenditures of sums not provided for by the 
Board's estimates, without a two-thirds vote of the members present. 
Counties.-All members of county councils are also members of the councils 
of the municipalities within the larger county municipality, being the reeves and 
deputy reeves of townships, villages and towns. The presiding officer of the county 
council is called the warden, and is annually chosen from among the reeves who 
are members of the council. The county council has charge of the main highways 
and bridges, the courthouse, gaol, house of refuge, registry office, etc. Its rates are 
collected through the constituent local municipalities. Provisions for the erection 
of one kind of urban municipality into another are given in the Municipal Act. 
Judiciary.-Under the Law Reform Act of 1909 (9 Edw. VII, c. 28), the 
Supreme Court of Ontario is established in two divisions, the appellate division 
and the high court division, the former being a continuation of the old court of 
appeal and the latter a continuation of the old high court of justice. The appellate 
division is composed of not less than two divisional courts, each with five justices, 
who. try appeals from the high court and the other courts of the province, and 
from whose decision appeals may in certain cases be made to the Supreme Court 
of Canada. The justices of the High Court hold assizes at least twice a year in 
each county, with a very comprehensive jurisdiction. In each county or district . 
there is a court presided over by a judge, who sits at least twice a year, with or 
without a jury, to try minor civil actions. Each county judge also presides at 
least twice yearly over a court of general session, with a limited jurisdiction in 
criminal matters. Criminals may, with their own consent, be tried by the county 
judge without a jury. Each judicial district is divided into court divisions in each 
of which a division court is held by the county judge, or his deputy, at least once in 
every two months. These courts are for the recovery of small debts and damages. 
The county judges hold revision courts for the revision of assessment rolls and of 
voters' lists; they are also judges of the surrogate courts, which deal with the 
estates of deceased persons. 



110 PROVn...-CIAL AKD LOCAL GOVER.Yi1IENT IK CAS ADA 


VI.-MANITOBA, SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA.1. 


Historical.-On the prairies there have been two distinct trends of historical 
and political development-that of the Red River and that of the Territories. 
The whole region was originally under the sway of the Honourable Company of 
Adventurers trading into Hudson's Bay. In the case of Red River, responsible 
self-rule came with the transfer to Canada. The Territories possessed absolutely 
no form of government prior to their incorporation in the Dominion. 
On September 4, 1812. Captain Miles Macdonell, in the name of Lord Selkirk, 
took formal possession of the District of Assiniboia at the forks of the Red and 
Assiniboine rivers. This was the first act of government in what is now western 
Canada. 
The district was governed for several years by a governor and council appoint- 
ed by Selkirk, and although it was responsible to only a slight degree to those whose 
interests it was expected to regard and foster, its membership was largely represent- 
ative of the leaders in the community. In 1841, the Municipal District of Assini- 
boia was formed, its establishment marking the beginnings of self-government in 
the west. 
The series of Dominion Acts relating to the west begins with "An Act for 
the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the Northwestern Territory when 
united with Canada," June 22, 1869. This Act sought to prepare for the transfer 
of the Territories from the local authorities to the government of Canada. A year 
later the Manitoba Act (33 Vict., c. 3) launched upon its independent constitutional 
career the c1d district of Assiniboia, now in possession of complete self-govern- 
ment. For a short time there was a temporary government with two ministers and 
the Legislative Assembly. After this, government was carried on with the Legis- 
lative Assembly and a Legislative Council, but without a premier. At the end 
of .six years the Legislative Council wa!:! abolished. \Yithout a Legislative Council 
but with a premier and a Legislative Assembly the province assumed the constitu- 
tional form which has endured to the present day. 
On the establishment of the province of Manitoba, the Territories were not 
at first given a separate government. They were administered from Fort Garry 
by the Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba with the aid, first of a small executive 
council of three, and then with the aid of a more formal but still provisional North- 
west Council. The charter of the separate political existence of the Territories 
is the Northwest Territories Act, 1875 (38 Yict., c. 49). The development of the 
country had already become a rapid one. The construction of the Canadian 
Pacific railway exerted a powerful influence on its growth and tended to a great 
extent to determine the course of settlement. 'While the capital was still at Battle- 
ford, in 1881, Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke W3S elected to represent the district 
of Lorne on the Northwest Council. Three years later the elected representatives 
of the people became numerous enough to exert an influence upon legislation. In 
1886 a territorial judiciary was established. Then followed a parliamentary struggle 
for the control of the purse. In quick succession came the Advisory Council, the 
Executive Committee, the Executive Council. In the contest between represent- 
atives of the settlers and the Dominion officials, victory lay with the people and 
with the cause of popular government. It was not, however, till 1897, on the eve 
of a remarkable growth in population and economic development, that the govern- 
ment of the Territories, which for half a decade had been giving expression to the 


IAdapted from the article by Rev. E. H. Oliver, Ph. D., F. R.S.C., in the 1921 Ye:l.I" Book. 



JIA NI TOBA 


111 


people's will, was made completely responsible in form as it had already been in 
fact. 
The increased volume of immigration necessitated heavier expenditures upon 
education, public works and local administration. It was impossible to introduce 
municipal organizations into many districts outside the limits of the denser settle- 
ments. The result was to impose excessive burdens upon the territorial govern- 
ment. Financial embarrassments gave rise to constitutional aspirations. FinaJly, 
after a prolonged agitation, the Saskatchewan and Alberta Acts (4-5 Edw. VII, 
cc. 42 and 43), provided for the erection on September 1st, 1905, of two provinces, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta. 
Provincial Constitutions.-Each of the three provinces has a Lieutenant- 
Governor, appointed by the Dominion Government, who holds office for five years. 
'\Vithin his term he is not removable except for cause assigned, communicated to 
him in writing. His powers are exercised in accordance with the principles of 
responsible government, with the advice and consent of the provincial cabinet. 
Each province also, has in its cabinet a Minister of Public \'" arks, an Attorney- 
GeneraJ, a Minister of Agriculture, a Provincial Treasurer, a Minister of Education 
and a Provincial Secretary. More than one department or sub-department is 
frequently under one responsible minister. In addition each province has a Legisla- 
ture consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor and the Legislative Assembly. There 
mllEt be a yearly session. Though the Assembly may be dissolved at any time it 
must not continue longer than a fixed period of years after a general election. 


I.-Manitoba. 


Municipal Government.-The stages in the growth of municipal institu- 
tions in Manitoba are marked by the legislation of the years 1871, 1873, 1882 and 
1900. In 1871, the County A:,sessmeDt Act and the Parish Assessment Act made 
provision for dealing with local finance. An Act of 1873 provided for the erection 
of a local municipality in districts containing not less than '30 freeholders. In 
1883, the province was divided into 26 counties 3;nd 3 judicial districts. Then, 
by the Generai Municipal Act of 1900, every city, town, village and rural municipal- 
ity became a body corporate. Over all of these bodies, excepting cities having 
separate charters of incorporation, is the 
upervision of a department of Municipal 
Affairs. By legislation enacted in 1921, a Tax Commission was established in 
order to improve the standard of municipal assessment throughout the province, 
and especially in rural areas where some laxity had existed. 
A feature peculiar to local government in Manitoba is the "Improvement 
District," that portion of a rural municipality or incorporated village formed into 
a particular territory to provide for local improvements. It differs in both nature 
and functions from the improvement districts of Saskatchewan and Alberta. ID 
general, the other forms of municipal organization are the ruraJ municipalities 
villages, towns and cities. 
School Districts.-The most elementary and in many ways the most import- 
ant unit of self-government on the prairies is the school district, the local organiza- 
tion for the support and administration of educational affairs. Its individual 
character depends largely on whether it is a rural, village, town, city or consolidated 
district, but the most common of these, the rural district, is governed by a board 
of three trustees elected by the ratepayers for three years, one being elected and 
one retiring annually. Still another form also exists, the rural municipality school 
organization, an aggregation of rural schools undcr one board of trustees. 



112 PROV1NC1A.L A
-D LOCAL GOVER
JIE,-VT 1:-1 CANADA 


Other Forms.-As mentioned above, the other forms of municipal organiza- 
tion in addition to the improvement district are the rural municipalities, villages, 
towns and cities. The rural municipality is a permanent corporate body with 
powers to legislate on matters such as public health, cemeteries, hospitals, cruelty 
to animals, fires, municipal buildings, etc. It collects the school ta:xes in the 
district and may borrow by means of debenture issues. Certain license fees may 
be collected but taxation constitutes the principal source of revcnue. The council 
consists of the reeve and six or four councillors as determined by by-law. 
Villages arc incorporated under the Municipality Act in which a primary 
requirement is that a minimum number of 500 inhabitants be resident on an area 
of 640 acres. 
Towns may be erected on a petition from any locality with over 1,500 inhabi- 
tants. The council consists of the mayor and two councillors from each ward. 
A city in Manitoba may be formed on application from a town containing over 
10,000 inhabitants. its council is composed of a mayor, a board of control similar 
to those of Ontario, and two aldermen from each ward. Its powcrs are the familiar 
ones including the acquisition of property, public safety, public ordcr and morality, 
fire protection, libraries, drainage, sewerage and water supply. 
Judiciary.- The courts of the three provinces are essentially the same. In 
Manitoba there are the court of appeal, with a chief justice and four puisne judges, 
the court of King's bench, the surrogate court and the county courts. In Saskat- 
chewan are the court of appeal and the court of King's bench (with the supreme 
court judges having jurisdiction in bankruptcy) and several district courts. In 
Alberta there are the trial and appellate divisions of the supreme court (the judges 
acting in bankruptcy as above) and also several judicial districts and sub-judicial 
districts presided over by district judges. 


2. -Saska tchewan. 


The province. of Saskatchewan began its existence in 1905 with numerous 
municipal customs and organizations which it received as a legacy from the old 
Northwest Territories. Many of them were soon discarded on the recommend- 
ation of investigating commissions and among the earliest moves of the new pro- 
vince in the direction of municipal government was the amending of local improve- 
ment Acts and the consolidating of other Acts relating to municipalities. 
In general, local government in Saskatchewan is similar to that of Manitoba. 
The school district is the most important governmental unit. Improvement 
districts in both Saskatchewan and Albcrta differ from those in Manitoba in that 
they consist of those sparsely settled areas where there exists either no municipal 
organization whatever or one of a very simple character. As a rule each local 
improvement district has exactly the same area as the rural municipality into which it 
may subsequently be transformed. This is generally the territorial unit of 18 
miles square or 9 townships. Taxes 'are collectible by the Department of M Ullicipal 
Affairs and are expended within the district on highways, the destruction of animal 
and insect pests, etc. 
Villages may be incorporated when 50 people actually resident in a hamlet 
make application. Taxes may be levied on land at its fair actual value, on 
buildings and improvements at 60 p.c. of their value and on pcrsonal property 
and income. On written petition of two-thirds of the number of ratepayers, a 
by-law providing for the assessment of land only may be passed. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 


113 


Towns may be erected from villages having over 500 inhabitants. The land 
and improvements are assessed on the same basis as in villages, but in addition, 
the town has the power of imposing an income tax, a tax on personal property and 
a tax on improvements. 
- Towns of 5,000 inhabitants may be incorporated as cities under a general City 
Act. The city may, at its own volition, assess land values, exempting buildings 
and improvements. City government is by mayor and aldermen elected by the 
people and by appointed commissioners, a contrast to the elective boards of control 
common to eastern cities. 


3.-Alberta. 


From the standpoint of government, the development of Alberta since its 
creation in 1905 has been very similar to that of Saskatchewan, in much the 
:same way as these two provinces have been closely allied with Manitoba in the 
application of older, eastern methods of government to western conditions. 
In Alberta also, the five main forms of municipal organization exist: improve- 
ment and municipal districts, vilJages, towns and cities. The school district is again 
a vital element in the organization of government and, in Alberta, is similar in 
constitution to those of the other prairie provinces. The council of rural mlmi- 
cipalities is generally elected at large, although, with the electors' approval, it 
may provide for election by divisions in a manner similar to that seen in Sabkat- 
chewan where the reeve is elected at large while each of the six councillors is chosen 
by a division of a township and a half. A vil1age in Alberta is not a corporate 
body and its powers are very limited. It may be established where any centre of 
population contains 25 occupied dwelling houses within an area of 640 acres. '" hen 
a village population reaches 700 it may be established as a town and towns again 
may become cities on application and granting of a special charter. As each city 
conducts its affairs according to the provisions of its charter (since there is no City 
Act governing their creation) methods of city government in the province show 
considerable differences. 


VI I.-BRITISH COLUMBIAI. 


British Columbia entered Confederation on July 20, 1871. The province 
had been constituted in 1866 by the union of the colony of Vancouver Island and 
its dependencies with that of British Columbia. Local responsible government 
began before Confederation, but previously the colonies had been administered by 
two mixed elective and appointed councils. The Lieutenant-Governor and a Cabinet 
not to exceed twelve ministers constitute the present administration. The Cabinet 
is composed of the following: the Premier, who is also Minister of Railways and 
President of the Council; Attorney-General and Minister of Labour; Minister of 
Finance and Minister of Industries; Provincial Secretary and Minister of Educa- 
tion; Minister of Lands; Minister of Mines and Commissioner of Fisheries; Minister 
()f Public Works; Minister of Agriculture. 
British Columbia has a single chamber legislature, consisting of 47 members. 
Vancouver's representation has been increased from 2 members in 1894 to 6 at 
present, elected at large. Victoria returns 4 members, while the other 36 ridings 
are one-member constituencies. The term of the Legislative Assembly, formerly 
four years, was increased to five years in 1913. 


lAdapted from tbe article by John Hosie in tbe 1921 Year Book. 
62373-8 



114 PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN CANADA 


Judiciary.- The principal courts of the province in the order of authority 
are as follows:- 
1. Court of Appeal, consisting of a chief justice and four puisne judges. The 
appellate jurisdiction of this court is wide, covering appeals from all judgments 
and orders of the supreme court, appeals from the county courts, appeals from 
the opinion of a judge of the supreme court on constitutional questions referred 
to him by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, etc. It is also the court of ..appeal 
for the province in all criminal cases under the Criminal Code of Canaàa. 
2. The Supreme Court, consisting of a chief justice and five puisne judges. 
It has general jurisdiction throughout the province as a superior court of record, 
and there are certain appeals under provincial legislation which are heard before 
it. Its jurisdiction is exercisable by each individual judge as anù for the court. 
3. County Courts, of which there are nine. These have juriEdictio
 in aU 
personal actions where the amount involved does not exceed $1,000; in actions of 
ejectment where the value of the premises does not exceed $2,500; in equity cases 
where the amount involved does not exceed $2,500. They have wide jurisdiction 
under the provincial mining acts, and upon appeals from smal] debts rourt'3. 
The administration of criminal justice is also largely in their hands. 
4. Small Debts Courts, with juriFdiction in personal actions up to $100. They 
are presided over by judges appointed by the provincial government. 
In addition to the above COurtb there are many stipendiary magistrates. and 
justices of the peace, exercising a more or less limited jurisdiction under the Criminal 
Code of Canada as well as under the Summary Convictions Act. 
Education.-The Department of Education is lmder a Minister who is also 
Provincial Secretary. The Superintendent of Education has the rank of a deputy 
minister. Supervision is in the hands of two high school inspectors, sixteen inspec- 
ors of schools, and one inspector of manual training schools. The system is non- 
sectarian. Attendance is compulsory frolp. the age of 7 to 14. The provincial 
university was authorized by legislation in 1908, but was not opened until 1915. 
It confers degrees in Arts, Applied Science and Agriculture, and has power to grant 
degrees in aJI branches except theology. 
Other educational institutions incJude two normal schools and over forty' high 
I3chools. There are also night schools for instruction in academic and technical 
subjects. Manual training and household science departments are in operation. in 
many high schools and elementary schools. 
The maintenance of all city and town schools, and a large majority of the 
rural schools, is provided for by local or district assessment, supplemented by 
grants from the provincial treasury. Control of these schools is vested in the local 
authorities, subject to the regulations of the department. Cities and organi7ed 
municipalities elect their boards by popular vote. These boards appoint municipal 
inspectors and other officers. 
Municipal Government.-Local administration is at present based on the 
Municipal Act and amending statutes, together with the Village Municipalities 
Act. Large powers of local self-government are conferrcd by the existing system. 
An urban municipality may be formed by a community of not less than 100 male 
British subjects, provided the owners of more than half of the land petition for it. 
District municipalities may be organized by 30 resident male British subjects of 
full age. Village municipalities may be formed by petition where the number of 
residents does not exceed 1,000 but the provisions of the Municipal Act shall not 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 


115 


apply thereto. The city organizations are of the same general type, differing only 
in details. In all, the chief executive officer is the mayor, and all have elective 
councils. 
The Municipal Act has provision for the board of control, but neither this nor 
the Commission system is in operation. All the larger cities have dropped the ward 
system. Vancouver, the largest city, has reduced its council to eight members. 
The municipal franchise for ordinary purposes is open to adult male residents and 
to female householders and real estate owners. Only owners of real estate, male 
or female, may vote on money by-laws. Such by-laws are necessary for expendi- 
tures beyond the ordinary revenue, requiring the issue of debentures. They require 
a three-fifths majority of the votes cast. The chief executive of a district muni- 
cipality is the reeve and in most other reEpects the district municipality is similar 
to the city government. 
While 
he general municipal system is established by common legislation, 
several municipalities have secured certain modifications by special enactment. 
Each has its own system of assessment and taxation. Vancouver, for example, 
levies taxes upon fifty per cent of the value of improvements. 
Under the Municipal Cemeteries Act, 1921, municipalities are given power 
to establish cemeteries, mausoleums and crematoriums. Two or more municipali- 
ties may act together in the matter, with a joint board of control appointed by the 
respective councils. 
Aid is now given the municipalities from the receipts from government sale 
of liquor, from receipts for motor licenses, and from a newly imposed tax on betting 
at race meetings. The apportionment of such moneys is on a basis of population. 


6:?J73-
l 



V.-PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN 
CANADA. 
I.-DO
INION PARLIAMENT. 


The Dominion Parliament is composed of the King, represented by the Governor- 
General, the Senate and the House of Commons. The Governor-General is appoint- 
ed by the King in Council. Members of the Senate are appointed for life by the 
Governor-General in Council and members of the House of Commons are elected 
by the people. As a result of the working out of the democratic principle, the 
part played by the King's representative and the Upper Chamber of Parliament 
in tbe country's legislation has been, in Canada as in the mother country, a steadily 
decreasing one, the chief responsibilities involved in legislation being assumed 
by the House of Commons. 
The Governor-General of Canada-The Governor-General is appointed by the 
King as his representative in Canada, usually for a term of five years, v. ith a salary 
fixed at .f:lO,OOO sterling per annum and forming a charge against the consolidated 
revenue of the country. Tl1e Governor-General is bound by the terms of his com- 
mission and can only exercise such authority as is expressly entrusted to him. 
He acts under the advice of his Ministry, which is responsible to Parliament, and, 
as the acting head of the executive, summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament 
and assents to or reserves bills. In the discharge of these and other e},.ecutive 
duties, he acts entirely by and with the advice of his Ministry (the Governor- 
General in Council). In matters of Imperial interest affecting Canada, he consults 
with his Ministers and submits their views to the British government. The royal 
prerogative of mercy in capital cases, formerly exercised on the Governor-General's 
own judgment and responsibility, is now ê.-xercised pursuant to the advice of the 
Ministry. 
A list of the Governors-General from the time of Confederation, with the 
dates of their appointment and assumption of office, is given in Table 1. 


1.-GO\ernors-General of Canada. 1867-1923. 


Name. 


Date of 
appointment. 


Date of 
assumption 
of offIce. 


Viscount Monck. G.C.l\l.G.............................. ..... .......... June 1, 1867 July 1, 1867 
.. LordLisgar.G.C.M.G................................................ Dec. 29, 186b Feb. 2, 1869 
TheEarlofDufferin,K.P.,K.C.B..G.C.l\I.G......................... May 22, 1872 June 25, 1872 
Thel\larquisofLorne. K.T.,G.C.:\l.G................................ Oct. 5, 1878 Kov.25, 1878 
The Marquis of Lansdowne. G.C.M.G... .............................. Aug. 18, 1883 Oct. 23, 1883 
Lord Stanley of Preston. G.C.B.................. . ................ May 1, 1888 June 11, 1888 
T he Earl of Aberdeen, K. T., G .C.l\l.G......... . . . .. .... .............. May 22, 11393 ðept. 18, 1893 
TheEarlofMinto,G.C.M.G..................................... .... July 30, 1898 Nov. 12, 1898 
TheEarIGrey.G.C.M.G........................................... .. Sept. 26, 1904 Dec. 10, 1904 
Field-Marshal H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, R.G................... 
lar. 21, 1911 Oct. 13. 1911 
The Duke of Devonshire, K.G., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O.................. Aug. 19, 1916 Nov. 11. 1916 
General the Lord BingofVimy, G.C.B., G.C.l\1.G., M.V.O............ Aug. 2. 1921 Aug. 11, 1921 


The Ministry-A system of government based upon the British, by which a 
Cabinet or Ministry (composed of members of the House of Commons or tbe 
Senate), responsible to Parliament, holds office while it enjoys the confidence of 



DOMINION J.UINISTRIES 


117 


the people's representatives, is found in Canada. The Cabinet is actually a com- 
mittee of the King's Privy Council for Canada. 'Without enlarging upon the 
features of the system, it may be sufficient to note that the Cabinet is responsible 
to the House of Commons, and, followin,g established precedent, resigns office 
when it becomes evident that it no longer holds the confidence of the people's 
representatives. Members óf the Cabinet are chosen by the Prime Minister; 
each of them generally assumes charge of one of the various departments of the 
government, although one Minister may hold two portfolios at the same time, 
while other members may be without portfolio. The present Ministry consists 
of 19 members. Three of them are without portfolio while four others, including 
the Prime Minister, are in charge of two or more departments. 
The Prime Ministers since Confederation and their dates of office, together 
with the members of the present Ministry, are given in Table 2. 


2.-1Uinlstries since ('onfederation. 
1. Rt. Hon. Sir John A. :\Iacdonald, Premier. From July I, 1867 to Nov. 6, 1873. 
2. Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, Premier. From Nov. 7, 1873 to Oct. 16, 1878. 
3. Rt. Hon. Sir John A. l\Iacdonald, Premier. From Oct. 17, 1878 to June 6, 189l. 
4. Hon. Sir John J. C. Abbott, Premier. From June 16, 1891 to Dec. 5,1892. 
5. Hon. Sir John S. D. Thompson, Premier. From Dec. 5, 1892 to Dec. 12, 1894. 
6. Hon. Sir Mackenzie Bowell, Premier. From Dec. 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. 
7. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper, Premier. From May I, 1896 to July 8, 1896. 
8. Rt. Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Premier. From July 11, 1896 to Oct. 6, 1911. 
V. Rt. Hon. Sir Robert L. Borden, Premier. (Conservative Administration). From Oct. 10, 1911 to 
Oct. 12, 1917. 
10. Rt. Hon. Sir Robert L. Borden, Premier. (Unionist Administration). From Oct. 12, 1917 to July 10, 
1920. - 
11. Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen, Premier. (Unionist-"National Liberal and Conservative Party"). From 
July 10, 1920 to Dec. 29, 1921. 
12. Rt. Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Premier. From Dec. 29, 1921. 
NOTE.-A complete list of the members of Dominion :\Iinistries from Confederation to 1913 appeared 
in the Year Book of 1912, pp. 422-429. A list of the members of the Dominion Ministries from 1911 to 
1921 appeared in the Year Book of 1920, pp. 651-653. 


TWELFTH DmUNION :M:INISTRY. 
(According to precedence of the Ministers as at the formation of the Cabinet.) 


Office. 


Occupant. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Prime Minister, Secretary of State for 
External Affairs, President of the Privy 
Council.................................. Right Hon. "illiam Lyon Mackenzie King Dec. 
Minister of Finance: . ... . . . . ... . . . . ... . .. Right Hon. William S. Fielding. - . . . Dec. 
Minister of National Defence............... Hon. George P. Graham................... Dec. 
Hon. Edward Macdonald!.................. April 
Hon. Edward Macdonald...... .... ..... ... Aug. 
Postmaster General......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Hon. Charles Murphy...... . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . Dec. 


29, 1921 
29, 1921 
29, 1921 
28, 1923 
17, 1923 

 
29, 1921 


Minister without Portfolio. . .. .. ... ..... .. . Hon. Raoul Dandurand... . . . . 
Mini!!ter of Soldiers' Civil Re-Establish- 
ment and the Minister in charge of and to 
administer the Department of Health... . Hon. Henri S. Béland.... . . . . . 


Dec. 29, 1921 


Dec. 29, 1921 


Minister of Public Works.. ................. Hon. He\\itt Bostock.... ........... Dec. 
Hon. James H. hing.... ................. Feb. 
Minister of Justice and Attorney General... Hon. Sir Lomer Gouin..: . . ... . . .. . . . . . . .. . Dec. 


I 
29, 1921 
. 3, 1922 
29. 1921 
29, 1921 
j 
29, 1921 
. 


Minister of Customs and Excise..... ..... Hon. Jacques Bureau......._ 


Dec. 


Minister of Marine and Fisheries. . . . . . . . . . . Hon. Ernest Lapointe.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dec. 


Solicitor General................. ... . ..... Hon. Daniel D. .\IcKenzie.................. Dec. 29, 1921 
Hon. E. J. )lc\lurray............ 
ept. 12, 1923 


lActing )linibter. 


. 



118 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 


TWELFTH DOMINION MINISTRY -concluded. 


Office. 


Occupant. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Minister of Immigration and Colonization.. Hon. James A. Robb................... .... Aug. 
Minister of Trade and Commerce.......... Ron. JamesA. Robb........... ...._ _ _..... Dec. 
Ron. ThomasA. Low.............. . ..... Aug. 
Minister without Portfolio. . . . _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . Ron. Thomas A. Low. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Dec. 
Secretary of State......................... Ron. Arthur B. Copp...................... Dee. 
Minister of Railways and Canals... . . . . . . . . Ron. William C. Kennedy.......... . . . . . . .. Dee. 
Ron. George P. Graham................... April 
Minister of the Interior, Superintendent 

 General of Indian Affairs and ?llinister of 
?t1ines..................... _....... _. _ _ _. Hon. Charles Stewart.... _................. Dec. 


17, 1923 
29, 1921 
17, 1923 
29, 1921 
29, 1921 
29, 1921 
28, 1923 


29, 1921 


Minister of Agriculture... ... _ . . . . _ . . . . . . .. Hon. William R. Motherwell.... . . . . . . . . . .. Dee. 29, 1921 
Minister of Labour...... .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. Ron. James Murdock. .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. . .. ... Dee. 29, 1921 
Minister without Portfolio................. Ron. John. E. Sinclair........... .... _..... Dee. 29, 1921 


In Table 3 are 
ven the dates of the opening and prorogation of the sessions 
of the various Dominion Parliaments from 1867 to 1923. 


3.-Duration and Sessions of Dominion Parliaments, 1861-1923. 


8 


Days Elections, "'Tits 
Number of Ses- Date of Date of of returnable, dissolutions, 
Parliament. sion. Opening. Prorogation. ses- and lengths of 
sion. Parliaments. 1o 
.. .j 1st Nov. I, 1867 May 22, 1868 118 1 
2nd April 15, 1869 June 22, 1869 69 Aug., Sept., 1867. 1 
1st Parliament..... 3rd :Feb. 15, 1870 May 12, 1870 87 Sept. 24, 1867. 4 
4th Feb. 15. 1871 April 14, 1871 59 July 8, 1872.6 
5th April 11, 1872 June 14, 1872 65 4 y., 9 m., 15 d. 1 
July, Aug., Sept., '72. 1 
2nd Parliament. ... .{ 1st Mar. 5, 1873 Aug. 13, 1873 81 2 Sept. 3, 1872. 4 
2nd Oct. 23, 1873 Nov. 7, 1873 16 Jan. 2, 1874.& 
1 y., 4 m., 0 d. 1 
1st )Iar. 26, 1874 May 26, 1874 62 Jan. 22, 1874. 3 
2nd Feb. 4, 1875 April 8, 1875 64 Feb. 21, 1874.4 
3rd Parliament......... 3rd Feb. 10, 1876 April 12, 1876 63 Aug. 17, 1878. 5 
4th Feb. 8, 1877 April 28, 1877 80 4 y., 5 m.. 25 d. 1 
5th Feb. 7, 1878 May 10. 1878 93 
1st Feb. 13, 1879 May 15, 1879 92 Sept. 17, 1878. 1 
4th Parliament. . . 2nd Feb. 12, 1880 May 7, 1880 86 Nov. 21, 1878. 4 
3rd Dec. 9, 1880 Mar. 21, 1881 103 May 18, 1882.& 
4th l'eb. 9, 1882 May 17, 1882 98 3 y., 5 m., 28 d. 1 
1st Feb. 8, 1883 May 25, 1883 107 June 20, 1882. 1 
5th Parhament. . . . . . . . . 2nd Jan. 17, 1884 April 19, 1884 94 Aug. 7, 1882.4 
3rd Jan. 29, 1885 July 20, 1885 173 Jan. 15, 1887.' 
4th :Feb. 25, 1886 June 2, 1886 98 4 y., 5 m., 10 d. 1 
1st April 13, 1887 June 23, 1887 72 Feb. 22, 1887. 1 
6th 'Parliament.. _ _..... 2nd Feb. 23, 1888 May 22, 1888 90 April 7, 1887.4 
3rd Jan. 31, 1889 May 2, 1889 92 Feb. 3, 1891.& 
4th Jan. 16, 1890 May 16, 1890 121 3 y., 9 m., 27 d. 1 
1st April 29, 1891 Sept. 30, 1891 155 
2nd Feb. 25, 1892 July 9, 1892 136 March 5, 1891. 1 
7th Parliament......... Jrd Jan. 26, 1893 April I, 1693 66 April 25, 1891.4 
4th :\lar. 15, 1894 July 23, 1894 IJI April 24, 1896.' 
5th April 18, 1895 July 22, 1895 96 5 y., 0 m., 0 d. 1 
6th Jan. 2, 1896 April 23, 1896 III 
1st Aug. 19, 1896 Oct. 5, 1896 48 
2nd Mar. 25, 1897 June 29, 1897 97 June 23. 1896. 1 
th Parlìament.. . .. . . . . 3rd Feb. 3. 1898 June 13. 1898 131 July 13, 1896.4 
4th Mar. 16, 1899 Aug. 11, 1899 149 Oct. 9. 1900.' 
5th Feb. I, 1900 July 18, 1900 168 4 y., 2 m., 26 d.' 
1st }'eb. 6, 1901 May 23, 1901 107 Nov. 7, 1900. 1 
Vtb Parliament.. . . . . . . . 2nd Feb. 13, 1902 May 15, 1902 90 !Dee. 5. 1900.4 
3rd Mar. 12, 1903 Oct. 24, 1903 227 Sept. 29, 1904.' 
4th 
Iar. 10 "-J04 Au . 10 1904 154 3 . V m. 26 d. 1 


g 


I y. 



DOMINION PARLIAMENTS 


119 


3 -Duration and Sessions of Dominion Parliaments, 1867-1923-concluded. 


lI-J'umberof 
Parliament. 


10th Parliament.. . . . . . . 


11th Parliament.. . . . . . . 


12th Parliament. . . . . . . . 


13th Parliament.. _ . . . . . 


14th Parliament.. . . . . . . 


Ses- 
sion. 


Date of Date of 
Opening. Prorogation. 
Jan. 11, 1905 July 20, 190 
)lar. 8, 1906 July 13, lro 
Nov. 22, 1906 April 27, 190 
Nov. 28, 1907 July 20, 190 
Jan. 20, 1909 )lay 19, 190 
Nov. 11, 1909 )[ay 4, 191 
Nov. 17, 1910 July 29, 191 
Nov. 15, 1911 April I, 191 
Nov. 21, 1912 June 6, 191 
Jan. 15, 1914 June 12, 191 
Aug. 18, 1914 Aug. 22, 191 
Feb. 4, 1915 April 15, 191 
Jan. 12, 1916 l\lay 18, 191 
Jan. 18, 1917 Sept. 20, 191 
Mar. 18, 1918 May 24, 191 
Feb. 20, 1919 July 7, 191 
Sept. 1, 1919 Nov. 10, 191 
Feb. 26, 1920 July 1, 192 
Feb. 14, 1921 June 4, 192 
Mar. 8, 1922 June 28, 192 
Jan. 31, 1923 June 30, 192 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
o 
1 
2 
3 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
9 
o 
1 
2 
3 


Days 
of 
ses- 
sion. 


Elections, writs 
returnable, dissolutions. 
and lengths 
of Parliaments. 10 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 


1st 
2nd 
3rd 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 


191 
128 
157 
236 
120 
175 
196 7 
139 
173 8 
148 
5 
71 
127 
207 9 
68 
138 
71 
127 
111 
113 
151 


1 Nov. 3, 190P 
Dec. 15. 1904. 1 
(Sept. 17, 1908. 5 
)3 y., 9 m., 4 d.' 
Oct. 26, 1908. 1 
Dec. 3, 1908. 1 
July 29, 1911.f' 
2 y., 7 m., 28 d. 1 


Sept. 21, 191V 
Oct. 7, 1911.' 
Oct. 6, 1917. 5 
6 y., 0 m., 0 d. 1 


Dec. 17, 1917. 1 
Feb. 27, 1918. 1 
Oct. 4, 1921. 5 
3 y., 7 m., 6 d. 1 
Dec. 6, 1921.1 
Jan. 14, 1922. 1 


1 Adjourned from 21st December, 1867, to 12th March, 1868, to allow the local Legislatures to meet. 
s Adjourned 23rd May till 13th August. 1 Period of general elections. 1 Writs returnable. 5 Dissolution 
of Parliament. I Duration of Parliament in years, months and days. The life of a Palliament is counted 
from the date of return of election wIÎts to the date of dissolution, both days inclusive. 7 Not including 
days (59) of adjournment from :May 19th to July 18th. 8 
ot including days (25) of adjournment from Dec. 
19th, 1912, to Jan. 14th. 1913. 9 Not including days (39) of adjournment from Feb. 7th to April 19th, 1917. 
10 The ordinary legal limit of duration for each parliament is five years. 


A brief résumé of the history of parliamentary representation follows. Attention 
may be drawn to the growth in the number of members of both the Senate and 
the House of Commons since Confederation and to the greatly increased unit of 
representation in the lower house. 
The Senate.-The British North America Act, 1867, provides in sections 21 
and 22 that "the Senate shall consist of seventy-two members, who shall be styled 
Senators. In relation to the constitution of the Senate, Canada shall be deemed 
to consist of three divisions,-(I) Ontario; (2) Quebec); (3) The Maritime Provinces, 
Nova Scotia and Kew Brunswick; which three divisions shall be equally represented 
in the Senate as follows,--Ontario by twenty-four Senators; Quebec by twenty-four 
Senators; and the Maritime Provinces by twenty-four Senators, twelve thereof 
representing New Brunswick and twelve thereof representing Nova Scotia. In the 
case of Quebec, each of the twenty-four Senators representing the province shall be 
appointed for one of the electoral divisions of Lower Canada specified in schedule 
A to Chapter I of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada." The upper chamber of 
the Dominion Parliament, while it has been distinctly secondary in importance 
to the lower, as in most other bi-camerallegislatures, has still remained an integral 
part of the Canadian Parliamentary system. 
The first increase in the membership of the upper chamber took place in 1871, 
when Manitoba and British Columbia, upon entering Confederation, were given 
two and three Senators respectively. In 1873 Prince Edward Island was ,pven 
four Senators, the representation of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick being reduced 
by two Senators each. In 1882 Manitoba was given an additional member and 
in 1892 another. The Northwest Territories, in 1888, were given representation 



120 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 


by t",o Senators, the number being increased to four in 1904. Saskatchewan 
and Alberta, on their creation in 1905, were each allotted four seats. At that time 
the membership by Provinces was:-Dntario, 24; Quebec, 24; Nova Scotia, 10; 
New Brunswick, 10; Prince Edward Island, 4; British Columbia, 3; Manitoba, 4; 
Saskatchewan, 4; Alberta, 4, a total of 87 members. Following the increased 
representation given to the western provinces by the Representation Act, 1914, 
the number of senators was increased in HH7 to 96 by 5--6 Geo. V, c. 45 (an Act 
of the Imperial Parliament). A fourth "division," represented by 24 members, 
and comprising the area of the Dominion situated to the west of Ontario was created, 
and each of the four western provinces was repl'esented in the Senate by 6 members. 
'While t he total number is thus 96, provision is made by the Act for the creation 
of additional senators by the Governor-General. The total, however, must never 
exceed a maximum of 104. Senators are entitled to be addressed as "Honourable". 
The personnel of the Senate, by provinces, as at Oct. 31, 1923, is shown)n 
Table 4. 


4.-Representation in the Senate of Canada, I}J Pro\inces, according to the British 
l\orth America Act, 1867, and amending Acts, as at Oct. 31,1923. 


Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Prince Edward Island (4 
senators)- 
Yeo, John. ...... . . . . .. .. . .. .. Port Hill. 
Prowse, Benj. C. . ...... . . . . .. Charlottetown. 
Murphy, Patrick C........... Tignish. 
McLean, John........ ........ Souris. 


Nova Scotia (10 senators)- 
:Farrell, Edward J\-1........... Liverpool. 
Roche, William.............. Halifax. 
Curry, NathanieL........... Amherst. 
Ross, Wm. B................ Middleton. 
Girroir, E. L............. .... Antigonish. 
l\1cLennan, John Soo..... .... :::ìydney. 
Tanner, C. E. ....... . .. .. . ... Pictou. 
Stanfield, John. ....... '. . . . .. Truro. 
McCormick, John.......... .. Sydney Mines. 
Martin, Peter................ Halifax. 


New Brunswick (10 senators)1 
Poirier, Pabca.l.... . . . . . . . . . .. Shediac. 
King.G. G.................. Chipman. 
DanIel, J. W................. St. John. 
Bourque, T. J................ Richibucto. 
Fo\\ler, G. W................ Susbex. 
Todd, Irving R.... . .... . . ... Milltown. 
l\lcDonald, J. A.............. Shediac. 
Black, Frank B..... .. ..... .. :::ìackville. 
Turgeon, OnélÒiphore. . . . . . . .. Bathurst. 


Quebec (24 senators)1- 
Bolduc, JOl--eph, I).C.......... St. Victor de Tring. 
Montplaisir, H............... Three Rivers. 
'1 hibaudeau, A. :A....... . ..... Montreal. 
Danduranù, fl., P.C......... Montreal. 
Ca
grain, J. P. B. . . .... . . . . .. Montreal. 
Béi4ue, F. L................. Montreal. 
Legril', J. H.................. Loui
eville. 
Te"bier, Jules................ Quebec. 
David, L 0................. Montreal. 
CloTan, H. J................. Montreal. . 
Mitchell Wm................ Drwumondvdle. 
Des6aull
s, G. C.... .. .. . . d. St. Hyacinthe. 
La vergne, Louis. .. . . . . . . . . . .. Arthabask.l. 
lOne foCat vaClUlt. 


'Quebec-concluded. 
Wilson, J. M. . . . . . . . . . . _ . .... 
'[ontrea1. 
Pope, Rufus II. . .. .. . ...... Cookshire. 
Beaubien, C. P............... Montreal. 
L'Espérance. D.O........... Quebec. 
Foster, G. G................. )Iontreal. 
White, R. S. ...... . . . ... . . ... Montreal. 
Blondin, P. E., P.C.......... Grand'.\1ère. 
Chapais, Thomas.... . .. .. . .. Quebec. 
Webster, L. C........ . . oo. ... .\lontreal. 
Boyer, Gustave....... ...... Rigaud. 


Ontario (24 benator8)- 
McHugh, Goo................ Lindsay. 
Belcourt, N. A., P.C......... Otta\\a. 
Ratz, Valentine.............. New Hamburg 
Gordon, Goo................. North Bay. 
Smith,E. D................. Winona. 
McCall, Alexander....... . Simcoe. 
Donnelly, J. J. ... .. . .. . . .. ... Pinkerton. 
Lynch.:Staunton, G........... Hamilton. 
Robertson, G. D., P.C....... Weiland. 
Blain, Richard........ . . . . . .. Brampton. 
Fisher, J. H............ . . . . .. Par is. 
Bennett, W. H............... }1idland. 
Web"ter, John................ Brockville. 
Mulholland, R. A.... . .. . _. . Port Hope. 
O'Brien, 1\1. J........ ..... HenIrew. 
White, G. V................. Pembroke. 
H.eid, J. D., P.C............. Prescott. 
FObtcr, Sir G. E., P.C....... Otta\\a. 
hemp, :Sir A. E., P.C........ Toronto. 
Macdonell, A. H............. Toronto. 
McCoig, A. B................ Chatham. 
Hardy, A. C. ................ Broch-ville. 
Pardee, F. F...... . . . . . . . . . .. Sarnia. 
A
lebworth, Sir A. B., P.C.. Toronto. 
Uanltoba (6 scnators)- 
WatbOn, Robt................ Portage la l'rairie. 
Sharpe, W. H................ )lanitou. 
Mcl\leans, L. . . ... . . . . .. . .. " Winnipeg. 
BénHrd, Aimé......... ....... Winnipeg. 
Schaffner, 1<'. L. . . . . . . . . . . ." "' innipeg. 
Bradbury, G. II............. :::ìelkirk. 



THE SENATE 


121 


4.-Representation in the Senate of Canada. by PrO\inces. etc.-concluded. 


Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Names of Senators. 


Post Office 
Address. 


Saskatchewan (6 senators)- 
Ross, James R._...._..._.... Regina. 
Laird, H. W................ _ Regina. 
Willoughby, W. B...... . . . . .. :\loosejaw. 
Turriff, J. G................. Ottawa,Ont. 
Calder, J. A., P.C............ Regina. 
Gillis, A. B.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. Whitewood. 
Alberta (6 senators)- 
Lougheed, SirJ. A., P.C..... Calgary. 
DeVeber, L. George.. ...... IJethbridge. 
Michener, Edward........... Red Deer. 


Alberta-concluded. 
Harmer, Wm. J.............. Edmonton. 
Griesbach, W. A............. Edmonton. 
Coté, Jean Léon....... . . .. . .. Edmonton. 
British Columbia (6 senators)- 
Bostock, Hewitt, P.C....._.. l\IonteCreek. 
Planta, A. E. ....... .... _.... Nanaimo. 
Barnard, G. H............... Victoria. 
Taylor, J. D................. New Westminster. 
Green, R. F. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. Victoria. 
Crowe, S. J... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Vancouver. 


The House of Commons.- The British North America Act provides under 
section 37 that "The House of Commons shan consist of one hundred and eighty-one 
members, of whom ei
hty-two shall be elected for Ontario, sixty-five for Quebec, 
nineteen for Nova Scotia and fifteen for Kew Brunswick." Further, under section 
51, provisions were made for d
cennial re-adjustments of representation in accordance 
with the results of the decennial census of the Dominion. The section provides 
that the province of Quebec shall always have a fixed number of 65 members, 
and that there shall be assig:ned to each of the other provinces such number of 
members as will bear the same proportion to the number of its population (ascer- 
tained by the census) as the numbf'r 65 bears to the population of Quebec (wit.hin 
its area as in 1911). A further provision in subsection 4 of section 51 stipulates 
that "on any such re-adjustment the number of members for a province shall not 
be reduced unless the proportion which the number of the population of the province 
bore to the number of the aggregate population of Canada at the then last preceding 
re-adjustment of the number of members for the province is ascertained at the then. 
latest census to be diminished by one twentieth part or upwards." By an amend- 
ment to the British North America Act passed by the Imperial Parliament in 1915 
(5-6 Geo. V, c. 45), it was enacted that "notwithstanding anything in the said Act. 
a province shall always be entitled to a number of members in the House of Com- 
mons not less than the number of senators representing such province." As a 
consequence of this amendment the representation of Prince Edward Island has 
remained at 4 members. 
Re-adjustments in Provincial Representation.-The first Dominion Parlia- 
ment was chosen by the electors in the general election held from Aug. 7 to Sept. 20, 
1867. Its lower chamber was composed of 181 members, as set out by the foregoing 
provisions of the British North America Act. During its existence, the inclusion 
of Manitoba as a province of the Dominion on May 12, 1870, and of British Columbia 
on July 20, 1871, resulted in the addition of four and six members respectively. 
As a result of the census of 1871, a further increase took place through the addition 
of six new members for Ontario, two for Nova Scotia and one for Nc" Brunswick, 
at the general election of 1872; further, in 1874, after the admission of Prince Edward 
Island to the Dominion, six members were added from that province. The results 
of the general election of 1882 again show increased representation arising out of 
the census of 1881-increases of three for Ontario and one for Manitoba bringing 
the total number of members up to 210. The elections of 1887, in which an addi- 
tional member for Ontario and four new members for the Northwest Territories 
(later Saskatchewan and Alberta) were returned, brought a further increaf:>e to a 



122 PARLIA
MENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 


total of 215. Later redistributions following the censuses of 1891 and 1901 resulted 
in'increases in the number of members from the new electoral districts of the western 
. p;ovinces and the Yukon, ånd reductions in the representation given to Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, the total number, however, remaining practically 
the same. The number of members for Ontario also showed, as a consequence 
of the census of 1901, a decrease, after the election of 1904, from 92 to 86. The 
resutt-s of the four elections of 1891,1896,1900 and 1904 show the number of members 
returned to have been 215, 213, 216 and 214 respectively. In 1908, following the 
passing of the Eepresentation Act of 1907, a total of 35 members from the Maritime 
provinces, 10 members each from Manitoba and Saskatchewan, together with 
7 from Alherta, a new member for British Columbia and unchanged representation 
from Quebec and Ontario showed a grand total of 221 members in the House of 
Commons. No further changes were made until after the election of 1911, when an 
amendment to the Representation Act provided that the House of Commons should 
consist of 221 members as follows,-Ontario, 86; Quebec, 65; Saskatchewan, 10; 
British Columbia, 7; Alberta, 7; Manitoba, 10; Nova Scotia, 18; New Brunswick, 
13; Prince Edward Island, 4; Yukon Territory,!. A further Representation Act 
of 1914 provided for an increase in the number of members to 235, divided among 
the provinces as follows,-Ontario, 82; Quebec, 65; Nova Scotia, 16; New Brunswick, 
11; Manitoba, 15; British Columbia, 13; Prince Edward Island, 4; Saskatchewan, 
16; Alberta, 12; Yukon Territory,!. This Act is now in force but as a result of the 
census of 1921 a further Bill, providing for increases in the number of members 
from the western provinces and for a decrease in the number of members from 
Nova Scotia and a grand total of 245 members, was given a first reading on February 
13, 1923. I t establishes the basis on which the fifteenth Parliament of Canada 
will probably be constituted. 
The effect of the various Representation Acts, as shown by the number of 
members returned to the House of Commons for the various provinces, at the general 
elections in the years for which figures are given is shown in Table 5. 


i.-Representation in the House of Commons of Canada, showing the effect of 
Representation Acts, 1861 to 1921. 


o 
Q 


Province. 1867. 1872. 1882. 1896. 1904. 1908. 1911. 1917. 1921. 
- - - - - - - - 
ntario.................. . 8
 88 91 92 86 86 86 82 82 
uebec.................. . 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 
Kova Scotia.... . . . . . . . . . . 19 21 21 20 18 18 18 16 16 
New Brunswick. . _ . . . . . . . . 15 16 16 14 13 13 13 11 11 
Manitoba.... _... - 4 5 7 10 10 10 15 15 
British Colum bia. -. : : : : : . : - 6 6 6 7 7 7 13 13 
Prince Edward Island..... - - 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 
Sa.'1katchewan............ . - - - } 4 10 10 10 16 16 
Alberta...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 7 7 12 12 
yukon................... . - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 
- - - - - - - - - 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . 181 200 %10 %13 2U 221 221 235 235 


While the number of members of the House of Commons has been growing 
fairly steadily since Confederation, the unit of representation-one-sixty-fifth 
of the population of Quebec ",ithin its 1911 boundaries-has also been increased 
after each census in consequence of the expanding population of Quebec. The 
units of representation as shown by the six decennial censuses taken since Con- 



THE HOeSE OF COMMOXS 


12
 


federation, are as follows:-1871, 18,331 persons; 1881, 20,908; 1891, 22,Ð01; 1901, 
25,368; 1911, 30,819; 1921, 36,283. 
The Present Redistribution Problem.-The method by which the repre- 
sentation of provinces is determined may be further explained. The population 
of Quebec, it has been shown, constitutes the basis from which the unit of repre- 
sentation in the other provinces is determined, Quebec's representation of 65 mem- 
bers in the House of Commons remaining constant. The provisions of the Quebec 
Boundaries Extension Act, 1912, however, while they provided for an enlargement 
of the area of the province, stipulated that the population of the newly added areas 
should not be included in any computations relative to representation. Quebec's 
population in 1921 (excluding the population of UnJ!ava) was 2,358,412, which, 
divided by 65, gives a unit of representation of 36,283. The quotient, therefore, 
obtained by dividing the population of each province (Prince Edward Island ex- 
cepted) as shown at the date of the census, by the unit 36,283 indicates, except 
where subsection 4 of section 51 of the .Act applies, the number of members to 
which each province is entitled. The method is illustrated in Table 6. 


'.-Representation of the Provinces and Territories of Canada in the House -of 
Commons, as determined by the British ISorth America Act and the - 
Censuses of 1911 and 1921. 


Census 19l1. Census 1921. 
Province. 
Quotient Repre- Quotient Repre- 
Population. based on Population. based on 
Unit. sentation. Unit. sentation. 
Prince Edward Island....... 93,728 3.04 4 88,615 2.44 4 
Nova Scotia................ 492,338 15.98 16 523, 837 14.44 14 
New Brunswick.... ... 351,889 ll.42 11 387,876 10,69 11 
Ontario................:::: : 2,527,292 82.00 82 2,933,662 80,86 82 
Manitoba.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461,394 14.97 15 610,118 16.82 17 
Saskatchewan. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . 492,432 15.98 16 757,510 20.88 21 
Alberta. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374,295 12.14 12 588,454 16.22 16 
British Columbia.... . . . . . . . 392,480 12.74 13 524,582 14.46 14 
Quebec (without Ungava)... 2, ()()3, 232 65.()() 65 2,358.412 65.()() 65 
Totals.. _. . . . . . . . . . . 7,189,080 - 234 8,773,066 - 244 
Quebec (Ungava)........... 2,544 1 - - 2,7871 - - 
yukon................... '.' 8,512 - 1 4,157 - 1 
N.W.T..................... 6,507 - - 7,988 - - 
R.C. Navy................. - - - 485 - - 
Canada........... . 7,206,643 - 235 8,788,483 - :U5 


I Represents the population in the area added to Quebec by the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 
1912, the population of which by sec. 2, ss. "A" of said Act, is to be excluded from the population of the 
province in ascertaining the unit of representation. 


From the foregoing figures it is evident that the representation of the four 
western provinces should be increased wbile tbat of Kova Scotia should be 
diminished. 
Again, the application of the provisions of subsection 4 of section 51 of the 
Act (quoted above) to Kova Scotia and Ontario (the only provinces in which a 
noticeable decrease in the rate of growth of population is found) is shown.in Table 7. 



124 PARLIAlrIE.I'-iTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 


1.-Table showing Application of 1Section 5t, Subst'ction 4. of British North America 
Act, to Representation of Ontario and 1\"O\'a Scotia. 


Proportion which Popula- Ratio of Decrease. 
tion of each Province bears Decrease in Decrease in greater , 
Province. to the Total Fopulation of proportion proportion equal to or 
Canada. from 1911 from 1911 to less than one- 
to 1921. 1921 to twentieth of 
proportion proportion 
1911. 1921. in 1911. in 1911. 
I 
Ontario...................... .1 .35069 .33380 .01689 .0481 less. 
Nova Scotia.......... ........ .06831 .05960 . 00871 .1275 greater. 


The above table shows that under the provisions of section 51, subsection 4 
of the B.N.A. Act, no reduction should take place in the representation of Ontario 
because the proportion which the number of the population of the province bore 
to the number of the agrregate population of Canada at the readjustment of the 
number of members for the province based on the census of 1911 is ascertained 
at the census of 1921 to be diminished by less than one-twentieth part. The pro- 
portion for Nova Scotia, having diminished by more than one-twentieth part, 
the provisions of subsection 4 of section 51 do not apply and the representation 
of Nova Scotia should be reduced in accordance with the provisions of section 51, 
sub-sections 2 and 3 of the Act. 
Therefore the representation to which each province is entitled as a result 
of redistribution based upon the 1921 census wîll be as follows:-Alberta 16, British 
Columbia 14, Manitoba 17, Kew Brunswick 11, Nova Scotia 14, Ontario 82, Prince 
Edward Island 4, Quebec 65, Saskatchewan 21, Yuk<m V 
The electoral districts for the House of Commons of Canada, with their popu- 
lations by the census of 1921, number of qualified voters and numbers voting in 
1921, together with the names and addresses of members, as at Oct. 31, 1923, are 
sho", n in Table 8. 


8.-J(epresentation in the lIouse of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 19U, as at Oct. :31, 1923. 


Provinces and 
Districts. 


Popu- 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 2 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


Prince Ed \\ ard Island 
J4 r,nembers)- 
KIng s............... 
Prince.............. . 
Queen's....... .. . . . . . 


20.445 
31.520 
36.6':;0 


11,189 
16.172 
19.518 3 


8.728 Hughes, J. J..... . 
ouri
, r.E.I. 
13.332 MacLean. A. E.......... 
ummer"iJe. P.E.I. 
30.496 3 I
inelair, Hon. J. E..... Emerald, P.B.I. 
\Mackinnon, D.A....... Charlottetown, P.E.I. 


Nova Scotia (16 mem- 
ber8)- 
Antigonish and Guys- 
borough.... . .. . .. . 27.098 15,104 
Cape Breton North 
and \ïctoria....... 31.325 16,652 11.588q
elIy. F. L.......... North Sydney, N.S. 
Capc Breton 
outh iCarrolI. W. F.......... 
ydney. N .:s. 
and Richmond.... 76.362 37.635 3 51.555 3 lKyte, GaD. W........... St. Peter't!, N.S. 
Colchcf:>ter........... 25,196 15.-158 11.483 Putnam, H............. Truro, N.S. 
Cumberland......... 41,191 24,033 17,346 Logan,H. J .............. Amhcrst. X.S. 
Digby anù Anna- 
polis............... 28,965 16.368 12,596 IJovett,L. J............. Bear River, N.S. 
1 Under the British North America Act, 1886 (49-50 Viet., chap. 35) the Parliament of Canada is given 
pov.er to provide for the representation in the ðenate and House of Commons of territories iorming part 
of the Dominion of Canada. but not incluùed in any province, In virtue of this provbion, the Yukon 
Territory was by 2 Edw. VII, e. 37, grdnted rcpresentation by one member in the House of Commons. 
2 From Heport of Chief Electoral Ufficer, 1921. 
3 Each voter could vote for two canl.1idates. 
t Votes and voters from returns of gencral elections, 1921. 


11.748 !IcIsaae, C. F. . . . . .. . .. Antigonish, N .S. 



THE HOUSE OF COJIltfONS 


125 


S.-Representation in the House of Commons, according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at Oct. 31, 1923-continued. 


Provinces and 
L Districts. 


:x ova Scotla-con. 
Halifax............. . 
Hants.............. . 






::::::::::: : 
Lunenburg.. .. ... . . . . 
Pictou........ ....... 
Shelburne and 
Queen's. .. .... . . . . . 
Yarmouth and Clare 
New Ui"uDswlck (11 
members)- 
Charlotte........... . 
Gloucester........ .. . 
I\:ent. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Xorthumhcrland... . 
Restigouche and 
Madawaska...... . 
Royal.. .. . . .. __ .. .. . 
St. John City and 
Counties of St. 
John and Albert.. . 


Victoria and Carle- 
ton.... . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Westmoreland...... . 
york-Sunbury..... . . 
Quebec (65 members)- 
Argen teuil.. ... . . . . . . 
Bagot.............. . 
Beauce... . . . . . . .. .. . 
Beauharnois... . . . . . . 
Bellechasbe. ..... . .. . 
Berthier. . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Bonaventure........ . 
Brome......... ..... 
Cham bly-V erchères. 
Champlain......... . 
Charlevoix-Montmo- 
rency. . _ . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chateauguay-Hunt- 
ingdon.... . . . . . . .. . 
Chicoutimi-Sague- 
nay.. .............. 
Compton............ . 
Dorchester. . .. . . . . . . 
Drummond and M- 
thabaska......... . 
Gaspé.............. . 
Hull................ . 
J oliette.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kamouraska....... . 
Labelle....... . . . . .. . 
Laprairie and Na- 
pierville.... . . . ... . 
L' Assomption - Mont- 
calm.............. 
Laval-Deux l\fon- 
tagnes............ . 
Levis............... . 


Popu- 
lation, 
1921. 


9-7, 228 
19.739 
23.808 
23.723 
33,742 
40,851 
23,435 
31,1i4 


21,435 
38, 684 
23,916 
33,985 
42,977 
32,078 


69,093 


33,900 
53,387 
38,421 


17,165 
18.035 
53,841 
19,888 
21,190 
19.817 
29,092 
13,471 
34,643 
48,009 


28,874 
26,731 
90,609 
32,285 
28,954 
44,823 
40.375 
43,5.H 
25.913 
22,014 
35,927 
20,065 
28,318 
38,314 
33,323 


Voters 
on 
list. 


53,839 2 
11,781 
12,712 
14,359 
18.591 
27, 680 
13,155 
17, 106 


13,066 
16.565 
10,847 
17,110 
19,108 
19,492 


38,838 2 


18,194 
29.619 
21,736 


8,927 
9,333 
20,968 
10,076 
9,157 
9,462 
13,090 
7,441 
14,800 
21,377 


12,589 
13,427 
34,432 
15.561 
11, 898 
19.925 
17,063 
20,873 
12,370 
10,139 
14,654 
9,691 
14, J83 
13,575 
15,465 


N urn ber 
of votes 
polled. 1 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


60,639 2 } Finn, R. E.I.....,..... Halifax, N.S. 
l\Iaclean, Hon. A. K.5.. Halifax, N.S. 
8,843 l\brtell, L. H........... Windsor, N.S. 
8.825 Chisholm, A. W.... .... \fargaree Harbour, N.S. 
10,948 Robinson,E. W......... Wolfville, N.S. 
12.495 Duff, Wm.............. Lunenburg, N.S. 
20,014 
Iacdonald, Hon. E."l\I.. Pictou, N.S. 
9.877 4 Fielding, Rt. HOD. W. S. Ottawa, Onto 
12,903 Hatfield, P. LaC....... Yarmouth, N.S. 


10,304 Grimmer, R. W......... St. Stephen, N.B. 
10,632 4 Robichaud, J. G........ Shippigan, N.B. 
7,755 Lpger,A. T.5............ Richibucto, 
.B. 
12,112 Morrissy,John..... .. Newcastle, N.B. 
9. 407 
Iichaud, Pius.. . . . . . ... Edmundston, N .B. 
13,704 Jones, G. B............. Apohaqui, N.B. 


45,107 2 \Baxter, Hon. J. B. 1\1... :;t. John, N.R. 
pIacLaren, Murray..... St. John, N.B. 
11,822 Caldwell, T. W......... Florence\"ilIe, RB. 
20.670 Copp, Hon. A. B........ Ottana, Onto 
U,750 Hanson, R.B........... Fredericton, X.B. 


7,295 1 Stewart, Hon. Chas.. ... Ottawa, Onto 
7,214 Marcile, J. E. ........... Actonvale, Que. 
13,442 Béland, Hon. H. S...... OttR\\a,Ont. 
8,541 Papineau, L. J. .. . . Valley field, Que. 
6,335 Fournier,C.A.......... St. Charles Co., Belle- 
chasse, Que. 
7.5-10 Gervais, Théodore...... Berthier (en haut), Que. 
7,781 l\Iarcil, Hon. Chas...... Ottana, Onto 
5.978 1\IcMaster,A. R........ Westmount, Que. 
13.8.U Archambault, J ......... Montreal, Que. 
16,982 Desaulniers, A. L....... 
te. Anne de la Pérade, 
Que. 
10,646 Casgrain, P. F... ..... }Iontreal, Que. 
10,582 Robb, Hon. J. A........ Ottawa,Ont. 
27,152 Savard, Edmond....... Chicoutimi, Que. 
12,144 Hunt, A. B.............. Bury, Que. 
8,474 Cannon, Lucien......... Quebec, Que. 
15,882 Laflamme. J. N. K.. .. Montreal, Que. 
12,092 Lemieux, Hon. R....... Otta
a, Onto 
14,5-13 Fontaine, J. E........... Hull, Que. 
10,275 B Denb h " J d . J . G ';'" . . . . . . ., 
oliet A te, Que d ' Is Poca- 
7,367 1 ouc ar, . . . . .. . .. . .. ::ite. nne e 
tière, Que. 
10,447 Fortier, H. A........... Hull, Que. 
5,675 Lanctðt, Roch.......... St. Constant, Que. 
9,788 Seguin, P. A... . . .. . . ... L'Assomption, Que. 
10,095 Ethier, J. A. C.......... St. Scholastique. Que. 
12,864 Bourassa, J. B.. . . . .. . .. St. Romuald, Que. 


1 From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 
2 Each voter could vote for 2 candidates. 
a Mr. Finn was elected on Dec. 4, 1922. . . . 
1 Votes and voters from returns of general elections, 1921. Rt. Hon. Mr. FIeldmg, Mr. RobIChaud. 
Hon. Mr. Stewart and Mr. Bouchard were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, Nov. 20, Feb. 28 and May 
15, 1922, respectively. 
5 This seat is now va
ant. 



126 PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION IN CANADA 


S.-Representation In the House of Commons, according to the Districts or the 
Representation Act, 1914, as at oct. 31, 1923.-continucd. 


Provinces and Popu- Voters Number 
Districts. lation, on of votes Name of Member. P.O. Address. 
1921. list. polled. I 
- 
Quebec-con. 
L'Islet... ........... 17,859 7,743 5,878 Fa.fard, J. F............ . L'Islet Co., L'Islet, Que. 
Lotbinière.......... . 21,837 10,064 7,566 Vien, Thos.... .......... Quebec, Que. 
l!askinongê.. .. .' .. . . 16,945 7,959 6,133 Desrochers, E. . _ . . . . .. . St. Didace Co., Mas- 
Matane...... . 36,303 10,411 Pelleticr, F. J....... . . . . kinongê, Que. 
15,189 M.atane, Que. 
Megantic... . . . : . . : : : 33,633 14,188 10,516 2 Roberge, E............. Laurierville, Que. 
}fissisq uoi. .. .. . . . . . . 17,709 9,558 8,097 Kay, W. F.............. Phillipsburg, Que. 
}fontmagny. . . . . . . . . 21,997 10,245 6,507 Dêchène, A. M.......... 
Iontmagny, Que. 
Montreal Island- 
Hochelaga........ . 73,526 30,322 22,573 St. Père, E. C...... .... Montreal, Que. 
Jacques Cartier.... 89,297 42,636 30,1312 Rhêaume, J. T.......... 
fontreal, Que. 
Laurier-Outremont 72,047 31,492 21,725 2 Gouin, Hon. 
ir Lomer. Ottawa, Onto 
Maisonneuve.. . . _ . . 64,933 24, 838 18,487 Robitaille, C. . . . _ . . _ . . . Maisonneuve, Que. 
St. Ann. . ..... . . . . . 52,049 22,024 17,453 Walsh, J. C............. Montreal, Que. 
St. Denis.......... 78,920 33,418 23,948 Denis, J. A............. Montreal, Que. 
Westmount-St. 
Henry.......... . 62,909 30,906 25,042 Mercier, Paul. .. . . . . . . . . Montreal, Que. 
St. James.......... 42,443 17,593 12,906 Rinfret, F. . . . . . . . . . .. . . Montreal, Que. 
St. Antoine......._ 32,394 17,155 14,464 Mitchell, W. G.......... Montreal, Que. 
St. Lawrence-St. 
George......... . 36,912 16,754 13,774 Marler, H........ _. _. _.. Montreal, Que. 
George Etienne 
Cartier.. .. . . . . .. 54,800 19,523 13,946 Jacobs, S. W............ Montreal, Que. 
St. Mary... . . . . . .. 63,975 27,330 20, 635 Deslauriers, H. . . . . . . . . . Montreal, Que. 
Nicolet....... . ... .. . 29, 695 13,536 10,632 2 Descoteaux. J. F........ St. Monique, Que. 
Pontiac............. . 46,201 24,326 16,701 Cahill, F. S............. Campbell's Bay, Que. 
Portneuf. . . .. . . . . . . . . 34,452 15,772 11,259 Delisle, M. S... ....... . Portneuf, Que. 
Quebec County.. .. . . 31,130 13,249 11,409 Lavigueur, H. E.. . Quebec, Que. 
Quebec East....... . . 38,330 14,736 10,490 2 Lapointe, Hon. E. . . . . . . Ottawa, Onto 
Quebec South.. ..... . 27,706 12,971 10,667 Power, C. G............ Quebec, Que. 
Quebec West......... 37,993 16,104 13,486 Parent, Goo............. Quebec, Que. 
Richelieu........... . 18,764 9,095 6,758 Cardin, P. J. A......... Sorel, Que. 
Richmond and W oUe 42,248 18,420 13,372 Tobin, E. W.. . . . . . . . . . . Bromptonville, Que. 
Rimouski. . . . . . . . . . . 27,520 11,221 7,642 d'Anjou, J. E. S. E...... Rimouski, Que. 
St. Hyacinthe-Rou- 
ville....... ........ 36,754 17,636 14,076 Vorin, L. S. R.......... St. Hyacinthe, Que. 
St. Johns and Iber- 
ville....... . . . . . .. . 23,518 11,388 8,765 Benoit, A. I. . ..... . . . . . . Iberville, Que. 
Shefford............ . 25,644 12,003 9,044 Boivin, G. H........... Granby, Que. 
Sherbrooke......... . 30,786 17,290 13,661 McCrea, F. N........... Sherbrooke, Que. 
Stanstead.......... . 23,380 12,619 10,041 Baldwin, W. K.......... Coaticook, Que. 
Têmiscouata..... _. 44,310 18,141 13,837 Gauvreau, C. A......... Fraserville, Que. 
Terrebonne. . .. . . . . . . 33,908 15,270 12,593 Prevost, J. E.. _ _ ...... St. Jerðme. Que. 
Three Rivers and St. 
Maurice.. . . . . . . . . . 50,845 24,570 0,803 ' Bureau, Hon. I .. .. . . .. . . Ottawa, Onto 
Vaudreuil-Soulanges. 21,620 10,397 8,473 Ouimet, I. R. ........... St. Polycarpe, Que. 
Wright..... ......... 21,850 10,169 7,737 Gendron, R. M. . . . . . . . . Maniwaki, Que. 
Yamaska........... . 18,840 8,715 6,638 Boucher, Aimê.......... Pierreville, Que. 
Ontario (82 members) Carruthers, Iohn........ Little Current, Onto 
Algoma, E. . ... . . . .. . 40,618 16,879 12,356 
Algoma, W........... 33,676 16,091 10,728 Simpson, T. E.. . . . . . . . . Sault Ste. Marie, Onto 
Brant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,085 11,174 8,134 Good, W. C............. Paris, Ont., R. R. 4. 
Brantford.... ....... 33, 292 18,537 13,049 Raymond, W. G..... . . . Brantford, Onto 
Bruce, N..... . . . . . . . 20,872 12,278 10,467 l\{alcolm, Iames....... . . Kincardine, Onto 
Bruce, S..... _. _. _... 23,413 13,752 10,871 Findlay, I. W . .. . . .. . . . . Elmwood, Ont., R.R. 1. 
Carleton......... . 32,673 17,185 13,473 Garland, W. F.......... Ottawa, Onto 
Dufferin...... . . . . . : : 15,415 10, 260 7,823 Woods, R. J . . . . . . . .. . . . Corbetton, Ont., R.R. 2. 
Dundas............. . 24,388 15, 184 11. 255 Elliott, Preston....... . Chesterville, Onto 
Durham...... . . . . . . . 24,629 16,392 12,516 Bowen, Fred. W. . . . . . . . Newcastle,Ont., R.R. 2. 
Elgin, E.............. 17,306 11,057 8,186 Stansell, I. L. ........... Htaffordville, Onto 
Elgin, W........ ..... 27,678 19,027 12,041 McKillop, H. C......... West Lorne, Onto 
Essex, N...... . . ... .. 71,150 40,837 19,840 Healy, A. F. . . . . . . . . . . . Windsor, Onto 
EBBex, S...... ........ 31,425 17,242 12,410 2 Graham. Hon. G. P.... Ottawa, Onto 
Ft. William and Fort William, Onto 
Rainy River...... 39,661 16,912 11,090 Manion, Hon. R. I...... 
Frontenac.......... . 20,390 11,694 9,358 Reed, W. S............. Harrowsmith, Ont., 
R.R.2. 


I From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. . 
2 Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. }fessr8. Roberge, Rhêaume, Gouin, LapoInte, 
Descoteaux, Bureau and Graham were elected by acclamation on Nov. 20, Nov. 20, Jan. 19, Jan. 19. 
Kay 14, May 21 and Jan. 19, 1922, respectively. 



THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 


127 


s.-Representation in tile House of Commons. according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 19U, as at Oct. 31, 1923-continued. 


Provinces and 
Districts. 


Ontarlo-oon. 
Glengarry and Stor- 
mont.............. 
Grenville. ... .. . . . . . . 
Grey. N............. 
Grey. S. E.......... 
Haldimand......... . 
Halton............. . 
Hamilton. E......... 
Hamilton, W........ 
Hastings. E......... 
Hastings, W......... 
Huron. N............ 
Huron. S............ 
Kent................ 
Kingston.. . . . . . . . . . . 
Lambton. E. . .. .... 
Lambton. W......... 
Lanark............. . 
Leeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Lennox and Adding- 
ton................ 
Lincoln..... . . . . . . . . . 
London. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Middlesex. E........ 
1<Jiddlesex. W....... . 
Muskoka........... . 
Nipissing........... . 
Norfolk.. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Northumberland.. . . 
Ontario. N..... ..... 
Ontario. S. . . . . . .. .. . 
Ottawa..... __ ...... 
Oxford. N.... . .. . . . . 
Oxford, S............ 
Parkdale.. . . . . . . . . . . 
Parry Sound.. ....... 
Peel. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Perth. N............ 
Perth. S........ ..... 
Peterborough. E..... 
Peterborough. W. . . . 
Port Arthur and Ke- 
nora............... 
Prescott. .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Prince Edward...... 
Renfrew. N.......... 
Renfrew. S.......... 
Russell............. . 
Simcoe. E........... 
Simcoe. N. .......... 
Simcoe. S........... 
Timiskaming...... . . 
Toronto. Centre.. .. . 
Toronto. E..... ..... 
Toronto. N..... . .. . . 
Toronto. S.... ....... 
Toronto. W..... . . . . . 
Victoria............ . 
Waterloo. N......... 
Waterloo. B.......... 
Weiland............ . 
Wellington. N........ 
Wellington. S........ 


Popu- 
lation. 
1921. 


38,573 
16,644 
30,667 
28,384 
21,287 
24, 899 
49, 820 
39,298 
23,072 
34,451 
23, 540 
23,548 
52,139 
24.104 
25,801 
32,888 
32,993 
34.909 
18.994 
48,625 
53.838 
27,994 
25,033 
19,439 
58,565 
26,366 
30,512 
15,420 
31,074 
93.740 
24,527 
22,235 
80,780 
27.022 
23.896 
32.461 
18.382 
13.716 
29.318 
43,300 
26,478 
16.806 
23.!ì56 
27.061 
43,413 
37,122 
22.100 
24,810 
51. 568 
51. 768 
64,825 
72,478 
37,596 
68,397 
33,995 
41.698 
33,568 
66,668 
19,833 
34,327 


Voters 
on 
list. 


21,145 
10,748 
18,945 
17,371 
13,106 
15,685 
32,092 
28.342 
12,613 
19,029 
15,227 
14,735 
30, 590 
16,789 
15,704 
20,301 
20,885 
22,526 


11,962 
28,778 
32,907 
15,945 
15.342 
11.175 
30,022 
15.943 
18,444 
9,478 
17.968 
67,821 
15,043 
14,175 
52,233 
13,365 
16,037 
19,072 
11,291 
8,032 
18,001 
17,438 
12,726 
10,809 
13.368 
14,550 
21,\;79 
20, 409 
13, 737 
15,130 
27.363 
30,528 
39,435 
47,622 
31,907 
37,199 
20,433 
23, 778 
21,4R4 
30,947 
12,204 
23,008 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 1 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


16,224 Kennedy, J. W....... . '. Apple Hill, Onto 
7,331 Meighen, Rt. Hon. A... Ottawa,Ont. 
14,996 Duncan, M. R.. . ....... Owen Sound. Onto 
13,996 Macphail, Agnes C..... . Ceylon.Ont. 
9,828 tienn, M. C............ __ Caledonia, Ont.. R.R. 3. 
12,207 Anderson, R. K......... Milton, Onto 
15,162 )lewburn, Hon. S. C.... Hamilton.Ont. 
13,553 Stewart. T. J. . . . . . . . . .. Hamilton. Onto 
9.852 Thompson. T. H........ Madoc, Onto 
13,488 Porter, E. G... .. .. . . . .. Belleville. Onto 
11,838 King, J. W........ . .. . .. Bluevale, Onto 
12,148 Black. Wm............. Seaforth, Ont.. R.R. 3. 
23,629 3 )Iurdock, Hon. J........ Ottawa,Ont. 
11,974 Ross. A. E... .... ...... Kingston, Onto 
12,532 Fansher. B. W.......... Florence.Ont. 
15,314 LeSueur, R. V.......... Sarnia, Onto 
15,571 Preston, R. F...... . . . .. Carleton Place. Onto 
17,298 Stewart, H.A.......... Brockville,Ont. 
9,371 Sexsmith. E. J..... . . . .. Bath. Onto 
17 ,433 Chaplin, J. D.... .. . . . .. St. Catharines. Onto 
22,026 White, J. F..... ........ London.Ont. 
10,712 Hodgins. A. L.......... Ettrick. Onto 
12,027 Drummond, J. D. F.... Ailsa Craig, Ont.,R.R. 3. 
7, 189 Hammell. W. J. . . . . . . .. Raymond, Onto 
18,834 Lapierre. E. A. . . . . . . . .. Sudbury. Onto 
11.686 Wallace, J. A....... .. Simcoe. Ont.. R.R. 4. 
14,733 Maybee. M. E.......... Trenton, Ont.. R.R. 6. 
7.708 Halbert. R. H...... ... U xbridge. Onto 
13,15R Clifford. L. 0....... .. Oshav.a. Onto 
84.369 2 fChevrier, E. R. E....... Ottawa, Onto 
\McGiverin, H. B....... Ottawa, Onto 
12,149 Sinclair. D. J........... Woodstock, Onto 
11,236 Sutherland, D.......... Ingersoll.Ont. 
18,956 Spence. David.... . . . . . . Toronto. Onto 
9,190 Arthurs, James. . . . . . . .. Powassan. Onto 
12.057 Charters. Samuel... . . .. Brampton. Onto 
14.811 Rankin, J. P.. ... . . . . ... Stratford, Onto 
9.102 Forrester, Wm.......... Mitchell.Ont. 
6,471 Brethen.G.A.......... Norwood. Ont.. R.R.l. 
11,655 Gordon. G. N.......... Peterborough.
Ont. 
10,814 Kennedy. D............ Dryden.Ont. 
8,821 Binette. Joseph. . .. . . ... St. Anne de Prescott. 
Onto 
8.943 Hubbs. John...... . . . . .. Picton. Onto 
10.252 )1cKay. Matthew... ... Pembroke. Onto 
11.440 3 Low. Hon. Thos. A.C.... Renfrew.Ont. 
15,965 3 
1urphy. Hon. Chas..... Ottawa. Onto 
15,697 Chew, Manley... . . . .. . Midland.Ont. 
10,347 Ross. T. E.............. Guthrie,Ont. 
11,329 Boys. W. A............. Barrie.Ont. 
16,926 )IcDonald, A........... Cobalt, Onto 
11,161 Bristol. Hon. E... ..... Toronto. Onto 
15,002 Ryckman, E. B. . ... .... Toronto. Onto 
20,985 Church. T. L... . . . . . . .. Toronto. Onto 
7,566 Sheard. Chas.... . . . . . .. Toronto.Ont. 
11.764 Hocken, H. C......... ... Toronto.Ont. 
15,886 Thurston. J. J....... . . .. Fenelon Falls. Onto 
12,531 Euler, W. D............ Kitchener.Ont. 
14,149 Elliott, Wm...... ....... Galt, Ont., R.R. 7. 
21,259 German, W. M.......... Welland.Ont. 
9,029 Pritchard. John.. .. .. . .. Harriston,Ont. 
16,957 Guthrie. Hon. Hugh.... Guelph,Ont. 


1 From Report of Chief Electoral Officer, 1921. 
t Each voter could vote for two candidates. 
3 Votes and voters from returns of general electi:m, 1921. Hon. Mr. Murdock and Hon. )Ir. Murphy 
were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, 1922. 
cHon. Mr. Low was elected by acclamat:on after his appointment to office on Aug. 17. 1923. 



12
 PARLIAAfENTARY REPRESENTATION LV CANADA 


S.-Representatlon In the lIouse of Commons. according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act. 19U, as at Oct. 31, 1923-continued. 


Provinces and 
Districts. 


Ontario-con. 
Wentworth......... . 
York, E . ... . . . . . . . . . 
York, N ... . .. . . .. . . . 
York, S. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
York, W... . . . . . . . 

laDitoba 
(15 members)- 
Brandon. .. ... . . . . . . . 
Dauphin........ ..... 
Lisgar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
:Macdonald. . . . . . . . . . 
Marquette.... . 
Keepawa..... .... ... 
Nelson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Portage la Prairie... 
Provencher. .. . . . . . . . 
Selkirk.. ........... 
Souris. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Rpringfield.. . ... . .. . 
Winnipeg, Centre... . 
Winnipeg, N........ . 
Winnipeg, S... ....... 

 

askatchewaD 
(16 members)- 
Assiniboia.......... . 
Battleford. . . . . _ . . . . . 
Humboldt.......... . 
Kindersley... . . . . " . 
Last Mountain...... . 
Mackenzie...... . . . . . 
Maple Creek..... .... 
Moosejaw......... " . 
N. Battleford........ 
Prince Albert. .... .. . 
Qu' Appelle.. ......... 
Regina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Saltcoats........... . 
Saskatoon.......... . 
Swift Current... ..... 
Weyburn... ......... 
Alberta (12 membersj- 
Battle River........ 
Bow River ...:..... 
Calgary, E. . . . . . .. . . 
Calgary. W.......... 
Edmonton, E........ 
Edmonton, W. ...... 
Lethbridge......... . 
Macleod. ............ 
Medicine Hat...... . . 
Red Deer........... 
Strathcona.. . . . . . . . . 
Victoria............ . 


British Columbia 
(13 member:!)- 
Burrard......... _'.. 
Cariboo.... ........ 
Comox-Alberni... . . . 
Fraser Valley........ 
Kootenay, E........ 
Kootenay, W . . .. .. .. 
Nanaimo........... . 


Popu- 
lation, 
1921. 


Voters 
on 
list. 


Number 
of votes 
polled. 1 


Name of Member. 


P.O. Address. 


64.449 
77.950 
23,136 
100,054 
70,681 


37.976 
48,783 
14,418 
58,499 
41,925 


21,857 Wilson, G. C............ Dundas,Ont. 
18,536 Harris, J. H............ Toronto, Onto 
12,273 2 King, Rt. Hon. W. L.M Ottawa, Onto 
21.723 Maclean, W. F.. . . . . . . .. Toronto, Onto 
19,719 Drayton, Hon. Sir H. L. Ottawa, Onto 


40,183 18,896 14.126 Forke, Robert.... . ..... Pipestone, Man. 
35.482 15.281 9.974 Ward, W. J. ...... ...... Dauphin. Man. 
29,921 9.739 7.783 Brown, J. L........ ..... Pilot Mound, Man. 
23.824 11, ï-H 9.084 Lovie, W. J... . . . . . . . . .. Holland, Man. 
41.254 19,828 14.864 Crerar, Hon. T. A...... Winnipeg, Man. 
.28.356 13.539 10.069 Milne, Robert.......... Mekiwin, Man. 
19.806 5.888 4,181 Bird. T. W.............. Swan River, 
{an. 
22,251 10,491 8,615 Leader, Harry.......... Burnside. Man. 
29,308 9,859 6,824 Beaubien, A. L.......... Rt. John Baptiste, Man. 
55.395 21.997 14.926 Bancroft, L. P.......... Gunton, Man. 
26.410 13,953 11,110 Steeds man. James...... Deloraine, Man. 
58.870 19,832 12,451 Hoey, R.A.......... .. Winnipeg, Man. 
76,470 35,000 19,643 Woodsworth. J. S....... Winnipeg, Man. 
62.957 17.623 10.647 McMurray, E. J .2.. . ..... Winnipeg, Man. 
59,628 31.473 19,611 Hudson, A. B........ ... Winnipeg, Man. 
34.789 15,411 I 11.640 Gould, O. R............ Manor, Sask. 
33 . 641 16.077 10,822 McConica, T. H........ Luseland, Sask. 
55,225 24,135 16,264 ::;tewart, C. W.......... Lac Vert, Sask. 
44.772 24.163 17 , 002 Carmichael, A. M....... Kindersley, Sask. 
50,055 20,195 12.720 Johnston, J. F........... Bladworth, Sask. 
55,629 17.931 n.706 Campbell, M:. N........ Pelly, Sask. 
56.064 25,284 17,256 'McTaggart, N. H....,.. Gull Lake, Sask. 
50.403 25.896 16.322 Hopkins, E. N.......... Moo'!ejaw. Saak. 
47.381 20.696 14, 196 Davie:!, C. C... ... -... 
. Battleford, Sask. 
56,829 25,496 1
, 98

 K!1ox, Andrew....... .. PriI.1ce Albert, Rask. 
34.836 16,O:n 1:...100 :\hllar, John............. Inchan Head. Sask. 
49,977 24. 389 17.388 2 Motherwell, Hon. W. R. Ottawa, Onto 
43,7\)5 15.602 11,081 Sales, Thomas.......... Tantallon, Sask. 
55.151 26.507 15.066 Evans, John............ Nutana, Sa.<,k. 
53,375 23.776 16,290 Lewis, A. J.. . . . . . . . . . .. Lawson, Saak. 
35.668 14, 263 9,247 Morrison, John...... .... Yellow Grass, Sask. 
49,173 22.111 15.389 Spencer, H. E.. .. . . .. ... Edgerton, Alta. 
55.356 24,720 15.569 Garland, E. J........... Rumsey, Alta. 
44,995 22,591 14,285 Irvine. William......... Calgary, Alta. 
44,341 23.53t 16,181 ::;haw, J. T.... .......... Calgary, Alta. 
56.518 27.755 13,440 Kellner, D. F...... . . ... Escr-emont, Alta. 
74,267 38.557 23.167 Kennedy, D. 
L..... . .. Waterhole, Al ta. 
37,699 14,570 10,106 Jelliff, L. H............. Raley, Alta. 
34.008 15,148 10.212 Coote, G. G............ Cayley, Alta. 
43.179 21.449 14.212 Gardiner, Robert....... Excel, Alta. 
49, 629 23,190 15.746 :-3peakman, A.. . . .. . . . .. Penhold. Alta. 
42.520 18,611 11, 350 Warner, D. W. .......... Edmonton, Alta. 
56,739 21,470 14,167 Lucas, W. T. . . . . . . . . . .. Lougheed, Ai ta. 
69.922 35.463 21,991 Clark, J. A............. Vancouver, B.C. 
39.834 16,055 11,135 McBride, T. G.......... Stump Lake, "Karnloops. 
B.C. 
32,009 11,357 7,725 Neill, A. W............. Alberni, B.C. 
28,811 11,130 8.452 Munro, E. A............ Chilliwack, B.C.,R.R. 2. 
19,137 14,634 5,201 King, Hon. J. H........ Ottawa,Ont. 
30.502 12.874 9,856 Humphrey, L. W....... Nelson, B.C. 
48.010 21,300 15.066 Dickie,C. H........... Duncan, B.C. 


1 From Report of Chief Electot"al Officer, 1921. 
2 Votes and voters from returns of general election, 1921. Rt. Hon. Mr. King, and Hon. Mr. Mother- 
well were elected by acclamation on Jan. 19, 1922, Hon. Mr. l\Ic
Iurray was elected on Oct. 24, 1923, after 
his appointment to office. 



PROVINCIAL GOVERNME^?TS 


129 


8.- Representation In the House of Commons according to the Districts of the 
Representation Act, 19U, as at June 3D, 1923.-concluded. 


Provinces and Popu- Voters Number 
Districts. lation, on of votes Name of 
Iember. P.O. Address 
1921. list. polled. l 
- 
Dr. Columbia-con. 
New Westminster. . . 45,982 18,983 12.765 McQuarrie, W. G........ New Westminster, B.C. 
Skeena............. . 28,934 9,605 6,579 Stork. Alfred........... Prince Rupert. B.C. 
Vancouver, Centre... ßO, 879 31,436 18,219 Stevens, Hon. H. H..... Vancouver, B.C. 
Vancouver, S........ 46,137 19,847 12,985 Ladner, L. J............ Vancouver. B.C. 
Victoria City........ 38.727 18,563 12.603 Tolmie, Hon. S. F...... Victoria, B.C. 
yale............... . 35.698 16.228 12,468 MacKelvie, J. A........ Vernon, B.C. 
Yukon Territory 
(1 member)- 
yukon.............. . 4,157 1,658 1,388 Black, George.......... Dawson, Y.T. 


1 Vote3 and voters from returns of general election, 1921. 


II.-PROYINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. 


Table 9 gives the names and areas, as in 1923, of the several provinces, terri- 
tories and provisional districts of the Dominion, together with the dates of their 
creation or admission into the Confederation and the legislative process by which 
this was effected. 
'.-Pro\lnces and Territories of Canada, with present Areas, Dates of Admission to 
<-'onfederation and Leglslathe Process by which this was effected. 


Province, 
Territory 
or District. 


Date of 
Admission 
or Creation. 


Legislative Process. 


Present Area (square miles). 


Land. 


Water. 


Total. 


Ontario........ . .. ... July 1, 1867. . / Act of Imperial Parliament- 
Quebe<'.............. .. 1,1867.. The British North AmeriCa j 
Nova Scotia. ..... . .. 1, 1867.. Act, 1867 (30-31 Vict.. c. 3), and 
New Brunswick. . .. . 1, 1867.. Imperial Order in Council of 
May 22, 1867. 
Manitoba............ .. 15, 1870.. Manitoba Act, 1870 (33 Vict., c. 3) 2-31,926 
and Imperial Order in Council, 
June 23, 1870. 
British Columbia.... .. 20, 1871.. Imperial Order in Council, May 353,416 
16, 1871. 
P r i n c e E d war d 1, 1873.. Imperial Order in Council, June 26, 
Island. 1873. 
Saskatchewan....... Sept. 1, 1905.. Saskatchewan Act, 1905 (4-5 Edw. 2t3,381 
VII, c. 42). 
1. 1905.. Alberta Act. 1905 (4-5 Edw. VII. 
c.3). 
yukon............... June 13, 1898.. Yukon Territory Act, 1898 (61 206,427 
Viet., c. 6). 

!ack
ie........... J
. 1,1920. r } 501,953 27.447 529.4()()i 
Keewabn............ 1, 1920..{OrderinCouncil.
IarchI6.1918 205,973 6.851 212824' 
Franklin............. 1.1920.. l 500,000 500:0<)01 
--- 
Total............ ............:... .................................. 3,603,909 125.756 3,729.665 


365,880 
690.865 
21,068 
27,911 


41,382 
15,969 
360 
74 


407,262 1 
706,
34t 
21.428 
27.985 


19,906 


251,832 3 


2,439 


355.855 
2,184 


2.184 


Alberta. . 


252.925 


8,319 
2,360 
649 


251,7W 


255,285 4 


207,076 


1 This area was increased by the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889. and the Ontario Boundaries 
Extension Act, 1912 (2 Goo. V. c. 40). 
'Increased by Order in Council of July 6,1896, and Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912 (2 Goo. V, 
c.45). 
3 Increased by Extension of Boundaries of Manitoba Act, 1881, and Manitoba Boundaries Extension 
Act, 1912 (2 Goo. V, c. 32). 
4 Alberta and Sa.'Jkatchewan now cover approximately the area formerly comprised in the districts of 
Assiniboia, Athabasca, Alberta and Saskatchewan, established May 17, 1882, by minute of Canadian P. C. 
concurred in by Dominion Parliament and Order in Council of Oct. 2, 1895. 
1 By an Order in Coun('iI of June 2.'3, 1870. Rupert's Land, acquired under the Rupert's Land Acts of 
1867 and 1868, and the undefined Northern Territories were admitted into the Confederation. The original 
Northwest Territories. mentioned in the Manitoba Act, 1870. was established by the Northwest Terri- 
tories Act, 1880 (4.1 Vict.., c. 25). the di.'Jtrict of Keewatin hayin!l; been previously defined by an Act of the 
Dominion Parliament (39 Viet.. c. 21). The provisional districts of Yukon. Mackenzie. Franklin and Ungava 
were defined in an Order in Council of Oct. 2, 1895, their bound'lries being ('hanged by Order in Council 
of Dec. 18, 1897. By Order in Council of July 24,1905, the area of Keewatin not included in the 
orthwest 
Territories wa.q annexed to the latter from Sept.!. 1905. By the Exten'Jion of Boundaries A('t. 1912. UIU1;ava 
was made a part of the province of Quebec Ilnd the remaining area of the Northwest Territories south of 
000 N. latitude was divided between Manitoba and Ontario. 
62373-9 



130 


PA.RLIAJ.JE.YTARY REPRESElv T
tTIO.V 


Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and 
linistries in the Provinces.- 
In each of the provinces the King is represented by a Lieutenant-Governor, appoint- 
ed by the Governor-General in Council, and governing with the advice and assistance 
of his Ministry or Executive COUÍlcil which is responsible to the Legislature and 
resigns office when it ceases to enjoy the confidence of that body. The Legislatures 
of all the provinces with.the exception of Quebec and Nova Scotia are uni-cameral, 
consisting 
f a Legislative Assembly elected by the people. In Quebec and Nova 
Scotia there is a Legislative Council as well as a Legislative Assembly. 
The Lieutenant-Governors of the provinces, details regarding the I.egi;:.:lahup" 
and Ministries since Confederation, together with the names of the l\Iinisters of 
the present administrations, are given in. Table 10. For a detailed description of 
the Provincial Governments the reader is referred to Section IV of the Year Book. 
"Provincial and Local Government." 
10. -Ueutenant-Go\ernors, Legislatures and Jlillistries of .-rofÏnces. 1S6;-192:l. 
PRI
CE EDWARD ISL DiD. 
LIEUTENANT-Go, ERXORS. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appomtment. 


W.C.F. Robinson.................. June 
Sir Robert Hodgson................ Xov. 
Thomas H. Haviland............... July 
Andrew Archibald Macdonald. .. . . .. Aug. 
Jedediah S. Carvell...... . . . . . . . . . .. Bept. 
Geo. W. Howlan.... . . . . .. . . . . . . .... Feb. 


10, 1873 P. A. \IacIntyre................. )[ay 
22, 1873 D. A. }1cKinnon................. Oct. 
14, 1879 Benjamin Rogers................. June 
I, 1884 A. C. MaC'donald............. .... June 
21, 1889 Murdock )lcIÜnnon. ..... . . . . . . .. Sept. 
21, 1894 


13, 1899 
3, 1904 
I, 1910 
2, 1915 
3, l!H9 


LEGISLATURES. 


Legislature. 


Date of 
Dissolution, 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of First 
Opening. 


1st......................... .............. 
2nd...................................... 
3rd...................................... 
4th.. . 
5th.. . .. . . .. .. . . .. ., '" . . . . . . __ . .. 
6th...... ......... .... ........... '" ..... 
7th.............. .... ..................... 
8th Gen. Assem bly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
!Jth Gen. Assembly... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
10th Gen. Asbembly...................... 
11th Gen. Assembly.......... .... ........ 
12th Gen. Assembly... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
13th Gen. Assembly... . " .. . __ . .. 
14th Gen. Assembly... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


3 Mar. 5, 1874......... July I, 1876 
3 Mar. 15, 1877......... Mar. 12, 1879 
4 April 24, 1879......... April 15, 1882 
4 Mar. 20,1883......... June 5,1886 
3 :Mar. 29, 1887... . . . Jan. 7, 1890 
4 Mar. 27, 1890......... Nov. 18, 1893 
4 
[ar. 28, 1894......... June 2, 1897 
3 April 5, 1898......... Nov. 14, 1900 
4 Mar. 19, 1901......... Nov. 9, 1904 
4 Feb. 8, 1905......... Oct. 15, 1908 
3 Feb. 2, 1909......... Dec. 5, 1911 
4 Mar. 7, 1912......... Aug. 21,1915 
5 Mar. 29, 1916....... . June 26, 1919 
4 Mar. 6, 1!)20......... June 14, 1923 


M:L'\ISTRlES. 


Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation 


1.... . ... .. .. .. .... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 
2..... ........... ........ ............... 
3.... .................... 
4...................... .............. 
5.... . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . 
6................... ...... ..... .... ... 
7.............. .... ............o........... 
8.................................... . 
9.................................... . 
10.. ............ .............. .... ..... 
11.... ... ............................. 
12...... ... ... ...................... 
13.... .... .. . . . . ...... . . .. ............ 
14.................:.............. .... 


lIon. L. C. Owen....................... 
lIon. L. II. Davies........ . . .. . . . . . .... 
Hon. \\'. W. Sullivan................... 
Hon. N. McLeod.......... 
Iron. F. PetC'r"......................... 
lIon. A. B. Warburton................. 
Hon. D. Farquharson.................. 
Hon. A. Peters. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Hon. F. L. llaszard.............. . . . " . 
Hon. James Palmer.................... 
Bon. Juhn A. Mathieson...... .......... 
Hon. AuLin E. Arsenault..... . . . . . . . .. . 
Hon. J. H. Bell... ............ ........ 
Hon.1. D. Stewart. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


July -, 1873 
Aug. -, 1876 
April -, 1879 
Nov. -, 188\1 
April -, 1891 
Oct. -, 1897 
Aug. -, 18118 
Dec. 29, 1901 
Feb. I, 1908 
May 16, 1911 
Dec. 2, 1911 
June 21, 1917 
Sept. 9, 19m 
Sept. 5, 192:! 



PRISCE EDWARD ISLASD 


131 


10.-Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and Wnistries of Provinces, 186j-1923-con. 
THE STEWART (PRESENT) l\1r'\ISTRY. 


Office. 


Date of 
Appomtment. 


Name. 


Premier, President of the Council, and 
Attorney and Advocate GeneraL... Hon. J. D. ::;tev.art....... 
Provincial Secretary-Treasurer and 
Commissioner of Agriculture........ Hon. J. H. )Iyers......... 
Commissioner of Public Works.... .. Hon. J. A. )Iacdon"lld. 

IiDister without Portfolio. . . . . . . . . . . .. Hon. J. A. ::\Ic
 eill. . . . . . . 
Minister without Portfolio. . . . . . . . . . . .. Hon. }Iurdock Kennedy 
::\Iinister without Portfolio. . . . . . . . . . ... Hon. L. J. Wood ............ 
:\Iinister without Portfolio............. Hon. -\.. P. PrO\\-se......... ......... 
)finister without Portfolio............. Hon. W. J. P. l\Idlillan................ 
'Iinister without Portfolio............. Hon. A. F. Arsenault.... 


Sept. 5, 1923 
Sept. 5, 192
 
Sept. 5, 1923 
Rept. 5, 192
 
:O;ppt. 5, 192
 
Sept. 5, 1923 
Sept. 5, 1923 
Sept. 5, 1923 
Sept. 5, 1923 


NOVA SCOT!-\. 


LIEUTE'\ \:s'T-GovER:l.Ons. 


X fime. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Date of II 
Appointment. II 
July 1. 1867 ::\Ialachy BO\\ es Daly...... ... 
10ct. 18, 186711 
Ialachy; BO\\es Daly...... ..... 
Jan. 31,1868 A1fredG-.Jones ................. 
May 31,18701 Duncanï. Fraser.... ... 
May I, 1873 11 Jaml's D. )IcGregor............ . 
July 4,18ï3 David::\IacKeen................. 
July 4, 1883 11 
Ic('allum Grant....... ...... 
July 9. 1888 11 McCallum Grant......... ...... 


Xame. 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir W. F. Williams...... 
l\Iajor-Gen. Sir C. Hastings Doyle.. 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir C. Hastings Doyle. . 
Sir E. Kenny (acting)............... 
Joseph Howe........................ 
_-\. G. Archibald................. .. 
l\Iatthew Hpnry Richey.. ........... 
A. W. )IcLelan...................... 


Julv 
IJ ul)' 
Aug. 
Mar. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
I)Iar. 




: 



 
7, 1900 
'27, 1906 
18, 1910 
19, 1915 
29, 19lû 
21. 1922 


Date of 
Erst Opening. 


4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
-I 
4 
5 
6 
4 


Jan. 30, 1868.... 
Feb. 22, 1872. .. . .. . 
Mar. 11, 1875......... 

Iar. 6, 1879. 
Feb. 8. 1883......... 

Iar. 10, 1887. 
April 2. 1891. 
Jan 31, 1895. 
Jan. 27, 1898..._ 
Feb. 13, 1902.. . _. . 
Feb. 19, 1906......... 
Feb. 23, 1911......... 
Feb. 22, 1917......... 
Mar. 9, 1921....... . 


LEGISL'\TURES. 


ISecond term. 


Legislature. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


1st.... ................................... 
2nd...................................... 
3rd........... .... ....................... 
4th... ......... 
5th....... . 
6th............ 
7th.......... . 
8th... .. .. . . . . .. 
9th.......... .... ......... ..... . ..... ... 
10th......... ............ ................. 
11th... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
12th... ....... ....... .......... ... ....... 
13th.. .. . . -- - . .. . .. 
14th......... .. 


Date of 
Dissolution 


April 17, 18il 
Nov. 23, 1874 
Aug. 21, 1878 
)Iay 2:
, 1882 
l\Iay 20, 1885 
April 21, 1890 
Feb. IS, 1894 
:\Iar. 20, 1897 
Sept. 3, 1901 
:May 27, 1906 
May 15, 1911 
l\Iay 22, 1!JI6 
June 28, 1920 


MnaST.RIES. 


:\Iinistry. 


Date of Formation. 


Premier. 


3................ ..................... 
4........... .......................... 
5.... ....... . .......... 
6.................. 
7...... .......... ....... ....... .. 
8..... .... ........ .............. ....... 
9........................... . 


Hon. H. Blanchard. 
Hon. Wm. Annard............. 
Hon. P. C. Hill......... ... 
Hon. S. D. Holmes................ ... 
Hon. J. S. D. Thompson... . .. . . 
Hon. W_ T. Pipes.. .. . .. .. . 
Hon. W. S. Fielding....... . .. .. . .. .. .. . 
Hon. Gêo. H. Murray...... 
Hon. B.ll. Armstrong........ 


July 
:-i1ov. 
}fay 
Oct. 
May 
Aug. 
July 
July 
Jan. 


4, 1867 
7, 1867 
-, 1875 
1878 
, 1882 
-, 1882 
-, 1884 
20, 1896 
24, 1923 


1..................................... . 
" 
.......................................... 


6
373-9
 



132 


PARI.lIAJfENTARY REPRESENTATION 


to.-lieutenant-Governors, Lcd-slatures and l\lInlstrles of PrO\lnces, 1867-1923 -COD. 
THE ARMSTRONG (PRESENT) l\IIN18TRY. 


Office. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Premier, PreAident of Council, and 
Minil'ter of Public Works and Mines.. Hon. E. H. Armstrong. ................ Jan. 24, 1923 
Provincial f'ecretary................... Hon. D. A. Cameron....... ..... Jan. 24, 19
3 
Attorney Genera1........... .... ....... Hon. W. J. O.Hearn....... ......... Jan. 24. 1923 
Mini...ter of High\\ays.................. Hon. W. Chi...holm..................... Jan. 24. 1923 
Mini...ter without Portfolio... ...... .. lIon. U. M. :Macgregor..... .. . . . . . . . ... June 28, 1911 
Minif'ter without Portfolio............. Hon. O. T. Daniels. .................. Jan. 24, 1923 
:Minister \\;thout Portfolio............. Hon. J. C. Tory.............. ......... 'Mar. 22, 1921 
Minister \\;thout Portfolio............. Hon. J. W. Comeau.................... May 26, 1921 
Minister without Portfolio............ 1I0n.J.McKinley..................... }'eb. 13,1923 
Minister without Portfolio............. Bon. 1. A. McDonald.................. Feb. 13, 1923 


NEW BRU
RWICJ{. 


LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Major-Gen. Sir C. Hastings Doyle.. July 
('01. F. P. Haròing.................. Oct. 
L. A. Wilmot.. .......... .... July 
Samuel LronardTilley....... . .... Nov. 
E. Baron Chandler. .................. July 
Robert Duncan Wilmot............. Feb. 
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley.. . . . . . . .. Oct. 
John Boyd.. .... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 


1, 1867 John A. Fraser................... Dec. 
18, 1867 A. It. McClelan.............. '" Dec. 
14, 1868 Jabcz B. Snowball. ..... Feb. 
5,1873 L.J.Tweedie.................... 1\Iar. 
16, 1878 Josiah Wood...................... Mar. 
11. 1880 G. W. Gano
................... June 
31.1885 William Pugsley................. Nov. 
21,1893 WilliamF.Todd................ Feb. 


20, 1893 
9, 1896 
5. 1902 
2, 1907 
6, 1912 
29, 1916 
6, 1917 
24. 1923 


LEGISLATURES. 


Legislature. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


Number of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


1st....................................... . 
2nd................................. ...... 
3rd......................... . ............ 
4th....................................... 
5th........ 
6th.. .. . . . . .. .. .. .... .. . ... . . .. 
7th............. ...... ... ....... ... ....... 
1st (new order)1 ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . 
2nd....................................... 
3rd................. ...................... 
4th........ ........ ........... ............ 
5th. .. . . '. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6th.. . .... ... ....... ....... ...... 
7th...... ..... 
8th...... .......... ........ . . ....... .. 


3 Feb. 13, 18fìS......... June 3. 1870 
5 Feb. 16, 1870......... :May 15, 1874 
5 Feh. 18, 1875......... :May 14, 1878 
4 Feb. 27, 1879......... :May 25. 1882 
5 4If'eb. 28, 1883......... April 2, 1886 
3 Mar. 3, 1887. ....... Dec. 30, 18R9 
3 Mar. 13, 1890......... Sopt. 28, 18\12 
3 Mar. 9, 1893......... Sept. 26, 1895 
3 Feb. 13, 1896......... Jan. 28, 1899 
4 1\Iar. 23,1899......... Feb. 5,1903 
5 Mar. 26, 1903......... J.1n. 23. 1908 
5 April 30, 1908......... May 25, 1912 
4 Feb. 13,1913......... Jan. 20, 1917 
4 May 10,1917......... Sept. 16,1920 
1\Iar. 17, 1921. ... ... 


1 Since the abolition of the Legislative Council of New Brunswick in 1892, the legislatures of that province 
have been officially re-numbered. 


M INI8TRlES. 


1\1 inistry. 


Date of Formation. 


1....... . 
2...... .. . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . .. . 
3.... . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . 
4.... " . . . . .. . . . . " . . " . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 
5.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
6.................................... . 
7.... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
8..................................... 
g.... ... ..... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 
10.......... .. .......... ....... .. . 
11.... . . . . . . ..... . . . .. . .. . . . . ....... .. 
12.................................... . 
13..... .............. .................. 
14........ . . . . .. . ....... . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . 
15.................................... . 
16.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . 


Premier. 


Hon. A. R. Wctmore................... 
Hon. G. E. King........ ...... 
I Ion. J. J. Fraser..... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . 
Hon. D. L. Hannington................ 
Hon. A. G. Blair....................... 
Hon. Jas. 
litchel1.. . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . 
lion. II. R. Emmerson................. 
Hon. L. J. Tweedie.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hon. \Vm. Pugsley..................... 
Hon.C. W. Robinson.................. 
Ilon.J.D.llazen......... . ........ 
Hon. James K. Flemming.............. 
Hon. George J. Clarke................. 
Hon. James A. Murray................. 
Hon. Walter E. Foster...... ........... 
lIon. P. J. Voniot...................... 


1867 
1872 
1878 
1882 
18113 
July 1896 
Oct. 1897 
Aug. 31, 1\100 
Mar. 6, 11107 
May 31. 11107 
Mar. 24, 1908 
Oct. 16, 1911 
Dec. 17, 1914 
Feb. 1, 1917 
April 4, 1917 
Jan. 25, l!123 



NEW BRUNSWICK 


133 


11.-Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and IUinistries of Provinces, 1861-19'!3 -con. 
THE VE
IOT (PRESENT) l\IINISTR Y. 


Office. 


Date oC 
Appointment. 


Name. 


Premier and Minister of Public Works. 
President of CounciL................. 
Attorney General.... .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Provincial Secretary-Treasurer. .. . . . . . . 
Minister of Lands and }Iines.. . . . . . . . . . 
Minister of Agriculture...... . . . . . . . . .. . 
Mini"ter of Health..................... 
lIinister without PortColio............. 


Hon. P. J. Veniot...................... 
Hon. Fred }lagee. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . '" . . . . 
Hon. James P. Byrne........ ........... 
Hon. Judson E. Hetherington........... 
Hon. C. W. Robinson.................. 
Hon. D. W. Meri!ereau............ .... 
Hon. W. F. Roberts ............... _ . . . 
Hon. J. E.l\Iichaud... 


Ian. 25, 1923 
Oct. I, 1920 
April 4, 1917 
Dec. 2, 1920 
Oct. I, 1920 
Dec. 2, 1920 
April 4, 11117 
Ian. 4, 1921 


QUEBEC. 
LIEUTENANT-GovERNORS. 


Name. 


Date of I 
Appointment. 
July 1, 186í! L.A.Jettê....................... 
IJan. 31, 186S L. A. Jettê................ ....... 
Feb. 11, 1873 
1 ::;ir Charles A. P. Pelletier....... 
Dec. 15, 187' 

r F
dnçoi
 Langelier.. .. . . . . . . . . 
July 26, 1879 SIr PlCrre E. Leblanc............ 
Nov. 7, 188-1 Right Hon. Sir Charles Fitz- 
Oct. 21, 188' j ' l patrick........................ 
Dec. 5, 18\;2 Hon. L. P. Brodeur........... ... 


Name. 


Sir N. F. Belleau........ . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sir N. F. Belleau. . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Rênê Edouard Caron................ 
Luc Letellier de St. Just............. 
Theodore Robitaille.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
L. F. R. 1\.:15Son............... .... 
A. R.Angeri!........... .. 
SirS. A. Chapleau..... ............. 


Date oC 
Appointment. 


Feb. 
IFeb. 
Sept. 
May 
Feb. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


2, 1898 
2, 1903 
4, 1908 
5, 1911 
9, 1915 
21, 1918 
31, 1923 


ISeconl term. 


LEGI8LAi'URES. 


Legislature. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


N umber of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


1st........ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 
2nd. .. . . . . . ... . 
3rd...................................... 
4th........ ........ .......... ...... '" ... 
5th......... ....... ........ ........ ....... 
6th...................................... 
7th.... ......... ........... ....... ....... 
8th........ ........ .......... ....... ..... 
9th... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
10th. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
11th......... ...... ..... ......... ........ 
12th..... ...... ......... ............ ...... 
13th.......... ........ .... ........... ..... 
14th.............. ......................... 
15th.... ..... .................. ........... 


4 
4 
3 
4 
5 
4 
1 
6 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
4 


Dec. 27, 1867. .., 
Nov. 7,1871......... 
Nov. 4, 1875......... 
June 4, 1878......... 
Mar. g, 1882......... 
Jan. 27, 1887......... 
Nov. 4, 18\10......... 
April 26, 1892......... 
Nov.l3, 1897.. ... 
Feb. 14, 1901......... 
'Mar. 2, 1905......... 
)lar. 2,1909......... 
Nov. 5, 1\112......... 
Nov.17,1916......... 
Dec. 10, 1919......... 


May 27, 1871 
June 7, 1875 
1\1ar. 22, 1878 
Nov. 7, 1881 
::;ept. 9, 1886 
May 10, 1890 
Dec. 22, 18!;1 
Mar. 6, 1897 
Nov. 14, 1900 
Nov. 4, 1904 
May 6, 1908 
April 15, 1912 
April 14, 11116 
May 22, 1919 
Jan. 10, 1923 


MINISTRIES. 


Ministry . 


Date oC Formation 


Premier. 


1.... .... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 
2......................_ .... 
3.... . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
4.... .., . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . 
5.................................. . 
6.................................. . 
7.................................. . 
8.................................. . 
9.................................. . 
10........ .... ................ ....... 
11................. . 
12........ ...................... 
13................. ................... 
14.................................. . 
15.................................. . 
16.... .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. . 


lIon. P. J. Chauveau..................... 
Iron. G. Ouimet.. _...................... 
Hon. C. E. B. De Boucherville....... . " . 
Hon. H. G. Joly..... ............... ..... 
Hon. J. A. Chapleau. ....... ... .......... 
Hon. J. A. Mousseau..................... 
lion. J. J. ltoss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Hon. L. O. Taillon. ... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . 
Hon. H. Mercier.... . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Hon. C. Eo B. De Bouchervillc....... . . . . 
Hon. L. O. Taillon....................... 
Hon. E.l. Flynn... ...................... 
lIon. F. G. 
larchand.................... 
Hon. S. N. Parent....................... 
lIon. Sir L. Gouin.. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. 
Hon. Louis Alexandre Taschereau........ 


luly 15, 1867 
Feb. 26, 1873 
Sept. 22, 1874 
Mar. 8, 1876 
Oct. 3D, 1879 
luly 31, 1882 
Jan. 23, 1884 
Jan. 25, 1887 
Ian. 27, 1887 
Dec. 21, 1891 
Dec. 16, lSCJ2 
:r.
y 12, 1896 
May 26, 1897 
Oct. 3, 1900 
Mar. 23, 1!J05 
July 8, 1!J20 



PARLIAJIA'S f'.-ll(J- NEPHESENTA.1'/OX 


131 


lO.-Lieutenant-GO\ernors, Le(!.islature
 and 'Iinistries of l.rO\inl'cs, 186ì-1923-con. 
THE TA8cHEREAU PRESEXT) :\hXISTRY. 


Date of 
.\ppointment. 


Office. 


);lame. 


Prime 
Iini"ter and Attornev Ceneral 
\{ini"ter of Agriculture..... 
...... .. 
:\fini"ter "ithout Portfolio... 
:\Iinister of Lands and Fore:;t, .. . . 

linÜ,ter of Public Works and Laùour 

Iini
ter of 
Iines, Fibheries and Col- 

 onization........................... 
Provincial Secretary and l{egi<.:trar. . 

Iinister of Roads. . . . . . . . . 
)Iini
ter v.ithout Portfolio....... . 
Pro\"inchl Trea"urer and l\Iini::.ter of 
)[unicipal Affairs. ... 


Hon. L. A. Taschereau.... . . 
Hon. J. E. Caron.. . . . . . . .. . .. 
Hon. X. Pérodeau..... 
Hon. H. 'Iercier.. 
Hon. .-\. Galipcault. ._.. 
Hon. J. E. Perrault..... 
Hon. A. David........... 
Hon. J. L. Perron.... . . . . 
Hon..c. Moreau.......... 
Hon. J. l'\icol...... 


July Ù, 1920 

o,'. 18, 190\1 

Iar. l-t, 1910 
.-\ug. 25, 1919 
Aug. 25, Un!! 
.\ug. 25, 191P 
.\ug. 23, 191!J 
Hept. 27, 1921 
Sept. 20, 1921 
);IOY. 23, 1921 


OXTARIO. 
LIEGTEN AJIi'T-GOVàRNORS. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


:Name. 


Name. 


)Iajor-Gen. H. W. 8tisted........... 1 July 
}
il
\

ë
:1o
'd:::::.::::: :::::::: 


. 
D. A. 
lacdoDald................... 
Ia" 
John Bf'verly Hobinson. . . . . . . . . . ... Junè 
:,ir Ale"\'1.Dder Campbell............. Feb. 
;-;ir (;t-'Orge .-\. I\:irkpatrick..... __... 
[ay 
I 


XOV. 
April 

ept. 

ept. 
1\-ov. 
8ept. 


18, 1897 
20, 1903 
22, 1908 
26, 1914 
27, 1919 
10, 1921 


1, 1867 Sir Olh'er 1I10\\at...... . ......... 
14, 1868 Sir William Mortimer Clark...... 
5,1873 Sir JohnM. Gibson.. ........... 
18, 1875 Lt.-Col. Sir John 8. Hendrie..... 
30, 1880 1 Lionel H. Clark......... ......... 
8, 1887 Henry Cocl_shutt................ 
30, 1892 11 


I,EGlSLATURES. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


I ',umþer of 
:sessIOns. 
. 


Date of 
Fir:;t Opening. 


Legislature. 


Feb. 25, 18il 
Dec. 23, 18H 
-\pril 25, 18i9 
J:.'eb. 1, 1883 
Nov. 15, 1886 
April 26, 1890 
May 2!J, 18\14 
Jan. 28, 1898 
April HI, 1
102 
Dec. 13, 1904 
"ay 2, 1\108 
);Iov.13, I!HI 
May 2
, 1\114 
Sept. 2\1, 191\1 
May 4, 1923 


Dec. 27, 1867......... 
Dec. 7, 1872......... 

OV. 24,1875......... 
Jan. 7, 1880.. _ ., 
Jan. 23, 1884......... 
Feb. 10, 1887......... 
Feb. 11,1891......... 
Feb. 21,1895.. ...... 
Aug. 3,1898......... 
:Mar. 10, 1903......... 
Mar. 22, 1!J05... _..... 
Feb. 16, 1\109.. . 
J:.'eh. 7, 1\112......... 
Feb. 16,1915......... 
Mar. 9, 1920. 


4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
2 
4 
3 
3 
5 
4 


1st.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
2nd..... ........... 
:Ird... ... 
4th............ .. . . . . . . . . . . 
5th....... ....... ........... 
6th..... ........... 
ith..... ....... ...... 

th..... . 
!Jth.... . . . 
10th.... . 
11th... I 
12th.. 
13th.. . ' . 
14th. 
15th...... . 


)lIXISTRlE8. 


Date of Formation 


Premier. 



Iini...tr) 


July 16, 1867 
Dec. 30, 1871 
Oct. 25, 1872 
July 25, 1896 
Oct. 21, 18911 
Feb. 8. 1905 
Oct: 2, 1914 
Nov. 14, 1919 
July 16, 1923 


Hon.1. S. Macdonald......... .. . 
Hon. E. Rlake.............. ...... ..... 
Hon. O. :Mov.at.... .................... 
Hon. A.I:5. Hardy...................... 
Hon. G. \V. Hos,.. ...................... 
Hon. Sir J. P. Whitney..... ......... 
lion. Sir William Howard Hearst...... 
Hon. Ernest Charles Drury.. . . :. . . . .. . 
Hon. George Howard :Ferguson... .... 


1 ............ ........................ 
2..................................... . 


'J 
oJ............ 


4............ 
5......... ............ ....... ...... ... 


ti........... 



..... ... 
\j......... . 



OXTA.RIO 


135 


10.-Lit'utenant-Gmernors. Lt'gislatures and l\linistries of Prminces, 1867-1923 -COD. 
THE FERGUSON (PRESENT) MTh"IBTRY. 


Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Premier and Minister of Education. . . . Hon. G. H. Ferguson. . ..... .. . . . . . . . ... July 16, 1923 
.\ttorney Genera!...................... Hon. W. F. Nickle...................... July 16, 1923 
\IinisterofPublic Works and Highways Hon. Goo. S. Henry........... ...... July 16, 1923 
Provincial Treasurer..... ............. Hon.W.H.Price... ....... ... ...... July 16,1923 
:\Iinister ofl\lines...................... Hon. Charles McCrae.... ............. July 16, 1923 
:\lÏni:ö;ter of Public Health and Labour.. Hon. Dr. Forbes Godfrey.... . . . . . . . ... July 16, 1923 
}Iinister of Agriculture................. Hon. John S. Martin....... ..... July 16, 1923 
Provincial :-;ecretary................... Hon. Lincoln Goldie...... ............. July 16, 1923 
:\Iinister of Lands and Forests.......... Hon. James W. Lyons...... ............ July IG, 1923 
:\fjnister without Portfolio.. . . . . . . . . . .. Hon. Sir Adam Bcck. ....... . . . . . . . . ... July 16, 1923 
:\Iinister without Portfolio...... . Hon. Thos. Crawford... ............... July 16, 1923 
:\Iinister v.ithout Portfolio.. . . .. .. .... Hon. Dr. Leeming Carr..... .. '" .. . July 16, 1923 
)Iinister "ithout Portfolio......... .... Hon. J. R. Cooke...... ................ July 16, 1923 


)I.-\
ITOBA. 
J ,IEGTEX ANT-GovERNORS. 


Same. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Kame. 


Date of 
Appointment. 


.\. G.Archibald..,................. May 
Francis Goodschall Jobnson... . . . . ., April 
-\lexander :\loITis.................... Dec. 
.J oseph Ed. Caucbon. ..... .... . . . . . . . Dec. 
James C. Atkins.................... Sept. 
J.C ::;hultz......................... July 


20,1870 J.C.Patterson................... Sept. 
9, 1872 Sir D. H. McMillan.............. Oct. 
2, 1872 Sir D. H. McMillan.............. IMay 
2,1877 D.C.Cameron.................. Aug. 
22, 1882 Sir James A. 
I. Aikins........... Aug. 
I, 1888 Sir James A. M.Aikins........... IAug. 


2, 1895 
16, 1900 
11, 1906 
I, 1911 
3, 1916 
7, 1921 


:'econd term. 


LEGISLATUREB. 


Legislature. 


Number of Date of Da te of 
Sessions. First Opening. Dissolu tion. 
4 
Iar. 15, 1871.. . .. . " . Dec. 16, 1874 
4 Mar. 31, 1875........ . Nov. 11, 1878 
1 Feb. I, 1879........ . Nov. 26, 1879 
4 Jan. 22, 1880..... . Nov. 13, 1882 
4 May n, 188:L .. . . . . . . Nov. 11, 1886 
" April 14, 1887...,.... . June 16, 1888 
5 . Aug. 28, 1888.... ..... June 27, 1892 
3 Feb. 2t 1893........ . Dec. 11, 1895 
4 Feb. 6. 1896. . . .. . .. . Nov. 16, 1899 
4 Mar. 2
, HIOO......... June 25, 1903 
4 Jan. 7, 1904. . .. . . " . Feb. 28, 1907 
3 Jan. 2, 1908. . . . .. .. . June 20, 1910 
4 Feb. 9, 1911. . .. . . .. . June 15, 1914 
2 Sept. 18. 1914....... .. July 16. 1215 
5 Jan. 6, 1916...... ... Mar. 27, 1920 
2 Fcb. 10. 1921........ . June 24, 1922 
Jan. 18, 1923........ . 


1st. ............................ 
:!nd. ...... ............................ 
.3rd...... ........ ................ ... ..... 
4th...... .... .................... '" ..... 
5th. ...... ........ ........ ...... .... 
lith......... .. .......... ...... .... ...... 
7th....... ........ ..... ..' ........ ...... 
Sth......... ...... .... ....... ............ 
Uth. . ...... ........ ............. 
10th.. . ......... '" ....... ........ 
11th. .............................. 
12th.. ..... ........... ............. 
13th ............................... 
lUh. ............................. 
J,jth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
blth.. ........................ 
17th .. . .. .. . .. .. . .... 


:\IJNISTRTES. 


:\Iinistry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1.................................... . 
2.................................... . 
3.................................... . 
1............. :...................... 
5.... ... .................. .... ... '" 
G.. .. .... .... ............... ...... '" 
7........................... .... .... 
8.................................... . 
9....... . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. '" 
10..... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
11.................................... . 
12... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 


Hon..-\.Boyd.......... ............ 
Hon. N. A. Girard.............. ....... 
Hon. H. J. H. Clarke.................. 
Hon. N. A. Girard..................... 
Hon. R. A. Davis...................... 
Hon. John Norquay.................... 
Hon. D. H. Harrison................... 
Hon. T. Greenway.............. ....... 
Hon. H. J. Macdonald.. . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . 
Hon. Sir R. P. Roblin ................ 
Hon. T. C. Norris..................... 
Hon. John Bracken......... . .. . . .. . . .. . 


Sept. 16, 1870 
Dec. 14, 1871 

lar. 14, 1872 
July 8, 1874 
Dec. 3, 1874 
Oct. 16. 1878 
Dec. 26, 1887 
Jan. 19, 18RS 
Jan. 8. 1900 
Oct. 29, 11100 
May 12, 1915 
Aug. 8, 1922 



136 


P ARLIAJIENT ARY REPRESE^
T ATION 


10.-Lleutenant-GO\ernors, Le
islatures and lUinistries of PrO\inces, 1867-1923-OOD. 
THE BRACKEN (PRESEXT) MINISTRY. 


Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Prime Minister, Railway Commissicner 
and Provincial Lands Commissioner. Hon. John Bracken......... . .. . . ... . ... Aug. 
Provincial Treasurer, 1\ inister of Te!e- 
phones and Te
egraphs...... ...... Hon. F. M. Black..... ................ Aug. 
Attorney General.. .................... Hon. R. W. Craig... ............... .... Aug. 
l\!inister cf Education................. Hon. John Bracken........... ......... Aug. 
Minbter of Agriculture and Immigration Hon. K eil Cameron. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Aug. 
Minister of Public Works....... ....... Hon. W. R. (')ubb..................... Aug. 
Provincial Secretary................... Hon. D. L. McLeod.................... Aug. 


8, 1922 
8, 1922 
8, 1922 
8, 1922 
8, 1922 
8, 1922 
8, 1922 



ASKI\.TCHEW AN. 
LIEUTENAro;T-GovERNORS. 


N arp.e. Date of Name. Date of 
Appointment. Appointment. 
A. E. Forj1;et......... Sept. 1, 1905 Sir Richard Stuart Lake......... Oct. 6, 1915 
Goo. W. Bro\\n.. .. ----.. .. Oct. 5, 1910 H. ". Newlands...... .. . --.... Feb. 17, 1921 


LEGISL4.TUHES. 


Legislature. Number of Date of Date of 
Se"sions. First Opening. Dissolution. 
1st......... . ....... 3 Mar. 29, 1906........ . July 20, 1908 
2nd........ . .. 4 Dec. 10, 1908. _....... June 15, 1912 
3rd.. 6 Nov. U, 1912. .. June 2, 1917 
4th._.::............. ...... .....:::::::::: 4 Nov. 13, 1917. . . . . . .. . -, 1921 
5th. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Dec. 8, 1921. . .. . . . . . - 


MINISTRIES. 


Ministry . 


Premier. 


Date of Fonnation. 


1............._... '" Hon. Walter Scott..................... Sept. 5,1905 
2.......... .. ........................ Hon. V"'.:\1:. Martin..................... Oct. 20, 1916 
3..... ................................. Hon. C. A. Dunning.................... April 5, 1922 


THE DUNNING (PRESENT) MINlBTRY. 


Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment 


Premier, President of Council, Provin- 
cial Treasurer, Minister of Railways.. Hon. C. A. Dunning.................... Oct. 20, 1916 
Minister of Public Works and Minister 
of Telephones........................ Hon. A. P. McNab.. ................... Dec. 10, 1908 
Mini...ter of Education, and Minister in 
charge of Bureau of Publications and 
King's Printer's Office...... . . ....... Hon. S. J. Latta........................ Oct. 20, 1917 
Minister of Agriculture, and Minister of 
Municipal Affairs... . . . . . . . _ . . . . .. . .. Hon. C. :\1. Hamilton.................. April 27, 1920 
Minister of Highways, and :\Hnister in 
charge of Bureau of Labour and In- 
dustries................... ..... . ..... Hon. J. G. Gardiner...... ........... AprilS, 1922 
Attorney General, and Minister in 
charge of Bureau of Child Protection Hon. J. A. Cross.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AprilS, 1922 
Provincial Secretary, and Minister of 
Public Health...................... Hon. J. M. Uhrich..................... April 5. 1922 



SASKATCHEWAN AND ALBERTA 


137 


l'.-Lieutenant-Governors, Legislatures and ltßnlstries of Prmlnces, 186i-1923-con. 
ALBERT A. 
Ln:UTE
ANT-GOVERNORS. 


Name. Date of Name. Date of 
Appointment. Appointment. 
George H. V. Bulyea................ Sept. 1. 1905 1 Robert George Brett........ ..... Oct. 6, 1915 
George H. V. Bulyea................ IOct. 5, 1910j Robert George Brett.......... ... IOct. 20, 1920 


ISecond term. 


LEGISLATURES. 


Legislature. Number of Date of Date of 
Se<;sions. First Opening. Dissolution. 
1st........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Mar. 15, 1906. ...... -- 1909 
2nd...................................... . 4 Feb. 10, 1910. -...... :Mar. 25: 1913 
3rd...................................... . 5 Sept. 16, 1913. . 
[ay 14, 1917 
4th...................................... . 4 Feb. 7, 1918. . .. . . .. . June 23, 1921 
5th. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Feb. 2, 19:!2. ... .. . .. - 



fI)'"ISTRlES. 


Ministry. 


Premier. 


Date of Formation. 


1.... . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . " Hon. Alex. Rutherford............. . . .. Sept. 2, 1905 
2...................................... Hon A. L. Sifton...........__. ... May 26, 1910 
3...................................... Hon. Charles Stewart... ............... Oct. 30, 1917 
4...................................... Hon. Herbert Greenfield............... Aug. 13, 1921 


THE GREE
FIELD (PRESENT) MI'ru)TRY. 


Office. 


Name. 


Date of Appointment. 


Premier, Provincial Treasurer and 
Provincial Secretary...... . . .. . . . . . .. Hon. Herbert Greenfield...... . . . . . .... Aug. 13, 1921 
Attorney General...................... Hon. J. E. Brownlee.......... __....... Aug. 13, 1921 
Minister of Public Works............... Hon. A. Ross...... . ................... Aug. 13, 1921 
Minister of Agriculture................. Hon. George Hoadley.... .............. Aug. 13, 1921 
Minister of Education.................. Hon. P. E. Baker...................... Aug. 13, 1921 
Minister of Railways and Telephones. . Hon. V. W. Smith.. . . . . . . . . . .. . " . .. ., Aug. 13, 1921 
Minister of Municipal Affairs and 
Minister of Health................... Hon. R. G. Reid....................... Aug. 13,1921 
Minister without Portfolio.. . . . . .. .. . . . Hon. Mrs. Walter Parlby........ . . . . . . . Aug. 13, 1921 


BRITISH COLU
IBIA. 


Name. Date of Name. Date of 
Appointment. Appointment. 
J. W. Trutch.......................: June 5, 1871 Sir Henri G. Ioly de Lotbiniêre.. June 21, 1900 
Albert Norton Richards............ June 27, 1876' James Dunsmuir................. May 11, 1906 
Clement F. Cornwall................ June 21, 1
11 T. W. Patterson.................. Dec. 3, 1909 
Hugh Nelson....................... Feb. 7, 1887 Sir Frank S. Barnard. .... ........ Dec. 5, 1914 
Edgar Dewdney... . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Nov. I, 1892 Col. Edward G. Prior............ Dec. 9, 1919 
Thomas R. McInnes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nov. 18, 1897 Walter C. NichoL............... Dec. 24, 1920 


LIEUTE
 ANT-GOVERNORS. 



138 


PA.RLIAJIEfo.;TA.Rr REPRESESTA.TIO.Y 


l'.-Lieutenant-Gournors, Legis' at tires and_ì\linistries of PrO\inces, 186ì-1923-con. 
LEGISL"TURES. 


Legislature. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


Number or 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Openinp;. 


1st........ . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
:?nd..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3rd. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4th.......... ......... ......... 
3th... ......... 
6th.......... ........................ 
7th... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8th.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
9th.................. ............ '" 
10th..... ............. ........... .... 
nth... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
12th........... ...... ......... ..... 
13th..... '" ......... ......... '" 
14th.............. .... 
15th......... ............................ 


4 
3 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
4 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 


Feb. 16, 1872......... 
Jan 10,1876......... 
Juh' 29, 1878...... 
Jañ. 25, 11'83.. . 
Jan. 24,lb87......... 
J3o. 15, 1891. . 
Nov. 12, 1894......... 
Jan. 5, 1899..... ... 
July 19,1900......... 
Nov. 26, 1903......... 

br. 7, 1907....... . 
Jan. 20, 1920... .. . 
Jan. 16,1913......... 

Iar. I, 1917......... 
I"eb. 28, 1921......... 


Aug. '30, 1875 
April 12, 1887 
June 13, 1882 
June 3, 1886 
:\Iay 10, 1890 
June 5, 1894 
June 7, 1898 
April 10, 1900 
June 16, 190:? 
Dec. 24, HJ06 
Oct. 20, 1 !JOY 
Feb. 27, 19l:? 
June I, l!1lfi 
Oct. 23, 1!J20 


'IIXISTRlES. 


:\Iinistry. 


Date or Formation. 


Premier. 


1.................................... . 
'> 
3:::::::::::::... ............... 
4..... ..... . .................... 
5............. ........ ........... ..... 
b.................................... . 
7.... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8.................................... . 
9.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
10.................................... . 
11......... 
12......... __................ 
13........ .................... 
14.... .......................... 
 .. .. . 
15.................................... . 
16........... ........ 
17.................................... . 
18.... .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . . .. . .. 
19.... .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . ..; . .. . .. . .. . 


Hon. J. F. McCreight... ... ........ . 
Hon. A. De Co;;mos... ...... .. .. .. . .. .. 
Hon. G. A. Walkem.................... 
Ron. A. C. Elliot... . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . 
Hon. J. Walkem....................... 
Hon. R. Beaven........... :........ ... 
lIon. W. Smythe........ . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. 
Hon. A. E. B. Da-.áe.......... ........ 
Hon. J. Robson.... __ . .. . .. . 
Hon. T. Davie.. _ __ . ........ ........ 
Hon. J H. Turner......... . . .. .. . .. . .. . 
Hon. C. A. Semlin..................... 
Hon. Jos. Martin....................... 
Hon. J. Dunsmuir...................... 
Hon. E. G. Prior....................... 
Hon. R. 1IcBride...................... 
Hon. Wm. J. Bowser................... 
Hon. Harlan Carey Brewster.. ... . ... 
Hon. John Oliver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Dec. -, 1871 
Dec. 23, 1872 
Feb. 11, 1874 
Feb. I, 1876 
June 26, 1878 
June 13, 1882 
Jan. 28, 1883 
April 1, 1887 
Aug. 3, 1889 
July 2, 1892 
Mar. 4, 1895 
Aug. 12, 1898 
Mar. I, 1900 
June 15, 1900 
Kov. 21, 1902 
June 1. 190:J 
Dec. 15, 1915 
Nov. 19, 1916 
Mar. 6, 1918 


Office. 


THE OLIVER (PRESENT) MI
TRY. 


N' ame. 


Date or Appointment. 


Premier, and President of the Council Hon. John Oliver...................... ::\Iar. 6. 1918 
Provincial :;ecretary, :\linister of 
Education anù !\Iini!'ter of Rail" ays. Hon. J. D. 
laclcan.'... .. ........... :\Iar. 6, 1918 
.\ttorney Gl'neral and 
linister or Labor Hon. A. :\L :\Ianson............... .... Jan. 28, 1922 
'lini>;ter of Lands..... .. . . .. ....... Hon. r. D. Pattullo.................... Mar. 6, 1918 
:.\linister of :Finance and :\Iinister of 
Industries. _. ...................... Hon. John Hart........................ :\Iar. 6, 1918 
:.\linister of Agriculture........ ......... lIon. E. D. Barrow.................... Mar. 6, 1918 
:\linister or Mines and Commissioner of 
Fisheries............................ !fon. William Sloan.... ................ Mar. 6, 1918 
'linister of Public Works............... Hon. W. H. Sutherland................. Jan. 28, 1922 


THE TERRITORU:S. 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 


Name. 


Date of 
-\ppointment 


Date of 
Appointment. 


Name. 


\. G.Archibald.................... :May 10, 187 Joseph RoyaL.................. July 1,1888 
.FrancisGoodschallJohnson......... April 9,187'> C.H.Mackintosh................ Oct. 31,1893 
.\lexanderMorris.................... Dec. 2,187 M.C.Cameron.................. May 30,1898 
David Laird......................... Oct. 7, 187 A. E. Forget..................... Oct. 11, 1898 
l
dgar Dewdney.................... Dec. 3, 1881 A. E. Forget.............. ...... Il\far. 30, 1904 


I 
econd term. 



THE CA.XADL1N HIGH COJIJIISSIOXER 


139 


10.-I.ieut('nant-{
ovt'rJlors. L('!!:islatures and Jlillistrics of Prminces. 
1861-1923-concluded. 
LEGISLAT-CRES. 


LE'gi,lature. 


Kumber of 
Sessions. 


Date of 
First Opening. 


Date of 
Dissolution. 


1st........ . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
2nd.... .. _ ................... 
3rd............. - --....... 
4th........... .. 
5th...... .... ........ ..................... 


3 Oct. 31, 1888......... By effiuxÎon of time. 
5 Dec. 10, 1891......... Oct. I, 1894 
4 I AUI!:. 29. 1895......... Oct. 13, 1898 
4 -\pril 4, 1899......... April 26. 1902 
13 April 16, 1903......... Aug. 31, 1905 


NOTE.-In 1888 the districts of Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabaska and Saskatchewan, called the 
orth- 
west Territories, with their capital at Regina, were given local responsible government, and the old )J"orth- 
west Council was replaced by the Xorthwest LegislaturE', which existed until Aug. 31, 1905. When thE' 
area approximatd;\<- comprised within their limits was formed into the proyinces of Alberta and 
askatcht.'- 
wan in 1905, and the:oE' prO\ inces ,\ E're given sy"tems of I!:overnment similar to the other pro, inees of thE' 
Dominion. The remainingare9.s (the Yukon Territory and the provisional districts of Franklin, Keewatin 
and Mackenzie) are now alministerel by the :;';orthwe3t Territorie3 Branch of the Department of the 
Interior. 


IlL-THE CANADIAN HIGH COMMISSIONER AND THE 
PROVINCIAL AGENTS-GENERAL. 


The policy of the early North American colonies, in maintaining in London 
accredited repre
elltatives for business and diplomatic purposes, waf; recognized 
in the eighteenth century as being a more satisfactory mean
 of communication 
with the home government than that provided by occasional official vi:-;its or by 
correspondence. Edmund Burke, the noted British statesman, held the position 
of agent of the colony of New York for some years following 1771. Of the Canadian 
colonies, Nova Scotia waR the first to adopt the plan, its legislature having appointed 
an agent in London in 1761. New Brunswick was similarly represented in 1786, 
Upper Canada as early as 1794, Lower Canada in 1812 and British Columbia in 
1857. For some years after 1845 several of the colonies were repre
ented in London 
by Crown .\gents, appointed by the Secretary of State and paid by tlH' polonies 
themselves. Thi:::ï system, however, was of but short duration. 
With the federation of the provinces in 1867, a new political entity was brought 
into existence, which could not avail itself of the services of the provincial agents. 
To overcome the inadequacy of the methods of communication between the Can- 
adian and Imperial governments (carried on at that time by correspondence bet\\ cen 
the Governor-General and the Secretary of State) the position of Canadian High 
Commissioner was created in 1879 (See R.S.C., 1906, c. 15). This offipial is the 
repre:-;entative of the Canadian Government in London, appointed by the Canadian 
Government and clothed with specific powers as a medium through whiph constant 
and confidential communipations pass between the Governments of Great Britain 
and of Canada. 
Sir Alexander Galt was the first Canadian High Commissioner, holding office 
from N"ovember, 1879, until May, 1883, when he was succeeded by Sir Charles 
Tupper. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal was appointed in 1896, Sir George 
Perley in 1914, and the present incumbent, Hon. P. C. Larkin, in February, 1922. 
Agents-General.-The older provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia still adhere to the practice of former days 
and are represented in London by Agents-General. These officials are appointed 
by the legislatures of the provinces under general authority given in the British 
North America Act and act for their Governments in capacities very similar to that 
of the High Commissioner, with the exception, perhaps, that their duties have 
tended to become of a business rather than a diplomatic nature. 



VI.-POPULATION. 


I.-GRO'VTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. 


I.-Census Statistics of General Population. 


Since the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, decennial censuses have 
been taken on the de jure plan as of the dates April 2, 1871, April 4, 1881, April 5, 
1891, April 1, 1901, June 1, 1911 and June 1, 1921. The population of Canada 
and its percent
ge distribution as on these dates, together with the absolute and 
percentage increases from decade to decade, is given in Tables 1 to 4 immediately 
following. 


1.-Polmlation of Canada by Pro\inces and Territories In the Census years 
1871 to 1921. 1 


Province or Territory. I 1871. Ib81. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 
Prince Ed ward Island....... 94,021 108,891 109,078 103,259 93,728 88,615 
Nova :O;cotia................ 387,800 440,572 450,396 459,574 492,331:> 523,837 

ew Brunswick...... .- 285,5\14 321 , 233 321,263 331, 120 351,889 3S7,876 
Quebec.. . ----.- 1,191,516 1,359,027 1,48b,535 1,648,8\18 2,OU5,776 1 2,361,199 
Ontario....... __.. ....... 1,620,851 I, !J26, 922 2,114,321 2,182,947 2,527,292 " 2,933,662 
Manitoba....... . ......... 25,228 62,260 152,506 255.211 461 , 39.P 610,118 
Saska tchewan. - - - 91, 
79 492,432 757,510 
Alberta...... ... ......:::::: - - - 73,022 374,2!J5 3 588,4:>4 
British Columbia........... 36,247 49,459 98,173 178,657 392,4
O 524,582 
Yukon Territory............ - - - 27,219 8,512 4,157 
Xorthwest Territories 4..... 48,000 56,446 98,967 20,129 6,507" 7,988 
Royal Canadian Navy. .... - - - - - 41)'> 
Total.. . . .. . ...... 3,G1'S9,257 4,3::1,810 .833,239 5,3ìl,315 7,206,643 8,788,4&
 


2.- Percentage Distribution of Canadian Population b) Pro\inces and Territories, 
ISH to 1921. 


Province or Territory. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 
- - - - - 
p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c..J p.c. 
Prince Edward Island. .................. 2.55 2.52 2.25 1.92 1.30 1.01 
Kova Scotia............................ 10.51 10.19 9.32 8'56 6.83 5.96 
New Brunswick......................... 7.74 7.43 6.65 6.16 4.88 4.41 
Quebec................................ . 32.30 31.42 30.80 30.70 27.83 26.87 
Ontario.................. . .. 43.94 44.56 43.74 40.64 35.07 33.38 
Manitoba....... _. _... 0.68 1.44 3.16 4.75 6.40 6.1)4 
Saskatchewan...............:.:.:.:.::: : - - - 1'70 6.84 8.62 
Alberta. . . .. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 1.36 5.19 6.70 
British Columhia....................... 0.98 1.14 2.03 3.33 5.45 5.97 
Yukon Territory........................ - - - 0.51 0.12 0.05 
Northwest Territories 4 .................. 1.30 1.30 2.05 0.37 0.09 0.09 
Royal Canadian Kavy .................. - - - - - - 
- - - - - - 
100.00 100.00 100.00 1Ot/.W 100.00 100.01 


1 The population of the Prairie Provinces, according to the quinquennial census of 1916, is given on 
page 177. 2 A13 corrected as a result of the Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. a As corrected by transfer 
of population of Fort Smith (368) to Northwest Territories. t The decrease shown in the population of 
the Northwest Territories after 1891 is due to the separation therefrom of vast areas to form Alberta, 
Saskatehewan and the Yukon Territory, anf1 to extend the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario and .Manitoba. 



CENSUS STATISTICS OF POPULATION 


141 


3.-Population of Canada by PrO\inces and Territories in 1871 and 1921, and numerical 
increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. 


Popula- Increase in each decade from 1871 to 1921. Popula- Increase 
Province or tion 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 tion 1871 
Territory. in to to to to to in to 
1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 1921. 1921. 
- - - - - - - 
Prince Edward 1. . 94,021 14,870 187 -5,819 -9,531 -5, 113 88,615 -5,406 
Nova Scotia....... 387,800, 52,772 9,824 9,178 32,764 31,499 523,837 136,037 
New Brunswick... 285,594 3.'i,639 30 9,857 20,769 35,987 387,876 102,282 
Quebec........... . 1,191,516 167,511 129,508 160,363 356,878 355,423 2,361,199 1,169,683 
Ontario......... " . 1,620,851 306,071 187,399 68,626 344,345 406,370 2,933,662 1,312,811 
Manitoba.... ...... 25,228 37,032 90,246 102,705 206,183 148,724 610,118 584,890 
Saskatchewan.... . - - - 91,279 401,153 265,Oï8 757,510 757,510 
Alberta. .. . . .. . . . . . - - - 73,022 301, 273 214,159 588,454 588,454 
British Columbia.. 36,247 13,212 48,714 80,484 213,823 132, 102 524,582 488,335 
Yukon Territory.. - - - 27,219 -18,707 -4,355 4,157 . 4,157 
Northwest 
Territories 1 ".. 48,000 8,446 42,521 -78,838 -13,622 1,481 7,988 -40,012 
Royal Canadian 
Navy.......... . - - - - - 485 485 485 
- - -- - - - - 
Canada.... . . . 3,689,257 635,553 50
.4291 538,076 1.835,328 1.581,8:10 8,788,483 5.099,226 


4.-Population of Canada b)' Prminces and Territories in 1811, and increase per cent 
by decades from 1871 to 1921. 


Province or 
Territory . 


Popula- 
tion 
in 
1871. 


Per cent increase by decades from 1871 to 1921. 


1871 
to 
1881. 


1881 
to 
1891. 


1891 
to 
1901. 


1901 
to 
1911. 


1911 
to 
1921. 


Per cent 
increase 
in 50 
years. 


Prince Edward Island........ 94,021 15.82 0.17 -5.33 -9.23 -5.46 
Nova Scotia................. 387,800 13.61 2.23 2.04 7.13 6.40 
New Brunswick.............. 285,594 12.48 0.01 3.07 6.27 10.23 
Quebec............... ...... 1,191,516 14.06 9.53 10.77 21.64 17.72 
Ontario.. . ................. 1,620,851 18.88 9.73 3.25 15.77 16.08 
Manitoba.................... 25,228 146.79 144.95 67.34 80.79 32.23 
Saskatchewan................ 439.48 53.83 
Alberta...................... 412.58 57.22 
British Columbia............ 36,247 36.45 98.49 81.98 lW.68 33.66 1,347.24 
Yukon Territory............. -68'73 -51.16 
NorthwestTerritories 1 ....... 48,000 17.60 75.33 79.66 -67.67 22.76 -83.36 
Canada....... ......1 3..689,2,jì l17.23



 138.22 


-5.75 
35.08 
35.82 
98.17 
80.99 
2,318.42 


Early Censuses.- The credit of taking the first census of modern times belongs 
to Canada. The year "as 1665, the census that of the colony of New France. Still 
earlier records of settlement at Port Royal (1605) and Quebec (1608) are extant; 
but the census of 1665 was a systematic "nominal" enumeration of the people, 
taken on the de jure principle, on a fixed date, showing age, sex, occupation, and 
conjugal and family condition. A supplementary enquiry in 1667 included the 
areas under cultivation and the numbers of sheep and cattle. When it is recalled 
that in Europe the first census dates only from the eighteenth century (those of 
France and England from the first year of the nineteenth), and that in the United 
States as well the census begins only with 1790, the achievement of the primitive 
St. Lawrence colony in instituting what is today one of the principal instruments 
of government may call for more than passing appreciation. 


1 The decreases shown in the population of the Northwest Territories since 1891 are due to the separa- 
tion therefrom of immense areas to form the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the Yukon 
Territory, as well as to extend tho boundaries of the older provincos of Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. 



142 


J>UPULA.TIO.Y 


'1'he census of 1665 (the results of which occupy 154 pages in manuscript, still 
to be seen in t.he .\rchives at Paris, with a transcript at Ottawa) showed some 

,215 souls. It was repeated at intervals more or less regularly for a hundred years. 
By lüS.3 the total had risen to 12,263, including 1,538 Indians collected in villages. 
By the end of the century it had passed 15,000, and this was doubled in the next 
twenty-five years. Not to present further details, it may be said that at the time 
of the ce!':-:ion (1763) the population of Xew Franc(' was about 70,000, whilst another 
10,000 French (thinned to these proportion!' by the expulsion of the Aradi:Ul!') were 
<;cattered through what is now Nova Scotia, Kew Brunswick and Prin<'e Edv.ard 
Island. '1'he British population of :Xova Scotia was at this time about 9,000. 
After the ces!'ion, our chief reliance for statistics must be laid for half a century 
and more upon the reports of colonial governors-more or Ipss :--poradic-though 
cen!'u!'cs of the different sections under Briti
h rule were taken at irregular intervals. 
British settlement on a 
ubstantial scale in th(. Gulf Province!' ami in Ontario datí'!' 
only from the Loyalist movement which followed the American Revolution, at the 
('lid of which, i.e., about the year of the Constitutional Act (1791), the population 
of Lower Canada was approximately W3,000, whilst the newly constituted Province 
of Lpper Canada under Lieutenant-Governor 
imcoe numbered perhap:; 15,OOn, 
and the addition of the Maritime colonies brought the total well over 200,000. .\ 
decade later Canada began the nineteenth century with a population of probably 
not lc:-;s than 250,000 or 260,000. Subsequent censuses gave the population of 
the different colonies as follows:-Upper Canada (1824) 150,069, (1840) 432,159; 
Lower Canada (1822) 427,465, (1844) 697,084; Xew Brunswick (824) 74,176, 
(1840) 156,162; Nova Scotia (1817) 81,351, (1838) 202,575; Prince Edward Island 
(lS:!2) 24,600, (1841) 47,042. 
The policy of desultory censu
-taking v.as ended in 1847 by an .\et of the 
Canadian Legislature creating a "Board of Registration and Stati
tics," with 
instructions "to collect statistics and adopt measures for disseminating or publish- 
ing the same," and providing also for a d
ennial census. The first census there- 
under was taken in 1851, and as similar censuses were taken by Kew Brunswick and 
:Xova Scotia in the same year, we have a regular measure of population growth in 
Canada over the past seventy yeal"s. The fifties saw a very rapid development, 
especially in Ontario, whil.,t the sixties !'howed only less substantial gains. In the 
years following Confederation, again, there was a spurt, the increase between lR71 
and 1881 (which included severallf'an years towards the end) being 63.3,553, or 17.23 
p.C. In neither of the two decades next following, however, was this record equalled, 
either absolutely or relatively, the gains in each being under .3.30,000, or 12 p.c. 
With the end of the century the population of Canada had reached approximatf'jy 
Ii \"e and a quarter millions, or twenty times that of 1800. 
Twentieth Century Expansion.-It is within the confincs of the present 
cen tury that the most spectacular expan
ion of the Canadian population has taken 
place. The outstanding feature was, of course, the opcning to settlement of the "last 
best "-est." The unorganized territories of Briti!'h Korth America had been ceded to 
the Dominion soon after Confcderation, and the 'Vest had been tapped and traversed 
by the Canadian Pacific Railway in the eighties and nineties. But though western 
population doubled v. ith each of these decades, it was only with the launching of a 
large-scale immigration movement after 1900 that western settlement and pro- 
duction became a first-rate economic factor. Simultaneously an almost equally 

triking development occurred in the industrial centres of Eastern Canada, which 
formed the immediate ha.
is for the mm"c upon the "'e
t. .\t the back, of course, 



THE CENSUS OF 1921 


143 


was the heavy inflow of British capital-a total of two and a half billions of dollars 
within a dozen years-which went to finance the large constructive undertakings 
(chiefly railway and municipal) which characterized the movement and which 
represented at bottom the traditional policy of England in search of cheap and 
abundant food for her workshop population. The years 1901 to 1911, in brief, 
form the decas mirabilis of Canadian e}..'pansion. The immigration movement just 
mentioned, which had previously run well under 50,000 per annum, rose rapidly to 
over five times that volume, eventually passinp; 400,000 in a single year. In the ten 
years 1901 to 1911 it totalled over 1,800,000, and though at least a third of the:--<e 
were lost (partly in the return to Europe of labour temporarily attracted by the 
railway and other developments in progress, and partly in the never-ceasing and 
natural "drag" of the United States upon a virile and less wealthy people), it formed 
the chief factor in the gain of 34 p.c. which the total population of Canada registered 
in that decade, and which was larger than the relative growth of any other country 
during the same period. The movement was continued and even intensified in the 
first three years of the secorid decade of the ccntury, after which a recession set in 
to which the outbreak of the war gave a new and wholly unexpected turn. Nevcr- 
theless the decade which closed with the census of 1921 again showed over 1,800,000 
immigrant arrivals in Canada, and though the proportionate loss of these was very 
heavy (probably as much as two-thirds), Canada's relative gain for the decade 
was again among the largest in the world. 
The Census of 1921.-According to the final results of the 1921 census, the 
total population of the Dominion on June 1, H)21, was 8, 78
,483, as compared with 
7,206,643 On June 1, 1911, an increase of 1,581,840 or 21.95 p.c. in the decade, as 
compared with 34.17 p.c. during the decade from 1901 to 1911. Reduced as is the 
rate of increase during the past ten years, it is higher than the rate of increase in any 
other of the principal countries of the British. Empire except Australia, where the 
rate was only slightly greater, and considerably higher than that of the United 
States. 
The countries which comprise the British Empire, as also the United States, 
have on the whole suffered much less in actual loss of life from the war and its 
consequences than have the continental countries of Europe. None of them ha') 
actually declined in population during the period, as many continental European 
countries have done. Their percentage increases, however, have in almost all ca
es 
been lower than in the previous dccade. Thus the population of England and 
'Vales increased between 1911 and 1921 only from 36,070,492 to 37,885,242, or 
4.93 p.c., as compared with an increase of 10.89 p.c. in the previous decade; Scot- 
land, again, increased only from 4,760,904 to 4,882,288, or 2. 5 p.c., as comparcd 
with 6.5 p.c. between 1901 and 1911. 
Of the oversea Dominions, New Zealand increased from 1,008,468 to 1,218,270 
Or 20.8 p.c., as compared with 30.5 p.c., while the white population of South Africa 
increased from 1,276,242 to 1,522,442 Or 19.3 p.c. On the other hand, the Common- 
wealth of Australia, the only Dominion to grow more rapidly in the second decadê 
of the twentieth century than in the first, increased from 4,455,005 in 1911 to 
5,436,794 in 1921, or 22.04 p.c., as compared with 18.05 p.c. The population of 
the continental United States increased between 1910 and 1920 from 91,972,266 
to 105,710,620, an increase of 14.9 p.c. as compared with 21 p.c. in the preceding 
decade. 
Considering now the Dominion of Canada itself, it becomes evident from 
Tables 1 and 2 that in this country, as formerly in the United States, there is a 



144 


POPULATION 


distinct movement of population from East to West. In the decade from 1911 to 
1921, there occurred in the four western provinces an increase of population from 
1,720,601 to 2,480,664 or 44.2 p.c., while the five eastern provinces increased from 
5,471,023 to 6,295,189, an increase of 824,166 persons, which, though absolutely 
larger than the figure for the West, constitutes an increase of only 15 p.c. over the 
1911 population. The same conclusion may be deduced from Tab]e 2, which shows 
that while in 1871 only 2.96 p.c. and in 1881 only 3.88 p.c. of the population of the 
country dwelt west of the Jake of the "... oods, the percentage in 1891 was 7.24, in 
1901, 12.02, in 1911, 24.09 and in 1921, 28.37 p.c. On the other hand, the three 
easternmost Maritime provinces, which 1871 contained 20.80 p.c. of the popu- 
lation of the Dominion, had in 1881,20.14 p.c., in 1891, 18.22 p.c., in 1901, 16.64 
p.c., in 1911, 13.01 p.c., and in 1921 only 11.38 p.c. of the population. Ontario 
and Quebec-the old pre-Confederation Province of Canada-still remain the chief 
centre of population, their population being in 1921 60.25 p.c. of the total as com- 
pared with 76.24 p.c. in 1871, 75.98 p.c. in 1881, 74.54 p.c. in 1891, 71.34 p.c. in 
1901, and 62.90 p.c. in 1911. In other words, the net result of the half century 
has been that in 1921 only three-fifths of the population of the Dominion lived in 
these provinces as compared with more than three-fourths in 1871. 
In 1881 the "centre" of population east and west was in the county of Prescott, 
Ontario, not far from Caledonia village. In 1891 it had moved west to the vicinity 
of Ottawa, where it remained in 1901. In 1911 the county of Victoria, Ontario, 
contained the centre, and it is probably in Simcoe county, Ontario, at the present time. 
The populations of the several provinces and electoral districts of Canada in 
1921 are given by sex in Table 5. 
5.-Area and PopuIation of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901. 


Land 
Provinces and Districts. area in 
sq. miles. 


fopulation, 1921. 


Males. Females. Total. 


Prince Edward Island. . . . 


Canada.................... 3,603,909.00 1 4,529,9015 4,258,538 8,788,483 


tI!j,615 


Kings............. . 
Prince................... - 
Queens...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Xova Scotia................ 
Antigonish and Guys- 
borough. . .. . .. . . . . . . . 
Cape lireton North and 
Victoria.... .... _..... 
Cape Breton South and 
Richmond... _... _ _ . 
Colchester.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cumberland............. . 
Digby and Annapolis..... 
Halifax City and County 
Hants........... ..... .... 
Inverness......... . . . . . . . . 
!{ings................... . 
Lunenburg. . . . . - . . - . . . . . . 
Pictou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 
Shelburne and Queens.. . 
Yannouth and Clare.... . 


2,1801.36 1 
641.18 
778.23 
764.95 
21,06/).00 1 
2,212.00 
1,355.10 
1,210.90 
1,451.00 
1,683.00 
1,983.65 
2,123.38 
1,229.00 
1,408.75 
864.00 
1,202.00 
1,124.00 
2,022.48 
1,198.99 


4-1,887 
10,570 
16,026 
18,291 
266,0172 
13,988 
16,031 
39,759 
12,647 
21,072 
14,633 
48,455 
10,165 
12,421 
12,045 
17,295 
20,537 
11,\113 
15,511 


43,72S 
9,875 
15,494 
18,359 
257,36.i 
13, 110 


36,603 
12,549 
20,119 
14,332 
48,773 
9,574 
11,387 
11,678 
16,447 
20,314 
11,522 
15,663 


15,294 


20,445 
31,520 
36,650 
:i23,837 
27,098 
31,325 
76,362 
25,196 
41,191 
28,965 
97,228 
19,739 
23,808 
23.723 
33,742 
40,851 
23,435 
31,174 


Per 
sq. 
mile. 


1911. 


1901. 


2.4-1 7,206,643 5,371,315 


40.56 
31.88 
40.50 
47.91 
201.86 
12.25 
23.11 
63.06 
17.36 
24.47 
14.tiU 
45.78 
16.06 
16.90 
27.45 
28.07 
36.34 
11.58 
26.00 


93,728 
22,636 
32,779 
38,313 
492,338 
29,010 
29,888 
66,625 
23,664 
40,54J 
29,871 
80,257 
19,703 
25,571 
21,780 
33,260 
35,858 
24,211 
32,097 


103,259 
24,725 
35,400 
43,134 
4:i9,57J 
31,937 
24,650 
48,602 
24,900 
36, 168 
30,579 
74,662 
20,056 
24,353 
21,937 
32,389 
33,459 
24,42h 
31,454 


NOTIC.-The land areas here given for the provinces and electoral districts are as measured by a plani- 
meter on the map, and include the areas of small lakes and other waters which have not been measured. 
1 By map measurement. 



PROVLVCES AKD ELECTORAL DISTRICTS 


145 


i.-Area and Population of Canada by Provinces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901-continued. 


Land Population, UI21. 
Provinces and Districts. area in 11m. 1901. 
sq. miles. Per 
Males. Females. Total. sq. 
mile. 
- - - - - 
1'\1 ew BrunswIck.......... . 27,911'00 1 197,351 190,525 3S7,8ì6 13.90 351.889 3.'U,120 
Charlotte...... .......... 1,283.40 10,85:1 10,5S2 21,435 16.70 21,147 22,415 
Gloucester. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,869.81 19,697 18,987 38,684 20.68 32,662 27,936 
Kent..................... 1,778.02 12,317 11,599 23,916 13.45 24,376 23,958 
Northumberland........ . 4,740'60 17 ,354 16,631 33,985 7.16 31,194 28,543 
Restigouche and 
Iada- 
waska............... . 4,542.56 22,258 20,719 42,977 9.46 32,365 22,897 
Royal.... ............... 2,855.53 16,698 15,380 32,078 11.23 31,491 32,832 
St. John City, County 
and Albert.. .. . . .. . .. 1,302.88 33,754 35,339 69,093 53.03 63,263 62.,684 
Victoria and Carleton... 3,402'64 17,706 16,194 33,900 9.96 32,990 30,446 
Westmorland............ . 1,442.18 26,959 26,428 53,3R7 37.02 44,621 42,060 
York and Sunbury. . . . . . . 4,693.74 19,755 18,666 38,421 8.18 37,780 37,349 
Quebec. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690,86,) . 00 1 1,180,028 1,181,171 2,3Gl,199 3.42 2,005,;;6 1, 6l8, 898 
Argenteuil............... . 783.36 9,085 8,080 17,165 21.91 16,766 16,407 
Bagot. ..... __........... 346.14 9,003 9,032 18,035 52.10 18,206 18,181 
Beauce.................. . 1,891.04 27,320 26,521 53,841 28.47 51,39!) 43,129 
Beauharnois. ............. 147.03 9,805 10,083 19,888 135.26 20,802 21,732 
Bellechasse.. .... ,........ 652.64 10,665 10,525 21,190 32.47 21,141 18,706 
Bcrthier. .. . '" . . ... .. . . . 2,192.74 9.927 9,890 19.817 9.04 19,872 19,980 
Bonaventure....... ...... 3,463.61 14,8711 14,213 29,092 8.40 28,110 24,495 
Brome. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 488.15 7,024 6,447 13.471 27.60 13,216 13,397 
Chambly and Verchères.. 337.00 17,285 17,358 34,643 102.80 28,715 24,318 
Champmin. . . . .. . __ . __ .. 1,497.95 24,760 23,249 48,009 32.05 39, 824 32,015 
Charlevoix-
lontmorency 4,303.09 14,642 14,232 28,874 6.71 27,972 25,813 
Châ teauguay-Huntingdon 626.52 13,582 13, 149 26,731 42.67 26,562 27,562 
Chiooutimi-Saguenay.... . 492,140.W 47,182 43,427 90,609 0.18 65,888 48,291 
Compton............... .. 1,439.04 16,945 15,340 32,285 22.44 29,630 26,460 
Dorchester. .............. 941.60 15,038 13,916 28,954 30.75 25,096 21,007 
Drummond & Arthabaflk3 1,197.82 22,816 22,007 44,823 37.42 41,590 38,999 
Gaspé................... . 4,551.47 20,945 19,430 40,375 8.87 35,001 30,683 
George-E tienne Cartier.. . - 26,746 28,054 54,800 - 51,937 53,673 
Hochelaga.............. . - 35,828 37,691) 73,526 - 44,884 14,193 
Hull.. . . . . . . . . . . .... .... . 1,023.18 22,020 21,521 43,541 42.55 37,9li 33,851 
Jacques Cartier.......... 86.94 44,178 45,119 89,297 1,027'11 56,855 21,966 
Joliette......... . . " ... . .. 3,013.50 12,700 13,213 25,913 8.60 23,911 22,255 
Kamonraska............ . 1,037.50 11,137 10,877 22,014 21.22 20,888 19,099 
T
abene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,948.80 18,931 16,996 35,927 12.18 30, 115 22,291 
Laprairie and Napierville 319.20 10,352 9,713 20,065 62.86 19,335 19,633 
L' Assomption-Montcalm. 4,448.40 14,225 14,093 28,318 6.37 28,506 26,996 
Laurier-Ou tremont. . . . . . . - 34,201 37,846 72,047 - 44,264 13,237 
Laval-Two Mountains... . 378 .12 14,459 13,855 28,314 74.88 25,275 24,685 
Lêvis................... . 271.83 16,523 16,800 33,323 122.59 28,913 26,210 
L'Islet.................. . 772.80 9,097 8,762 17,859 23.11 16,435 14,439 
Lotbinière..... ........... 726.40 10,992 10,845 21,837 30.06 22,158 20,039 
)Iaisonneuve............ . 58.10 32,298 32,635 64,933 1,117'61 33,796 12,402 
Maskinongê.. ..... .. .. .. . 2,940.00 8,609 8,336 16,945 5.76 16,509 15,813 
Matane.................. . 3,495.67 18,795 17,508 36,303 10.39 27,539 18,521 

Iêgantic....... .... ... .. . 780.16 17,161 16,472 33,633 43.11 31,314 23,878 
Missisquoi. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 375.21 8,881 8,822 17,709 47.20 17,466 17,339 
Montmagny............. . 630. 13 11,341 10,656 21,997 34.91 17,356 14,757 
Nicolet. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 626.07 14,841 14,854 29,695 47.43 30,055 27,209 
Pontiac................. . 126,437. 19 3 25,169 21,032 46,201 0.36 31,479 28,127 
Portneuf. . . . . .. . .... : . " . 6,722.91 17,350 17,102 34,452 5.12 30,260 24,176 
Quebec County... ........ 2.799.59 15,234 15,896 31,130 11.12 28,046 24,381 
Quebec East... .... ...... 2.20 17,836 20,494 38,330 17,422.73 30,922 28,645 
Quebec South............ 3.59 12,239 15,467 27,706 7,717'55 24,163 21,833 
Quebec West............. 116.66 18,349 19,644 37,993 325.67 30,506 24,897 
Richelieu....... ......... 193.10 9,289 9,475 18,764 97.17 19,810 18,576 
Richmond and Wolfe..... 1,224'32 21,693 20,555 42,248 34.51 39.491 34,137 
Ritnouski.... . . . . .. . . . .. . 2,089.44 13,865 13,655 27,520 13.17 23,951 21,636 
::5te. Anne................ - 25,884 26, 165 52,0'19 - 41,541 41,225 
8t. Antoine. .............. - 14,823 17,571 32,394 - 34,794 47,653 
81. Denis......... . . .. . .. . - 38,276 40,644 78,920 - 45,141 10,391 
St. Hyacinthe-Rouville... 520.58 17,910 18,844 36,754 70.60 35,473 34.950 


1 By map measurement. 'Includes part added by Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. Blncludes un- 
organized parts. 
62373-10 



146 


POPULA.TION 


ó.-Area and PopulatIOn of Canada b)' Pro\inces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901 -continued. 


Land Population, 1921. 
Provinces and Di"triets. area in 1911. 1901. 
sq. miles. Per 
}Iales. Females. Total. sq. 
mile. 
- - - - 
Quebec -concluded. 
St. James..... . . ......... - 20,462 21,981 42,443 - 44,057 42,6b 
St. Johns and Ib('rville.. . 403.02 11,943 11,575 23,518 58.35 21,8H2 20,67!1 
:-;t. },a\\Tence-St. George. - 18,150 18,762 36,912 - 38,8ð3 21,88\J 
Ste. 
larie................ - 30,842 33,133 63,975 - 62,521 40,631 
:-;hefford. . . ... .. ... . .. . . . . 567.20 12,970 12,674 25,644 45.21 23, ,')7ß 23,621' 
8herbroo1..e.......... . . . . . 237.59 15, 148 15,638 30,786 129.58 23,211 18,42li 
Stanstead. ............... 432.4í 11,714 11,666 23,380 54.06 20,765 18,91:18 
Témiscouata... .. . . . . . .. . 1,806.18 22,638 21,672 44,310 24.53 36,430 29,18.'. 
Terrebonne...... __.. "'" 781.82 16,972 16,936 33,908 43.31 29,018 2û,816 
Three Rivers and St. 
'Iaurice. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 2,568.05 25,438 25,407 50,845 19.80 36,153 29,311 
Vaudreuil-SOulanges..... . 336.75 10,969 10,651 21,620 64.20 20,439 20,373 
Westmount-St. Henri..... - 29, 785 33,124 62,909 - 56,088 40,960 
\\-right...... .. .. . . .. . . . . . 2,297.27 11 , 424 10,426 21,850 9.51 21, 171 19,589 
Yamaska... ............. 393. 12 9,432 9,408 18,840 47.92 20,387 21,501) 
Ontario.............. ...... 365,SOO.OOI 1,-ISt,H90 1,-1.)1, 77
 2,933,662 8.02 2,;'
7,
9
 2,18
,9-I; 
AllI;omaEast.......... .. 20,678.17 22,815 Ii, 803 40,618 1.96 37 , 6
9 25,211 
Algoma \Vést........ . . .. . 22,153.98 11'\,332 15,344 3.1,676 1.52 28,752 17,894 
Brant..... ............... 0334.23 10,180 9,905 20,085 60.()!J 19,259 18, 27:
 
Brantford.... . . . . . . . " .. . 86.86 16,364 16,928 33,292 383.21:'> 2ô,617 19,867 
Bruce North............. 950.95 10,684 10,188 20,872 21.95 23, 783 27,424 
Bruce South.... .......... û!J9.46 11,904 11,509 23,413 33.47 26,24\1 31,59û 
Carleton..............., . 6.')0.87 16,751 15,922 32,673 50.19 24,417 22,880 
Dufferin. 556,64 7.996 7,419 15,415 27.69 17,740 21,03ü 
Dundas... 
 
 
 : : ::: : : :: :: : .')76.11 12,331; 12,050 24,381' 42.33 25.973 28,3511 
l>urham................ . 628.98 12,457 12,172 24,629 39.16 26,411 27,57U 
Elgin East. ... . . .. . . .. .. . 362.52 8,872 8,434 17,306 47.74 17,5!J7 17,901 
Elgin West.. ............. 357.58 13,860 13,81!S 27,678 ï7.40 26,715 25,68.') 
E::.sex Korth. .. .. . .. .. .. . 239.27 37, III 34,039 71,150 297.36 38,006 28,78'1 
E8seX South...... . . . .. .. . 467.53 16,129 15,296 31,425 67.21 29,541 29,955 
Fort William and Rainy 
River..... . . . . . . . .. . .. . 12,784.68 21,573 18,088 39,661 3.10 32,158 18,461 
Frontenac............... . 1,5!J5'91 10,612 9,718 20, 390 12.77 21,944 24,746 
Glengarry and Stormont. 697.33 19,528 19,045 38,573 55,31 38,22G 40,580 
Grenville.. .... ...... ...... 462.83 8,266 8,378 16,644 35.96 17,545 21,021 
Grey North.............. 669.79 15,395 15,272 30,667 45.78 33,957 33,00:; 
Grey 
utheast..... a.... 1,038.03 14,610 13,774 28,384 27.34 31,934 36,5
7 
Haklimand. ..... 4&'\.13 10,889 10,398 21,21\7 43.60 21,562 21, 23:
 
Halton. . ..... 362.69 12,748 12,151 24,899 68.65 22,208 19,54;, 
Hamilton ï-:'a
i. .... 2.69 24,9!)3 24,837 49,820 18,520.44 39,793 2-1.001) 
Hamilton Wc!->t.. .. 3.54 18,893 20,405 :J9,29S 11,101.11 37,279 28,634 
Hastings East .... 1,291.41 11,997 11,075 23,072 17.86 2-1,97b 27,94:\ 
H3.btings We
t..... 1,031'57 17 , 130 17,321 34,451 33.39 30,825 31,34' 
Huron 1Ii"orth.... ..... . .. . 660.11 11,657 11,883 23,540 35.66 26,886 30,9';1, 
Huron &uth. ......... 635.31 11, 692 11,856 23,5-1ð :J7.06 26,097 :JO . 85-! 
Kent..... !SU;.50 26,646 25,493 52,13!J 63.70 49,391 49.67.\ 
Kingston...... :: 
:::::::: 3.54 11,666 12,438 . 2-1,104 6,809.03 20,660 19,."" 
Lambton Fast. .......... tì47.81 13,OS4 12, 717 25,801 39.82 28,827 3t,4411 
Lambton West........... 575.57 16,976 15,912 32, bð8 57.13 29,109 ')9.72:\ 
Lanark. ........... 1,137.99 1\),332 16,661 32,\193 2S.!I!J :H,375 37,2:t! 
I.eeds...... . . . 899.68 17,338 17,571 34,909 :\8'S0 36,753 37,97;) 
Lcnnox and Add.ï
gi
ñ...: 1,169.77 9,638 \1,356 11\,994 16.23 20,38ti 23,341. 
Linroln. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 332.41 24,874 23,751 48,625 146.28 35, 429 1 30, 55:.! 
London. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 6.65 25,364 2H,474 53;838 8,095.94 41),300 37,97li 
Middlesex East........... 481.00 14,581 13,413 27,!J94 51j.lS 23,465 23,33\1 
)tidùlesex Wcst. .. . . . . . . . 752.14 12,678 12,355 25,033 33.28 27,300 :n,3H7 
:Muskoka. .... .. . . . . . . 
. .. . 1,585.38 10,153 9,286 19,439 12.26 21,233 20,971 

ipis:-;ing. ................ 11,157.32 31,50ð 27,057 58,565 5.25 43,679 24,931 
Xorfolk. . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . 634 . 26 13,305 13,061 26,366 41.56 27,110 29,147 
:KorthumberIand..... . 704.29 15,012 15,500 30,512 43.32 32,892 33,5511 
Ontario 
orth. . . . . . . . .. : 504.82 7,875 ,,545 15,420 30. 5-l 17,141 18,3!1I1 
Ontario &uth............ 347.69 15,762 15,312 31,074 89.37 23,865 22,01S 
Utta\\a. ................. 4.75 43,232 50,508 93",740 19,734.74 77,182 59,140 
Oxforù ^ orth.... .. .. . .. . 410.56 12,232 12,295 24,527 59.74 25,077 25,644 
Oxford ::;ou th.. .. .. . .. . . .. 353.99 11,133 II, 102 22,235 1)2.81 22,294, 22.ïW 


IBy map measurement. 



PROVINCES AND ELECTORAL DISTRICT8 


147 


5.- -\rea and Population of Canada b} Provinces and Electoral Districts, 19U. 1911 
and 1901-continued. 


Land 
Provinces and Districts. area in 
sq. miles. 


Ontario-concluded. 
Park dale . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
ParTY Sound.. .......... 
Peel........... .... 
Perth North.... ... 
Perth South. .. .. ... . . . . . . 
Peterborough East. .. . . . . 
Peter borough W()st...... . 
Port Arthur and Kenora. 
Prescott. ........ .. . . . . . . . 
Prince Edwarû........... 
Renfrew:\'"orth........... 
Renfrew ðouth........... 
Russell...... _ ..... 
Simcoe East. . . . . .. . . . . . . 
f:imcoe North. . . . . .. . . . . . 
Simcoe South....... .. 
Timiskaming. . . . .. . . . . 
Toronto Centre........... 
Toronto East............. 
Toronto North........... 
Toronto South... __0.. 
Toronto West. ........... 
Victoria....... . .......... 
Waterloo North.......... 
Waterloo ðouth........... 
Weiland................. . 
Wellington :North......... 
W
llington South..... . .. . 
Went\\orth.... _..... 0 _... 
York East.. __ _._ _.' 
York 
ortL.............. 
York South.. .. . .. . . . . . . . 
York West............... 


}Ianitoba. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Brandon.. ..... ....... 
Dauphin.. ........ 
Lisgar __ . .. . . . . 
Macdonald __ .. .. .. . .. .. 
\larquette.... '" 

eepawa....... ..... 
Nelson..... ............. 
Portage la Prairie. . . . . . . . 
Provencher. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 



i

..............
: 
::::::::: 
Springfield.. " _. _ _ _. 
Winnipeg Centre.......... } 
Winnipeg North. ... . . . . .. 
\Vinnipeg South........... 



askatche\\an... .......... 
Asbiniboia....... ....... 
Battleford.. ... 
Humboldt..... _ _. 0 
h.indersley... . . . 
J ast 
lountain......... .. . 

íackcnzie . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 

iaple Creek.............. 
!\[oose Jaw. . . ......... .. 
North Battleford..... .... 
Prince Albert............ 
<.!u'Appelle.............. . 
Regina......... 0.000..... 
::5altcoats... .. .... 


IBy map measurement. 
ü
3ï3-1O! 


4,336'00 
468.51 
4:!!I.77 
40!ì.!H 
1'\91.38 
553.81 
207,570.90 
494.29 
390.40 
1,057.81 
1,644.95 
698.68 
52!J.39 
574..88 
551).61 
46,211.00 


2,834..23 
273.20 
24.2.63 
3S;.27 
i'i80.4.6 
43S.R8 
4.51.97 
64.52 
4:JO.56 
202.28 
158'52 

1,9
6.CO' 
2, 914'06 1 
5,4.68'75 
1,97!ì.96 
2,390,90, 
5,454.24 
3,491.53 
173,975'18 
1. 710.22 
4.,261'36 
10,689.84 
3,5S6'35 
15,944..15 
59.46 


2-1.3.381.00 
5,h50.86 
6,651.96 
1>. 320. 9i'i 
l1,2tH.30 
7,01;5.51 
5,8.';6.34 
15,149.09 
5,591.12 
72,000.00 
76,499'00 
4,458.06 
2,063.25 
4,554.69 


Population, 19:!1. 


)Iales. Females. Total. 


38 8')0 
14:716 
12, 371 
16, 223 
9,315 
7,101 
14,382 
24.,136 
13,429 
1',288 
12,339 
13,76S 
22,084 
18,888 
11 2')7 
I:Ù55 
30,219 
25,326 
31,096 
32,378 
19,335 
:J2,717 
17,621 
20,591 
16,440 
36,360 
10, 182 
17 ,161 
32,574 
38.163 
11 , 84.0 
4.9,572 
35,361 


320,56; 
21,31i'i 
19,254 
15,652 
12,936 
22,433 
15,464 
10,705 
12,027 
15,819 
:!9,639 
14,341 
30,935 
:J9,125 
32,060 
28,862 
,113,700 
18,831 
18,561 
30,300 
25,758 
27,731 
29,907 
31,318 
27,376 
26, 121 
31,054 
18,819 
26,395 
23,261 


41,960 
12,306 
11,525 
16,238 
9,067 
6,615 
14,936 
19,164 
I:J,049 
8,518 
11,617 
13,296 
21,329 
18,234 
10,873 
12,1S5 
21,:H9 
26,412 
33 7')9 
40: lÕO 
18,261 
35,680 
Hi, 374. 
21, 107 
17,128 
30,308 
9,6i'i1 
17,166 
31,875 
39.787 
11, 296 
50,4.84 
35,320 


2iì9",),')1 
18,868 
16,228 
14,269 
IO,S!ib 
18,821 
12,892 
9,101 
10, 227 
13,489 
25,756 
12,06!J 
:!7,935 
37,345 
30,897 
30,766 
3-13,SlO 
15,951-> 
15,080 
24,H2i'i 
19,014 
22.324 


: 


 
23,027 
21,260 
25,775 
16,017 
:!3,582 
20,174 


80,780 
"7 0')') 
23:896 
32,461 
18,382 
13,716 
29,318 
4.3,300 
26,478 
16,806 
23, 956 
27,061 
4.3,413 
3- 1')') 
::!2:1ÕÕ 
24.,810 
51,5611 
i'il, i68 
64,825 
72,4i8 
37,5!J6 
68,397 
33,995 
-n, 6% 
33,561' 
66,668 
19,833 
34,327 
64,44.<) 
77,950 
23, 136 
100, OM 
70,681 


Per 
so. 
mile. 


11.99 
152.62 
138.35 
172.14 
34.16 
78.21 
14.2.59 
1,208.15 
53' 73 1 
494.63 
44.5.88 

,6.3 
13.78 
6.49 
15.11 
9.96 
7.56 
8.12 
0.11 
13.01 
6.87 
,5.18 
7.36 
3.69 


610,118 


,
ð 8 
1 
.Ja,'::t _ 
29,921 
23,824. 
4.1,254. 
28,356 
HI, 806 
.,.) 254 

9: 308 
i'i5,395 
26,4.10 
.';8,870 
76,470 1 
62,957 
 3,347'71 
59,628 J 


757,510 
:l-t,7h9 
:J3,641 
i'i5,::!25 
-14.,772 
50,0,')5 
5i'i,629 
i'i6,064 
i'iO,403 
4.7,:J81 
56,829 
:W,8:iö 
49,977 
4.3,795 


1911. 


6.23 
i'il.01 
;.5.53 
4.4..85 
15.38 
52.93 
0.21 
53.5b 
4.3.04 
22.64 
16.4.5 
62.13 
70.12 
:l8.44 
44..41 
1.11 


i'i9,609 
26,M7 
22,102 
30,23.5 
18,947 1 
15,4!J!J 1 ' 
26,151 
39,10 9 1 
26,968, 
17,150, 
23' 617 1 
27,852 
39,434 
35,294. 
24,699 
25,060, 
F,
S
 
;)4.,/9_ 
.53,712 
i'il,318 
43,9M 
57,804.' 
36'49!J 1 
:J3,619 
28,988 
.12,163' 
22,292 1 
3') "00' 

4:634 1 
:J2, 864 
22.415 
31,933 
35,831, 
-161,39-1 1 
:J9,734 
23,35!1 

Z:


I 
:J2,384' 
23.!J2:3' 
11, i3i! 
22.059 
24.,276' 
32,653j 
27, 13:3 
37,24.7 
58,!J03, 
4.,';,682, { 
35,525' 

 
-192,-132 
31,9i,';' 
21,667 

8:


i 
33, 093 1 
:J6,940 
19,730 
31,5521 
24,330 
35,839 
30,470 
4.4,202 
32,3131 


3'1
 1 
.5.95 
5.06 
6.631 
3.9/ 
7. 06 1 
9.49, 
3. 70 1 
9.01 
0.66: 
0.74.1 
7.8b 
::!4..22 
9'62i 


1901. 


22,303 
24,93tì 
21,475 
29,25li 
20,615 
16,291 
20,704 
10,526 
27 035 
17: 864 
24,5,56 
27, 67ti 
35,161\ 
29,84,5 
21\,071 
26,39!J 
3,378 
45,8SS 
36,763 
20, 761i 
38. lOb 
4.1,06' 
38,5t1 

7 1')4. 
25:470 
31,58!i 
26,120 
29,526 
26,81S 
8,47t-. 
22,41!J 
18, 9tH 
17 ,905 


'!55,211 
25,047 
12,611 
26,899 
17 , 324 
20,435 
19,14U 
2,:J.';! 
14, !J6! 
14,12\ 
16,44: 
22,634 
20,29 
42,!J25 


91,2;9 
9,05:{ 
1,35; 
1,6S' 
:J 
1,.'175 
11,984 
1,473 
3,725 
4,57\1 
16,644 
17, I:J3 
6,581 
10,874 



1-18 


POPULA TION 


5.-Area and Population of ('anada b)' Prminces and Electoral Districts, 1921, 1911 
and 1901-concluded. 


Population, 1921. 
Land 
Provinces and Districts. area in 1911. 1901. 
sq. miles. Per 
:Males. Females. Total. sq. 
mile. 
- - - 
Saskatrhewan-concluded. 
I::iaskatoon... .... . . . .. . .. . 3,45.3.38 28, 862 26,289 55,151 15.9i 31,633 2,!!64 
Swift Current.. . . . . . . . .. . 7,958.48 29,220 24,055 53,275 6.69 28,691 484 
Weyburn................ . 6,051.89 l!1.826 15,862 35,688 5.89 31,081 1,172 
Alberta................... . %5
,985.001 3U,20
 261,2,16 588,-15-1' 2.33 37,1,295 73,022 
Battle River...... 13,191.90 27,483 21,6!J0 49,173 3.73 26,3,';2 591 
Bow River........... 11,2ã9.86 32,460 22,896 55,356 4.92 27,304 1,565 
Calgary East... .. . . . . . . . . 2,033'59 23,819 21,176 4-1,995 22.13 35,1fi3 .'),526 
Calgary West............ 4,6:30'00 22, 733 21,608 44,341 9.58 30,023 3 , 5-16 
Edmonton East.......... 57,172'40 30,719 25,829 56,548 0.99 30,926 7,685 
Edmonton West.......... 112,497.43 41,94i 32,320 74,267 0.66 35,386 '1,641 
Lethbridge. .............. 5,498.33 21,072 16,627 37,699 6.86 29,4S7 5,99i; 

[acleod . . .. . . . . . . . . ..... 9,017.00 18,976 15,032 35,008 3.77 30,77\1 8,228 
:\Ieilicine Hat.. . . . '" 12,497.00 23,982 19,197 43,179 3.46 24,697 
,IS5 
Reel Deer. 13.431.84 27,426 22,203 49,629 3.69 37,50i 7,568 
Strathcona. . ... . . ...... 5,309.09 22, 682 19,838 42,520 8.01 28,355 12,635 
\Ïctoria... . . . . .. .... 6,386.45 30,909 25,830 56,739 8.88 38,316 8,851 
British Columbia. ........ 3,")3,416.00 293,409 2,'U .173 52,1,582 1.-11- 392,-1"0 178,657 
Burrard............... ... 620.79 3-1.387 35,535 69.922 112.63 48,493 1. 267 
Cariboo... ...... ... 164. fi93.50 23.934 15.900 39,834 0.24 2fi.541 !9,155 1 
Comox-Alberni..... . .... 18,227.46 20, 665 11,344 32,009 l.i5 19,739 8,444 
Fraser Valley. .. 304.95 17,054 11,757 28, 811 94.48 22,645 8,219 
Kootenay East......... 13,367'11 11.983 7,154 19,137 1.43 22,46fi 8,446 
Kootenay West........... 12,979.11 16,880 13,622 30,502 2.35 28.373 

,516 
Nanaimo......... ........ 2,717'00 26,079 21. 931 48,010 17.67 31. 878 22,298 
New Westmnister....... . 6,102.41 25,059 20, 923 45.982 7.54 29,384 14,855 
Hkeena...... . ... ........ . 123,896.14 19.083 9,851 28.934 o 23 22.685 13,013 
Vancouver Centre........ 5.73 3-1,867 26,012 60, 879 10,624.60 60.104 :!7,OlO 
Vancouver South......... 32.24 23,439 22,698 46,137 1,431'04 
O,446 1,520 
Victoria.... . .. 7.50 20,107 18,620 38.727 5,163.60 31. 660 20,919 
Yale... . .. ........... 10,462.06 19,872 15,826 35,698 3.41 28,066 , 
yukon......... ........ 206,427.00 2,819 1. 338 4,157 0.02 8,512 
7,2111 
Northwæt TcrritoriE'S.....: : 1,207,926'00 4,129 3,859 7.988 0.007 6,Ií07 20,1211 
Royal Canadian Navy. . . . . - 485 - 485 - - I
 
Canada............. . 3,603,909.00 4,5%9,9,15 4.258,538 8,788,483 2.4-1 7,206, ti43 I 5,371,31i 


I By map measurement for provinces and electoral districts. 
I Includes Yale District. , Included in Cariboo Di8trict. 


Density of Population.-The density of population in 1921 (i.e., the number 
of persons per square mile of the land area), is shown by provinces and for the country 
as a whole in Table 6. Generally speaking, the density of population decreases M 
one travels westward, but the enormous area of the province of Quebec reduces 
the density of its population to the low figure of 3.42. As among the nine provinces, 
the density of population is greatest in Prince Edward IRland and least in British 
Columbia. 


6.- nensit). of Population In ('anada according to the {'ens us of 1921. 


40.56 1 Saskatche\\an.... h. ................ 3.12 
24.86 Al
t;rta................................. 2.33 
13.90 BrItIsh ColumbIa.................. .... 1.48 
3.42 Yukon TeITitory............ ........... 0.02 
8'02 1 Northwest TeITitories.................. - 
2.63 - 
I (.anada........................ %.44 


Prince Edward Island. ....... _ _. .... _. _. 
Nova Scotia.......... ........ 
New Brunswick.. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. ........ 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ontario..... . .. . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Manitoba................................ . 



SEX DISTRIBUTION 


149 


Elements of Growth.-The lack of comprehensive and comparable vital 
statistics for the whole of Canada, together with the lack of statistics of emigration, 
makes it difficult to determine how far the growth of population is due to natural 
increase and how far to immigration. The following estimate (Table 7) may, 
however, be of interest. During the last decade, in addition to some 60,000 Can- 
adians who died overseas and nearly 20,000 who took their discharge in the United 
Kingdom, there were also great numbers of residents of Canada-most of them 
recent immigrants-who left Canada to join the forces of the Mother Country 
and of her allies in the Great War and did not return. The estimated figure given 
for emigration in the decade 1911-1921 may therefore be regarded as of a distinctly 
abnormal character. 
i.-l\lovement of Population, Including estimated Natural Increase, recorded Immi- 
gration, and estimated Emigration, for the Intercensal periods 1901-1911 and 
1111-1921. 


Decades and Items. 


No. 


Decade 1901-1911- 
Population, Census of April 1, 1901........... __ __ . . ... . ... . ... ... .... __ . 
Natural increase (1901-1911 inclusive), estimated... ..................................... 
Immigration (April 1, 1901 to May 31, 1911)..... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 


Total.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Popu lation, Census of June 1, 1911..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Emigration (April 1, 1901 to May 31, 1911), estimated... . . ... . . . . . . . 


5,371,315 
853,566 
1,847,651 
8,072,532 
7,206,643 
865, 889 


Decade 1911-1921- 
Population, Censu", of June 1, 1911..... . . .. .. . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . 
Natural increase (1911-1921), estimated........................... ................... 
Immigration (June 1, 1911 to May 31,1921)............................... 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Population (Census of June 1,1921)........... ...... .......... .... .... .......... ....... 
Emigration (June 1, 1911 to June 1, 1921), estimated............... ................ 
Net gain in population, 1901-1911... ..... 

et gain in population, 1911-1921......................... .................................. 


7,206,643 
1,150.659 
1,728,921 
10.086.223 
8,788,483 
1,297,740 1 
1,835,328 
1,581.840 


1 This figure includes also the 60,000 Canadian lives lost at the front and the 801dJ.ers (about 20,000) 
enlisting in Canadian forces and receiving their discharge in the United Kingdom. 


2.-Sex Distribution. 


Throughout the older countries of the world there is usually found an excess 
.f female over male population, more especially as in most of these countries the 
<<ensus is taken on a de facto instead of, as in Canada, on a de jure bac:;is. The causes 
of this excess of female population are: (1) the normally higher rate of mortality 
among males; (2) the greater number of males who travel; (3) the effects of war; 
(4) the employment of males in the army, navy and merchant marine; and (5) the 
preponderance of males among emigrants. In the newer countries of the world,. 
however, the last of these causes results in a general excess of male over female 
population. Both of these phenomena are exemplified in Table 10. 
In Canada there has been such an excess of male population from the com- 
mencement of its history, the first census of 1665 showing 2,034 males to only 1,181 
females. As the colony increased in numbers, the disproportion between the sexes 
became smaller, more especially since the French-Canadian population after about 
1680 was not reinforced by immigration from the old world. In 1784, when the 
English-speaking immigration to Canada for purposes of settlement was com- 



150 


POPFLA.1'lOS 


mencing, there "ere 54,OG4 males and 50,759 females in the country. At the middle 
of the nineteenth century, there were 449,967 males to 440,294 females in Lower 
Canada, and 499,067 males to 452,937 females in the more newIY-f':ettled Ppper 
Canada, and since Confederation the same phenomenon of considerable excess of 
males has occurred throughout the growing Northwest. The great immigration 
of the first decade of the present century resulted in raising what is called the 
"masculinity" of the Canadian population (i.e., the excess of males over females 
per 100 of population) to the highest point in recent history, viz., 6.07 p.c. in 1911. 
The great war, however, both checked immigration and took some GO,OOO young 
Canadian male liyes as its toll, with the result that at. the census of 1921 the mas- 
culinity of our population was only 3 p.c.-515 males to 485 females per 1,000 of 
population. Thus masculinity in the country as a whole and also in all the provinces 
except Prince Edward Island, has been since 1911 on the decline-a phenomenon 
whÌch must be regarded with satisfaction, since an approximation to equality in 
t he numbers of the sexes is desirable both in the interests of morality and also as 
promotive of the birth rate (an important com;ideration in a country where the 
density of population is only 2.44 to the square mile). In Tahle 8 f':tatistics are pre- 
,.;ented, showing the number of males and females in each of the provinces and 
territoric:-- at each census since 1871, while Table 9 shows the proportions of the 
...exes and excess of males per 1,000 of population. The statistics of Table 10 show 
the position of Canada among other countries of the world in r<'gard to mascu- 
linity. 


s. -
('X Uistrihution of flu' People of Canada. b)' PrO\incl's, lS71-19
1. 


1871 1881. 1891. 
Provinces. 
:Male. Female. Male. Female. :Male. Female. 
Prince Edward Island. . ...... 47,121 46,900 54,729 54,162 54,8M1 054,197 

 ova Scotia. . . . .. . . . . . . 193,792 194,O
 220,538 220,034 227, 093 223,303 
New Bruns\\ick............... 145,888 139,706 164,119 157,114 163.739 157,524 
Quebec................ _. . " 596,041 595,475 678, 175 680,852 744,141 744,394 
Ontario. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 828,590 792,261 978,554 948,368 1,069,487 1,044,834 
Manitoba. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . " . '12,864 12,364 35,123 27,137 84,342 68,164 

a8katche\\"an.. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . - - - - - - 
-\.lberh............. ....... - - - - - - 
Hriti:,.h Columbia.. ..... 20,694 15,553 29.503 19,956 63,003 35,170 
Yukon Territory. . . - - - - - - 
"'1orthwest Territorie" 24,274 23,726 28,113 28,333 53,785 45,182 
Canada ., .1 I, ð1Ì9, 
6" 1,819,993 2, I
S,85" 2, IJ.í, 9;)6 2,460,471 2,342,768 


1901 1911. 1921. 
Provinces. 
.:\Iale. Female. Male. Female. 
rale. Female. 
- - 
Prince Edward hland.... .... 51. 959 51,300 47,Ob9 46,659 44, 887 43.728 
:-.r ova Scotia.. . . 233,642 
25. 9:
2 251,019 241,319 266,472 257.365 

e\\ Brunswick 168,639 162,481 179,867 li2,022 197,351 190,525 
Quebec.. . . 824,451 824,444 1,012.815 992,961 1,180,028 1,181,171 
()ntario.... . 1,096,640 I,OR6,307 1,301,2ï:! 1. 226,020 1,481,890 1,451,772 
\Ianitoba. .. .. 138,504 116,707 252,954 208,440 320,567 289,551 
:Saskatchlman. ................ 49,431 41. 848 291, 730 200,702 413.700 343,810 
Alberta....... . .............. 41,019 32,003 223,792 150,503 324,208 264,246 
British Columbia... 114,lIiO b4,497 251,619 1 to. 861 293,409 231,173 
Yukon Territory...... . . . .. " 23,084 4,135 6,508 2.004 2,819 1,338 
'l,J'orthwest Territories......... 10, Iï6 9.953 3,350 3,157 4,129 3,859 
Royal Canadian 
 :IVY. ... . . . . 485 
--- 
Canada 2. ;.i1, 701; 2,819,60. 3,821,995 3,3
-I,"-I" ,I, ,)
9, 94ã oj,2.i!:i,538 



SEX DISTRIBUTIOi\; 


151 


'.-Proportion of Sexes per 1,000 of Population in Canada, by Provinces, 1871-1921. 


1871. 1881. 1891. 
Provinces. Excess Excess Excess 
Males. Fe- of )[ales )[alE's. Fe- of Males Males. Fe- of MalE's 
males. over males. over males. o\"E'r 
Females. Females. Females. 
Prince Edward Island.. .. 501 499 2 503 497 6 504 496 8 

ova Scotia.............. 500 500 - 501 499 2 504 496 8 
New BrullBwick. . . . . . . . . . . 511 489 22 511 489 22 510 490 20 
(
uebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 500 - 499 501 -2 500 500 - 
Ontario..... . e... 511 489 22 508 492 16 506 494 12 
:Manitoba. . .. 510 490 20 564 436 128 553 447 106 
:-:askatchewan. : . . . . . . : : . : : - - - - - - - - - 
\lhE'rta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - 
British Columbia......... 571 429 142 597 403 194 64.2 358 284. 
Yukon Territory.......... - - - - - - - - - 
Xorthwest Territori('8.. .. 506 494 12 498 502 -4 54.3 457 86 
-- 
Canada......... ... 507 193 U 506 -19-1 n 509 -191 18 
1901. 1911. 1921. 
Provinces. Excess Excess Excess 
Males. Fe- of Males )[ales. Fe- of }[ales :!\[ales. Fe- of }[ales 
males. over males. over males. over 
Females. Females. Females. 
- - - - - - 
Prince Edward Island. . . . . . 503 497 6 502 498 4 507 493 14 
Xova Scotia................ 508 492 16 510 490 20 509 491 18 
New Brunsv.ick............. 509 491 18 511 489 22 509 491 18 
Quebec...... .. 500 500 - 505 495 10 500 500 - 
í)ntario. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 498 4 515 485 30 505 495 10 

[anitoba.... ............... 543 457 86 548 452 96 525 475 50 
::;askatchewan.............. . 541 459 82 592 408 184 546 454 9') 
Alberta.......... . 562 438 124 598 402 196 551 449 102 
British Columbia. ... . . . . : : : 639 361 278 641 359 282 559 441 118 
Yukon Territory. . . . . . . . . . . . 848 152 696 765 235 530 678 322 356 
;..J'orthwest Territories...... 506 494 12 515 485 30 517 483 34 
Royal Canadian Navy..... . - - - - - - 1,000 - 1,000 
- - - - - - - - - 
Canada........... . 512 -I8
 24 530 470 60 515 4M5 .30 


10.-JlascuIlnit)' of the Population of Yarious Countries. 


Country. 


Year. 


Argentine Republic..... . . . . . . . 
Canada... ..................... 
rnion of SOolth Afriea 1 ......... 
India...... ........ -- .. .. 
Xew Zealand...... __.. .... . . 
Pnited States of America...... 
.\ustralia... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ireland.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Roumania.................... . 
.Japan......................... . 
BulL!;aria...................... . 
('hile......................... . 
C:reece. ......... ............ 
Xetherlands......... . .,. 
Belgium. ..... . . . .. ........... 


Excess of 
males over 
females in 
each 100 
population. 


Country. 


1918 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1921 
1919 
1915 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 


7.27 
3.00 
2.92 
2.88 
2.26 
1.98 
1.58 
1.08 
0.75 
0.22 
0.19 
-0.57 
-0.66 
-0.67 
-1.04. 


:-;pain....... . 
Switzerland............. . 
France....................... . 

wedcn.. ..... 
[tal\".. . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Finiand.. . . . . . . . 
Denmark..... .. ............. 
Norway. .. 
Scotland. . .. .. .. . . 
Austria........ .. 
Prussia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Enp;landand Wales..... ...... 
Poland. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
German Empire.. ....... ..... 
Ru."!;Iia. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
iPortugal..... ... 


1 White population only. 
X OTE.- The minus sign (-) indicates a deficiency of males. 


Year. 


1920 
1910 
1911 
1920 
1911 
1919 
1921 
1920 
1921 
1920 
1919 
1921 
1920 
1919 
1920 
Hill 


Excess of 
malE's over 
females in 
each 100 
population. 


-1.34 
-1.62 
-1.74 
-1.76 
-1'81 
-2.12 
-2.44 
-2'60 
-3.79 
-4.24 
-4.49 
-4..54. 
-4.66 
-4.78 
-4.78 
-5.08 



152 


POPULA TIO.V 


3.-Conjugal Condition. 


In Table 11 are given in summary form, together with percentages, the statistics 
of the conjugal condition of the population, as single, married, widowed, divorced, 
legally separated and not given, for the six censuses since 1871. Especially notable 
is the larger percentage of married in the more recent years. This is mainly attribut- 
able to the larger percentage of adults to total population in our own time. Note- 
worthy also is the larger percentage of divorced and legally separated in recent 
years. The reader should also consult in the index the heading "Divorces in Canada, 
1868-1922," for the number of divorces granted in each year since Confederation. 
The conjugal condition of the 1921 population is shown by provinces in Table 
12 and by age-groups in Table 13. 


H.-Conjugal Condition of the Population b)' numbers and percentages, as shown 
by Censuses of 1811, 1
81, 1891, 1901, 1911 and 1921. 


Legally Not 
Sex. Single. Married. Widowed. Divorced. Separ- Given. Total. 
ated. 
1871- 
Male.............. . 1,183,787 543,037 37,487 - - - 1.764,311 
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . 1,099,216 542,339 79. 895 - - - 1.721,450 
1881- 
Male..... . .. . . . . . . . 1,447,415 690,544. 50,895 - - - 2,188.854 
Female. . . . .. 1,336.981 689,540 109,435 - - - 2,135,956 
1891- 
l\Iale.... . . . . . . . . . . . 1,601,541 796,153 62,777 - - - 2,460,471 
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . 1,451,851 791,902 129,015 - - - 2.372.768 
1901- 
Male............... 1,748,582 928,952 73,837 337 - - 2,751,708 
Female. . . __ . .. _ _ 1,564,011 904,091 151,181 324 - - 2.619,607 
1911- 

[ale.......... ..... 2,369,766 1,331,853 89,1. 839 1,286 29,097 3,821,995 
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . 1,941,886 1,251,468 li9, 656 691 1,584 9,363 3,384,648 
1921- 
l\[ale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,698,751 1,698,395 119,708 3,670 1 9,41R 4,529,945 
Female........... . 2,378.844 1,631,761 236,522 3,731 1 7,680 4,258,538 
p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. 
18ïl- 
l\[ale...... . . .. . . . . . 67.10 30.78 2.2 - - - 100 
Female........... . 63,85 31.51 4.64 - - - 100 
1881- 
l\Iale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.12 31.55 2.33 - - - 100 
Female. _ . . . .... 62.59 32.28 5.13 - - - 100 
1891- 
l\fale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65.09 32.36 2.55 - - - 100 
Female........... . 61.18 33.38 5.44 - - - 100 
1901- 
Male.......... 63.55 33.76 2.68 .01 - - 1 
Female........... . 59,70 34.52 5.77 .01 - - 10 
1911- .03 
l\[ale. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . 62.01 34.85 2.33 .02 .76 100 
:Female........... . 57.37 36,97 5.31 .02 .05 .28 10 
11121- 
l\[ale. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 59.57 37.49 2.64 .09 - .21 10 
Female. . . . . . . . . . . . 55.86 38.32 5.55 .09 - .18 100 


00 
o 


o 


o 


· Legally separated included with divorced. 



CONJUGAL CONDITION 


153 


12.-Conjugal Condition of the People of Canada classified as Single, I\larried, 
Widowed, Divorced, Legally Separated, and not given, by Provinces, Census 1921. 


Males. 
Provinces. 
Single. Married. Widowed. Divorced 1 Not given Total. 
Prince Edward Island........ . . . 27,634 15,668 1,549 24 12 44,887 
Nova Scotia...... __... __ 162,835 94, 808 8,440 217 172 266,472 
New Brunswick................. 121,428 69,674 5,918 125 206 197.351 
Quebec........................ . 736,144 406,540 32,912 603 3,829 1.180.028 
Ontario........................ . 828,538 607,186 42,951 1,135 2,077 1,481.890 
Manitoba...................... . 196,072 117,480 6.472 246 297 320,567 
Saskatchewan......... . .. . . . . . . . 263,186 142,431 7,456 337 290 413,700 
Alberta........................ . 199,741 117,081 6,667 413 306 324,208 
British Columbia............... 159,629 125,656 7,118 547 459 293,409 
Yukon Territory. .. . ., . . . . . .. . . . 1. 808 735 152 22 102 2,819 
Northwest Territories........... 1,460 935 66 1 1,667 4,129 
Royal Canadian Navy.......... 279 201 4 - 1 485 
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,698,754 1,698,395 119. 70S 3,670 9,418 4.529,945 
Females. 
Provinces. 
Single. Married. Widowed. Divorced 1 Not given Total 
Prince Edward Island.... 24,717 15,616 3,358 18 19 43,728 
Nova Scotia. ..............::::: 144,859 93,384 18,752 210 160 257,365 
New Brunswick. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 109,670 68,860 11 , 676 106 213 190,525 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720,362 399,271 57, 809 758 2,971 1,181.171 
Ontario..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759,901 589,518 99,259 1,369 1,725 1,451,772 
Manitoba...................... . 162,928 113,795 
 260 219 289.551 
Saskatchewan... ................ 196,499 136,270 10,567 233 24] 343,810 
Alberta........................ . ]43,958 110, ]90 9,607 289 202 264,246 
British Columbia........ 114, ]99 103,433 12,846 483 212 23],173 
Yukon Territory. ..... . . . . . . : : : : 582 576 78 4 98 1,338 
Northwest Territories......... . 1,169 848 221 1 1,620 3,859 
Total.............. . 2.378,844 1.631,761 236,522 3,731 7.680 4,258,538 


1 Includes "legally separated." 


13.-Conjugal Condition of the Population, 15 Years of Age and Over, 1921. 


Total Single. Married. Widowed. Divorced. Unknown. 
Age Periods. popula- - 
Per Per Per 
tion. Number. cent. Number. cent. Number. cent. Number. Number. 
- - - - - - - 
15-19- 
Males. . 403,259 400,929 99.4 2.275 0.6 28 - 6 21 
Females..:....:: : 398,559 371,969 93.3 26,364 6.6 175 - 38 13 
20-24- 
Males. . . .. . . . .. . . . 350,984 287,438 81.9 62,812 17.9 600 0.2 87 47 
Females......... . 360,227 205,386 57.0 152,605 42.4 1,97] 0.6 244 21 
25-29- 
Males........ . . . . . 347,645 ]65,836 17.7 ] 78,994 5].5 2,519 0.7 234 62 
Females......... . 338,874 97,394 28.7 235,5]3 69.5 5,527 1.6 424 16 
30-34- 
Males............. 343,263 95,57] 27.8 242,444 70.6 4,789 1.4 387 72 
Females......... . 309,623 53,090 17.2 247,4C9 79.9 8,592 2.8 517 15 
35-39- 
Males. .. . .. . . . . . . . 342,313 68,726 20.1 265,917 77.7 7,103 2.1 470 97 
Females. .. . . . . . . . 290,080 37,907 ]3.] 240,088 82,8 11,497 3,9 576 12 
40-44- 
l\fales. .. . .. . . . . . . . 286,470 47,273 ]6.5 230, ]32 80.3 8,438 2.9 556 71 
Females......... . 240, 666 28,634 11.9 197,768 82.2 13,773 5.7 478 13 
45-49- 
Males............ . 236, 896 33,463 14.1 ]93,384 81.6 9,542 4.0 455 52 
Females....... _.. 198,133 22,054 11.1 159,028 8C.3 16,611 8.4 424 16 
50-54- 
Males........ . . . . . 195,141 25,163 12.9 158,6]6 81.3 ]0,863 5.6 457 42 
Females.. . . . . . . . . 166,8]7 18,810 11.3 126, 183 1 75.6 21,438 12.9 370 16 



154 


POPULATIOX 


13.-ConJugal Condition of the Population, 15 Y cars of Age and Our, 1921- -concluded. 


I Single. Married. Widowed. Divorced. UnknO\\<n. 
Total 
Age Periods. popula- - 
tion. Per Per Per 
Number. cent. Number. cent. Number. cent. Number. Kumber. 
- - - - - - - - 
55-59- 
Males... . 148,137 16,876 1l.4 119.693 80.8 11,191 7.6 349 28 
Females......... . 132,167 13.634 10.3 94,061 71.2 24,198 18.3 266 8 
60-64- 
}'Iales. . . .. . . . . . . . . 126,400 13,916 11.0 98,588 78.0 13,573 10.7 300 23 
Females. 112,885 12,037 10.7 70,275 62.3 30.366 26.9 186 21 
65-69- 
Males. . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,621 8,514 9.4 68, 125 75.2 13,770 15.2 183 29 
Females..... ..... 81,383 8.109 9.9 43, 234 53.1 29,913 36.8 112 15 
70-74- 
Males..... . ... 60,581 5,302 8,8 41,786 68,9 13,352 22.0 107 34 
Females. . . 56.850 5,983 10.5 23,152 40.7 27,642 48.6 54 19 
75-79- 

[ales. . . . . . . . . . " 35,584 2,800 7.9 21,645 60.8 11,082 31.1 44 13 
Females .. .. 35,767 3,642 10.2 10,302 28.8 21,787 (j() . II 21 15 
80-84- 
::\[ales. .. . .. . . . . . . . 18,137 1,335 7.4 9,171 50.6 7,604 41.9 19 R 
Females......... . 19,465 2,038 10.5 3,552 18.3 13, 849 71.2 13 IJ 
85-89- 
Males...... . " 7,142 485 6.8 2,913 40,8 3,728 52.2 8 8 
Females.. " 8,237 816 9.9 961 11.7 6,457 78.4 2 1 
90-94 - 
::\Iate"........ _.. l,8CO 129 7.2 589 32.7 1,079 59.9 2 1 
Females... . 2,380 228 9.6 195 8.2 1,949 81.9 1 7 
95-99- 

[ales. . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 17 4.1 123 29.9 271 65.8 - 1 
Females. . . . . . . . . . 565 55 9.7 40 7.1 470 83.2 - 
100 and over- 
::\[ales. .. . . . . . . . . . . 90 4 4.4 34 37.8 51 56.7 - 1 
Females. . 93 5 5.4 2 2.2 86 92.5 - 
A
p not given- 
Males...... . 11,601 1, 508 13.0 1,154 9.9 125 1.1 6 8,80t! 
Females... .....:: 9,676 1,002 10.4 989 10.2 221 2.3 5 7,459 
Total, 15 years and 
over-! 
::\[ales. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,994,875 1, 173,777 39.2 1,69 ,241 56.7 119,583 4.0 3,664 610 
Females... . . .... 2,752,771 881, 791 32.3 1,630,732 59.2 236, 301 1 8,6 3,726 221 
Total all agt's....... 8, 7RS, 4S3 "."""1 .,.l......'..1 37.9 356,230 1 
::I 7,-t01 17 . 09
 
Males............ . 4,529,945 2,698,754 59.6 1,698,395 37'51 119.708 1 3,670 9,418 
Females.. .. 4,258,538 2,378,844 55.8 1,631,761 38.3 236,522 5.6 3,731 7,680 


J Exclusive of ages not given. 
NOTE.-Ages of persons legally separatPd are included with divorced. 


4.-Dwellings and Families. 


In 1921 the number of occupied d"e1li!lgs in Canada, exclusive of the Yukon 
and Northwest Territories, for which thE' statistif's arc not available, was 1,768,129 
and the number of families 1,901,227 as compared with 1,408,689 dwellings and 
1,4S2,Ot\O families in the same area in 1011, anrll,OlS,015 dwellinJ?;s and 1,038,3S6 
families in 1901. 
The average number of persons per d"C'lling in 1921, as re
pects the R,775,k.);
 
persons in the nine provinces, was 4.ûû as against 5.11 in 1911 and5'
3 in HiOl: 
this would imply that the Canadian people are not lcss adequately hou:-:f'd than in 
the past. The average number of pcrsons per family was 4.62 in 1921 as ap;ain:-:t 
4.85 in unl and 5.03 in 1901, indicating a continued declinc in the avera/.!:c numher 
per
ons constituting a househo]d. 



DWELLIxes AND FA_HI LIES 


155 


U.-Numbt'r of DweUings and Families In Canada by PrO\lnces, as shown by the 
{'ensus of 1921. 


Province;;. 


Dwell- Fam- I 
ings. 
 


Provinces. 


Dwell- Fam- 
ings. ilies. 
- 
No. Xo. 
163,661 168,555 
136,125 141,190 
123,003 134,040 
- - 
- - 
-- 


Ko. Ko. 


Prince Ed ward IIjIand ..... .. 
Nova Scotia.... ........... 
New Brunswick. . . . . 
Quebe<' .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . 
Ontario.. . . . .. . . 
)Ianitoba...... .00 ..... 


18,628 
102, 807 
70,428 
398,384 
637,552 
117,541 


18,801 Sa;;;katchev.an................. 
108,723 .-\Iberta..... ................. 
76,949 British Columbia. ...... 
442,356 Yukon Territory.. .. ........ 
681,629 Northwest Territories......... 
128,984 


TotaL............... 1,768,129 1,901,2%7 


5.-Age Distribution. 


The same causes which have in the past rendered the sex distribution of popu- 
lation in Canada somewhat unusual have also affected its age distribution. In the 
first stages of the settlement of a new colony, men in the prime of life constitute the 
bulk of the population, and women and children are conspicuous by their ab
ence, 
so that there will be a disproportionately large male population between thc ages 
of 20 and 50, together with a low birth rate. Later on in the settlement of a ncw 
country where there is land and food for all and where the early disproportion of 
t he sexes has been overcome, there is a very high rate of natural increase, and an 
extraordinarily large proportion of children among the population. Thus in 1871 
(see Table 15), no fewer than 287 out of every 1,000 of the population of Canada 
were children under 10 years of age and over half the total population (526.76 out 
of every 1,000) were under 20 ycars of age. But with the growing urbanization of 
population, the average age at marriage increased and childrcn came to be regarded 
3.8 a liability rather than an asset. Thus in 1911, out of every 1,000 of the popula- 
tion, only 231.83 were under 10 years of age and 423.42 under 20 ypars of age. 
In 1921, however, 239.68 per 1,000 of the population were under 10 years of age 
and 434.82 per 1,000 under 20 years, the increase since 1911 being probably 
attributable to the decline in the proportion of adult immigrants to thc total popu- 
lation. 
Again, the change in the age di'3tribution of the population of Canada since 
1871 may be illustrated as follows: taking the Canadian who in lÐ21 was at the 
median age (i.e., had exactly as many of the population younger than he as were 
older than he), we find that as nearly as can be estimated, this Canadian was in 
1921, 23.943 years of age. Taking the males alone, their median age was in 1m 1, 
24.732 years, while the median age for females was 23.173 years. Now, taking the 
population of the four original provinces as taken at the census of 1871, and sccuring 
its median age, as nearly as can be estimated we find that that age was for the total 
population 18.799 years, for the male population 18.777 years and for the female 
population 18.821 :years. Thus the Canadian of median age with exactly as many 
people younger as there are older, was in 1921 5.144 years older than in 1871-a 
fact mainly attributable to the smaller proportion of children in the population in 
the more reCl'llt year, but partly to the longer average period of life. 



156 


POPULAT/OiV 


IS.-Proportlon per 1,000 of the Population by Af;e-Perlods, 1871, lR81, 1891, 1901, 
1911 and 1921. 


Age Periods. 
Under 1 year................ 
1- 4 years................ 
5-- 9 .. ................ 
10-19 .. .'. ...... . _ _ _. . 
20--29 .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
30--39 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
40--49 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
50--59 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
60 and over................ 
Not given................... 


1871. 
30.567 
115.649 
140.691 
239.854 
171.436 
111.404 
79,995 
54.788 
55.128 
0.487 


1881. 
28.019 
108.508 
128.251 
227.404 
175.957 
113.099 
83.817 
58.086 
63.269 
13.589 


1891. 
24.922 
99.963 
121.242 
219.712 
178.080 
122.079 
88.441 
62.360 
70.141 
13.059 


1901. 
24.497 
95.211 
114.663 
210.906 
173.550 
129.259 
98.494 
67.886 
76.396 
9.137 


1911. 
25.734 
97.413 
108.685 
191.585 
189.335 
141.938 
100.071 
69.121 
71.027 
5.090 


1921. 
23.859 
96.486 
119.334 
195.138 
159.041 
146.246 
109.480 
73.080 
74.915 
2.421 


16.- Proportion per 1,000 of the Population b)' Age-Periods by Prodnces, 1921, 
with Totals for 1911. 


Provinces. 0-9 10-19 20-44 45-69 70 years Age not 
years. years. years. years. and over. given. 
I 
Prince Edward Island. . '" . . 218.83 204.31 312.33 203. 79 60.24 0.50 
Nova Scotia................ 229.58 208.32 331.50 182.53 47.26 0.81 
Kew Brunswick............. 247.07 213.41 327.19 172.58 38.53 1.22 
Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.22 219.26 335.09 150.52 27.08 3.83 
Ontario.................... . 207.66 180.66 377.44 197.82 34.87 1.55 
Mani wba.. " . . . . . . . . . _ . _ .. . 258.99 197.44 379.89 145.82 16.87 0.99 
Saskatchewan...... . ... 289.93 190.67 382.89 123.82 11.65 1.04 
Alberta.... . 262.36 183.38 400.39 141.18 11.70 0.99 
Bri tish Colu
bi
-. 
 : : : : : : : : : 198.31 158.07 424.57 198.89 18.42 1.74 
Canada, 1921 1 . . ........ 239. 68 195.1-1 36;).27 169.38 28.11 2.42 
Canada, 1911 1 . . . . . . . . . . 231.83 191.59 385.35 158.03 28.12 5.09 


IThe statistics fm thc Yukon and the Northwest Territories are nut given in the table, but are included 
in the total population of Canada. 


17.-1Iale and }'emale Population of Canada by Age-Periods, 1S81, 1891, 1901, 1911 
and 1921. 


1881. 1891. 
Age Periods. 
'[ale. Female. Total. 
[ale. Female. Total. 
Under 1 year.. .. ........ 61,704 59,473 121,177 61,308 59,149 120,457 
1 year_ .. --................ 50,298 48,288 !J8,586 ,';2, WO 50,833 102,993 
2 years. . . . .... ... .. . . . . . . . . . 65,187 63,06!J 128,256 65,465 63, 898 129,363 
3 years......................- 62,217 60,455 122,672 63,854 62,047 125,901 
4 years......... . . .. . . . . . . .. . 60,616 59,144 119,760 63,328 61,563 124,891 
- 
Tob-I under 5 ) ears. .. . 300,022 290,!29 590,151 306,115 294',,190 60J,605 
-- - I 
510 9 years........ ... 281,216 273,446 554,662 297,385 2b8, 605 1\ 585,990 
10 to 14 .. -... 259,1.')4 247,728 506,882 279,8S9 269,287 549,176 
15 to 19 .. .............. 237,317 239,281 476,598 258,325 254,412 512,737 
20 to 24 .. ................. 211,634 217,771 429,403 237,144 235,1113 473,057 
23 to 29 .. ............... 165,339 166,2:J6 3:n,575 194,5Jl 193,115 3d7,646 
30w34 .. ............... 131,051 129,538 260,51'9 163,866 155,724 319,590 
35 to 39 " ............... 115,029 113,515 228,544 139,899 130.551 270,450 
40 w44 " ...... 97,807 !J3,537 19:J,344 118,954 112,685 231,639 
45 w 49 " ............... 86,784 82,364 1Ü!1,I48 100,827 94 , !J92 195,819 
50 to 54 .. ... 72,046 tiS, 762 14D,SOH 87,861 S3,5G5 171,426 
55 to 59 .. .. . 57,379 53,027 110,40G 66,&7 63,OS9 129,976 
60w64 " ........ 52,006 45,354 97,360 62,819 57,403 120,222 
65 to 69 " ............... 36, 544 32,052 6S,596 44,717 40,172 84,889 
70 w 74 " ............... 26, 158 23,453 4!J,611 32,941 29,906 62,847 
75 w íQ .. ............... 16,361 14,649 31,010 20,047 17,864 37,911 
8Ow84 " ............... 9,251 8,307 17 , 558 10, 798 10,151 20,949 
B5 w 89 " ............... 3,344 3,151 G.495 4,160 4,390 8,550 
110 to 94 " ............... 987 1,094 2,OS1 1,360 1,436 2,796 
115 to QQ .. 330 379 70!J } 411 437 848 
100 and over.:::::: :. :: :: :. : 99 110 209 
Not given......... _......... 28,996 29,773 58,769 31,535 31,581 63,116 
Total population. . . . . . 2,lsa,851 2,135,956 4,324,810 2,4GO,471 I 2,372,768 4,833,231 



AGE DISTRIBUTION 


157 


17.-3Iale and Female Population of Canada b)' Age-Periods, 1881, 1891, 1901, 19l1 
and 1921-concluded. 


1901. 1911. 1921. 
Age Periods. 
Male. Female. Total. )[ale. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. 
- - -- - -- - - - 
Under 1 year..... 66,464 65, 116 131,580 93,513 91,946 185,459 105,953 103,731 209,684 
1 year........... 62,384 61,203 123,587 87,399 86,002 173,401 104,575 103,213 207,788 
2 years.......... . 65,245 64, 182 129,427 90,697 88,943 179,640 105,815 104,152 209,967 
3 ycar.s........... 64, 748 64, 158 128,906 89,688 87,730 177,418 108,421 106,214 214,635 
4 years.......... . 65,455 64,030 129,485 86,922 84,643 171,565 108,685 106,891 215,57ð 
- - - - - - - - - 
Total under 
5 yfars.... 3
-I, 
96 :nS,689 6-1
,985 US,219 439,264 SS7, -1.83 533.U9 52-1,2Òl 1,057,650 

 - - - 
 - - - - 
5 to -9 
'ears. .. 311,134 304,765 61';,899 395,045 388,207 783,252 528,700 520,061 1,048,761 
10 to 14 .. .... 295,674 284,66'; 580, 339 354,911 :345,401 700,312 461,320 '151,829 913,149 
15 to 19 .. .... 280,275 
72, 228 552,503 351,244 329,129 680,373 403,25!J 398,559 801,818 
20 to 24 " .... 256,981 251,823 508,804 385,855 320,41.j 706,290 3.jO, 984 3ßO,2:!7 711,211 
25 to 29 .. .... 216,334 207,051 423,3'35 370,494 287,684 658,178 347,645 338,874 686,519 
30 to 34 " .... 18S,U,; 174,!J42 3ß3,067 310,339 244,777 555, Il6 343,263 309, 623 652,88ð 
35 to 39 " .... 17l,553 158, 67:
 331,226 257,875 209,904 467,779 :
42,313 290,080 632,393 
40 to 44 " .. 152,036 137,822 2R9,858 213,018 li6,677 389,695 286,470 240,666 527,13ð 
4'; to 49 " ...... 125,636 113, ;;;;0 2.

,186 178,715 152,768 3:31,48.3 236,896 198,133 415,029 
50 to 54 " .... 106, 107 !l7,b57 20:
,964 152,718 132,366 285,084 195,141 166,817 361,958 
55 to 59 " '" 82, 136 78,5:{5 160,ß71 112,952 100,096 213,048 148,137 132,167 280,304 
60 to 64 " .... 72,807 68, l.j6 140,963 94,318 8.1, 786 178,104 126,400 112,885 239,285 
65 to 69 " .... 54,497 51,176 105,673 67,626 63,523 131,149 90,621 81,383 172.004 
70 to 74 " .... 39,086 37,2fJ4 76,380 47,807 46,197 94,004 60,581 56,850 117,4:31 
75 to 79 " .... 24,548 23,248 47,796 30,266 29,260 59,526 35,584 35,767 71,351 
SO to 84 " -.. 13,090 12, 740 25,830 15,550 15,921 31,471 18,137 19,465 37,602 
tl5 t.o 89 " .. '>0,848 4,990 9, S.3
 6,184 6,687 12, 871 7,142 8,237 15,379 
90 to 94 " 1,356 1,554 2,9lU 1,693 2,010 3,703 1,800 2,380 4,180 
95 to 99 " ..:: } 423 538 961 417 502 919 412 565 977 
100 an -I ovpr..... 62 58 120 90 93 183 
Not given........ 29,766 19,311 49,077 26,687 9,996 36,683 11 , 601 9,676 21,277 
- - - - - - - - - 
Total popu- 
latlon.. _ .. 
,751,70S %,819,607 5,371.315 3,8
1,995 3,38J,6-18 7,206.6-1.3 4,329,9-1.5 -1.,258,538 8, 78S,483 


6.-Racial Origin. 


In five out of the six censuses of Canada since Confederation the racial origin 
of each person has been secured, the exception being in 1891. The object of this 
question is to ascertain from what basic ethnic stocks the Canadian population, 
more particularly the recently immigrated population, is derived. The answer 
"Canadian" is not accepted under this heading as the purpose of the question is 
to obtain, in so far as possible, a definition of "Canadian" in terms of racial deriv- 
ation. Of this procedure of the Census, criticism has been received on two main 
grounds: (a) That there are Canadians whose family is of several generations 
residence in the country who may not know their ultimate racial origin, or who 
may be of very mixed racial origin; and (b) that the practice tends to perpetuate 
racial distinctions which it is desirable to obliterate. As against these criticisms 
respectively, the following must be considered: (a) that Canadians whose family 
. is of three or more generations residence are enumerated and differentiated through 
the question on the birth place of parents above described; (b) that notwithstand- 
ing the desirability of racial assimilation, there are special features in connection 
with the process that require appraisement and study; for example, 295 children 
of Chinese fathers and 618 of Japanese fathers were born in Canada (not including 
the province of Quebec) in 1921. Again, the fact that the constitution of Canada 
is based on the presence of two dominant races points to the desirability of a measure- 
ment of these factors; only recently it has been widely pointed out that the original 



158 


POPULA TIO.\' 


French colony, numbering 75,000 at the date of the Conquest, has e:x-panded to over 
three millions today; measurements of this kind would be impossible if the answer 
IICanadian" instead of lIFrench" were accepted under the heading of racial origin, 
yet undoubtedly if the descendants of the original French colonists are not "Can- 
adians," no one is; (c) finally, racial origin is an important subject for study in a 
lI new " country like Canada from a scientific standpoint, i.e., from the f'tandpoint 
of the student of ethnology, criminology, and the social and "biometric" scien{'f'<: 
in general. 
To accept the answer "Canadian" to the question on raC'ial origin would con- 
fuse the data and defeat the purpos(' for which the question is asked. 
Racial Distribution in 1901-1911 and 192t.-The racial origins of t
le peopl.. 
of Canada as collected at the censuses of 1
71, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 1921 are shown 
in Table 19, while percentage figures are given in Table 20 for the populations of 
the various racial origins at the above censuses. 
During the past decade the total increase of population wa:,; 1,3
1,840. The 
increase in the population of English origin was 722,346 or 43. 6S poC. of the total; 
of Irish 57,433 or 3.63 poc.; of Scottish 175,757 or 11.11 p.c.; of other British 
16,382 or 1.03 p.c.; of French 397,S
)2 or 25 .2S p.c. The British races were respon- 
sible for 61.66 p.c. of the total increase' in population during the decade, and. 
tog
ther with the French population, which is ahnost wholly a native-born popula- 
tion, account for 1,369,997 or more than 86.5 p.c. of the total increase for tlw 
decade. 
'Yhen the change in the racial distribution of the population during the fir:->t 
two decades of the century is considered, one of t he most notable features is the 
increase in the population of Engli:-;h r:1('f' from 23.47 p.c. in 1901 to 25.30 p.c. in 
1911 and 28.96 poco in 1921. Tllf' Irish dement in the population has declined 
fairly rapidly from 18.41 poco in 1901 to 14.58 p.c. and 12.60 p.c. in 1921, and the 
Scottish from 14.90 in 1901 to 13.85 in 1911 and 13.36 in 1921. The total popula- 
tion of the British races was 37.03 p.C'. in 14)01, 54.08 p.c. in 1911 and 55.40 p.e. 
in 1921. The other great racial element in the population is the J.'rench, which 
constituted 30.70 p.c. of the total population in 1901,28.52 p.c. in 1911 and 27.9] . 
p.c. in 1921. Thus 87. n p.co of the population W(,I"(, in 1901 of the two great Tacinl 
stocks, 82.60 poco in 1911 and 83.31 p.c. in 1921. Thus, taking the pa
t 20 y('arS:l
 
a unit of time, there has heen a d('clinf' in tllf' }wrc<'lltage of thp British awl Freu('" 
racial clements to the total population. 
This decline has in the main heen du(' to the immigration of eOlltineutal Europ- 
eans to Canada during the past twenty year
, whieh have seen the g;rowth of the 
Hcandinaviari element in our population from .;)R poCo to 1.90 poc., of the Hehrews 
from .30 p.c. to 1.44 p.c., and of the Italians from .20 to .76 p.c. The population 
of German race, if we may accept 't h(' statist ies furnished, has declined from 5. 7X 
p.c. of t.hc total in 1901 to 3.33 p.c., hut on the other hand, the Dutch have increased 
from .(j3 p.c. in 1901 to 1.33 p.c. in 1921. .\ltog('ther, the percentag;e of the total 
population of European racial origin, other than Briti:-:h and French, ÏIwrem.:pd 0 
from R. fil p.c. of the total in H)Ol to 14 .1:3 poco in 1921. 
Asiatic immigration to Canada in the past twenty years has been re:-;ponsiblp 
for the increase of the Asiatic population from 0.44 p.c:'. to (}.73 p.c. of the popula- 
tion. In the same period the population of Kegro origin have declined from 0.32 
p.c. to 0.21 p.c. of the total, and that of Indian origin from 
o
S p.Co to 1.26 p.c. 



RACIAL ORIGINS 


Origin. 


159 


It.-Origins of the People According to the Censuses of IS71, 1881, 1981, 1911 and 1921. 


British- 
English. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Irish..................... ........... 
Scotch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Total British. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
French... . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . " . 
Austrian...... . ........................ 
Belgian....... . . " ..... .................. 
Bulgarian and Roumanian................ 
Chinese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......... 
Czech (B'ohemian and 
roravian). . . . . 
Dutch.... ... ...................... 
Finnish....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
German. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Greek......... .... ........ ...... ........ 
Hebrew..... .,. ................ ... ..... 
Hungarian....... ...................... 
Indian...... ................... 
Italian. ..... 
Japanese. _ . . . . . . 

eg:ro. .. 
Polish.. .. . .. . .. 
Russian......... ......... 
Scandinavian
..... ....... ...... 
8erbo-Croatian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Swiss.. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Turkish. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ukranian-Buko....inian.. ............... 
Galician..... .. 
Ruthenian................... . 
Yarious.... 



.
i

.:::::::::::::::::::: 
Unspecified........ ........ .............. 
Grand Total....... .............. 


1871. 

o. 
706,369 
846.414 
549,94fi 
7,773 
2,110,502 
1,082,940 


1881. 
No. 
881,301 
957,403 
699,863 
9,947 
2,.'i-tS,5U 
1,298,929 


4,383 
30,412 


1901. 
No. 
1,260,8
9 
988,721 
800,154 
13,421 
3,06.1,195 
1,649,371 
10,947 
2,994 
354 
17,312 


1911. 
No. 
1,823,150 
1,050,384 
997,880 
25,571 
3,896,98.; 
2,054,890 
42,535 
9, 59
3 
5,H75 
27,7ï4 


54,986 
15,497 
393,320 
3,594 
75,681 
11,605 
105,492 
15,411 
9,021 
16,877 
33.365 
43,142 
107,535 


6,625 
3,880 
9,960 
35,158 
29,845 


20,652 
147,34.5 
7,206,6-t:J 


1921. 
Ko. 
2,545,496 
1,107,817 
1,173,637 
41,953 
4,868,903 
2,452,751 
107,671 
20,234 
15,235 
39,587 
8,840 
117,814 
21,494 
294,6.% 
5,740 
126,196 
13,181 
110,596 
66,769 
15,868 
18,291 
53,403 
100,064 
167,359 
3,906 
12,837 
313 
1,616 
24,456 
16,8ûl 
63, 788 
18,915 
21,249 
S,7
.4S3 


20.- Proportion per cent" hich the People of Each Origill Form of t.he Total 
Population, 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 and 19
1. 


29,6û2 



02,991 


254,319 


667 


33,845 
2,502 
310,501 
291 
16.131 
1,.549 
127,9411 
10,834 
4,738 
17,437 
6,285 
19,825 
31,042 
3,865 
1,681 
3 
5,682 
4 


Ori
in. 


Hri tish- 
English. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 
Irifih........................... . 
Scotch. _ . . .. _ . .. . . . . 
Other. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Total British. . . . . . . . . _ . _ . . _ . . 
French. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Austrian.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Belgian. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 
Bulgarian and Roumanian. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. 
Chinese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 
Czech (Bohemian anrt 
Iora....ian). . . . . 
Dutch....... . ........ 
Finnish. .. . . . 
German. ................ 
Greek. ......... .. 
Hebrew. ., 
Hungarian. 
Indian .. 
Italian.. .. . 
Japanese.... . 
Negro......... . 
Polish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Russian...................... . 
Hcandinavian............... . 











.'.':"""""" . 
Turkish. . . . .. ............... .. . . 
Ukranian- n
t
:



.. .:::....::: : : : : : : : : : 
Ruthenian........ ............ 
Ckranian. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Various.........,....................... . 
Unspecified. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Total. .. . .... .. . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . 


125 


23,037 
1,035 


108,547 
1,849 
21,394 


1,227 
5,223 


4,588 


1,454 
31. 539 
5.311.315 



umber per cent of Population. 
1871. 1881. 1901. 1911. 
p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. 
20.26 20.38 23.47 25.30 
24.28 22.14 18.41 14.58 
15.78 16.18 I.HIO 13.85 
0.23 0.23 0.25 0.35 
60.5;; 58.93 57.03 54.08 
31.07 30.03 30.70 28.52 
- - 0.20 0.59 
- - 0.06 0.13 
- - 0.01 0.08 
- 0.10 0.32 0.39 
- -2 - - 
0.85 0.70 0.6.3 0.76 
- - 0'05 O..J'} 
5.82 5.88 5.78 fi.4û 
- - 0.01 0.05 
- 0.02 0.30 1.05 
- - 0.03 0.16 
0.66 2.51 2.38 1-4û 
0.03 0.04 0.20 0.63 
- - 0.09 0.13 
0.62 0.50 0.32 0.23 
- - 0.12 0.46 
0.02 o.o
 0.37 0.60 
0.05 0.12 0.58 1.49 
- - - - 
0.08 1).11 0.07 0.09 
- - 0.03 0.05 
- - - 0.14 
- - 0.11 0.49 
- - 0.41 
- - - - 
0.03 0.09 0.03 0.29 
0.22 0.94 0.58 2.04 
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 


1921. 
p.c. 
28.96 
12.60 
13.36 
0.48 
55.,10 
27.91 
1.23 
0.23 
0.17 
0.45 
0.10 
1.34 
0.24 
3.:3.') 
0.06 
1.44 
0.14 
1.26 
0.76 
O.IS 
0.21 
0.61 
1.14 
1.90 
0.04 
0.15 
0.01 
0.02 
0.28 
0.19 
0.73 
0.22 
0.24 
100.00 


NOTE.-Origins were not taken in 1891. I1ndudes "half-breeds". 2lncludes Danish Icelandic, 
Xorwep'Ïan and Swedish; in 1921 they wprc respectively 21.124, 15,876, 68,856 and 61,503. 3Included 
with Austrians. 41ncluded \Üth Galician". 


21,496 


607 
1,623 
2,962 


1,220 
7,fi61 
3.48 ,').761 


3,952 
40,806 
,1.324,810 



160 


POPULATION 


21.- Racial Origin of the Population, by PrO\lnces and Territories, 1921. 


No. 


. 
Origins. 


Population............... ........ Total 
1 British......... _ _ _ .. . . . . . . _ . . . . . . _ . _ . . . . . . . 
2 Englishi. .. _.. _ . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
3 Irish 1 ....... . " . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
4 Scotch!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
5 Other i . _ ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
6 French I .......................................... 
7 Austrian. _.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
8 Belgian..................... _ . . 
9 Chinese..................... . . . _ . . . _ . . . . . . . . 
10 Czech (Bohemian and Moravian). . _ . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
11 D:.mish I ......................................... 
12 Dutch........................................... 
13 Finnish. ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............... 
14 German......................................... 
15 Greek.......................... ........ 
16 Hebrew............ .... 
17IIungarian.___... ._................... 
18 Icelandic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
19 Indian................................... ...... 
20 Italian.......................... . . . . 
21 Japanese......................... ........ 
22 Negro........................... . . . . . . . . . . 
23 K orwegian.. . " . . .. . . .. .. . . _ .. . . _ _ . __ 
24 Polish........... .. ... 
25 Roumanian. _'" _ _ . _ _ . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
26 Rus!!ian........................... .............. 
27 Serbo-CrO'ltian.................. . . . . . . . . . . 
28 Albanian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :. 
29 Croatian. . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
30 Juga-Slavic.... . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
31 Montene.?;rin..._................. .._'.. 
32 Serbian. . . _... . . . . _ .. . . . .. .. 
33 Siovenian... _. .... _..... _. _................. 
34 Swedish..... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
35 Swiss............................................ 


 
;



:.'.'.'.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 
 
38 Bukovinian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
39 Galician. '" '.' ... _ _ . .' . . . . . . _ _ . .. . ... _ . _ . _ . . . 
40 Ruthenian..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '" . _...... 
41 Ukranian.... '" .. ... . . . . _ . . . . . . .. . . ., .. . . . . . 
:
 V-
:fo
i.


l::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 
44 Arabian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
45 Armenian...... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
46 Brazilian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
47 Bulgarian..................... _. _ _ _...... _'. 
48 Chilian.... _. _.................... _. ........ 
49 Egyptian.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


 


::ii
:. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 
52 Hindu. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
53 Jamaican. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
54 J
aplander.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
55 Lettish..... . .. . . ... . . . . .. . . . . .. . . _ . _ . . _ _ _ . . . 
56 Lithuanian.. _...... .... 
57 :\f altese. . ". .... __. .. _ __................... 
58 :\fexican. _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
59 Persian. . '" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
60 Portuguese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
61 Hpanish........ . . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . 
62 Turkish..................................... 
63 Other....................................... 


P.E. 
Island. 


88,615 
76,627 
23,313 
18,743 
33,437 
134 
11,971 
2 
2 
14 


I Totals ror Canada include personnel or Royal Canadian Navy 


Nova 
Scotia. 


17 
239 
1 
260 
3 
21 


523,837 

07,618 
202,106 
55,712 
148,000 
1,800 
56,619 
682 
841 
315 
229 
352 
11,506 
45 
27,046 
150 
2,161 
180 
9 
2,018 
1,620 
3 
6,175 
482 
980 
111 
520 
107 


1 
235 
26 


43 
10 


6 
7 
83 


490 
833 
1,140 
389 


44 
t 


New 
Brunswick. 


387,876 
168,002 
131,664 
68,670 
51,308 
1,360 
121,111 
80 
212 
185 
7 
976 
3,638 
35 
1,698 
54 
1,243 
6 


106 


88 
44 
257 
519 
667 
20 
4 


27 


2 
168 
12 
3 


167 
246 
17 
1 


Quebec. 


1,331 
367 
3 
1,190 
588 
65 
11 
185 
11 


2,361,151 

67,108 
196,982 
94,947 
63,915 
1. 264 
1,889,277 
1,901 
3,284 
2,335 
82 
:195 
1,413 
76 
4,668 
1. 780 
47,977 
89 
11 
11,566 
16,141 
32 
1,046 
705 
3,264 
1.371 
2,802 
67 


7 
2 
2 


64 


3 


578 
31 
594 
S 


!l08 
764 
2,570 
1,176 
7 
386 
47 
736 
6,066 
',126 
42 
119 
1 
78 


2 


534 
188 
7 


25 
4 


16 
27 


11 


35 
49 
17 


20 
1,209 
30 
8 
3 
51 
402 
106 
2 



RACIAL ORIGIXS 


161 


21.-Racial Origin of the Population, b)' Provinces and Territories, 1921. 


Ontario. l\Ianitoba. 1 Saskat- Alberta. British Yukon. Northwest Canada. No. 
chev.an. Columbia. Territories. 
2.133,662 110,118 751,510 S8S,f5t 52t,582 4,157 7,988 8, 78
, f83 
l,fBI,015 350,992 400,416 !51,8S0 !87,613 1,847 473 4,868,903 1 
1,211,660 170,286 206,472 180,478 221,145 769 234 2,545,496 2 
590,493 71,411 81,786 68,246 51,298 369 106 1,107,817 3 
465,400 105,031 101,678 96,062 101,965 662 130 1,173,637 4 
14,4tJ2 4,258 4,430 7,034 7,105 47 3 41,9 'i3 5 
218,275 40,638 42.152 30,913 11,246 281 258 2,452,7.51 6 
11,790 31,035 39, 738 19,430 2,993 20 - 107,671 7 
3,175 5,320 3,477 2,590 1,321 7 2 20,234 8 
5,625 1,331 2,667 3,5111 23,533 1 - 39,587 9 
1,336 I,W8 2,571 2,537 1,040 7, - 8,810 10 
2,450 3,4
 4,287 6,772 2,191 37 17 21,124 11 
50,512 20,728 16,639 9,490 3,306 34 I 117,506 12 
12,835 506 1,937 2,926 3,112 21 ' - 21,494 13 
130,515 19,4H 68,202 35,333 7,273 155 12 294,636 14 
2,078 257 363 350 703 2 - 5,740 15 
47,798 16,669 5.380 3,212 1,696 8 I 126,196 16 
I. 737 828 8,916 1,045 343 7 - 13, 181 17 
137 11 ,013 3,.593 507 575 - - 15,876 18 
26,6.54 13,869 12,914 14,557 22,377 1,390 3,873 110,814 19 
33,355 1,933 689 4,028 8,587 22 1 66,769 20 
161 53 109 473 15,006 28 - 15,868 21 
7,220 491 396 1,048 676 6 - 18,291 22 
3,416 4,203 31.438 21,323 6,570 107 14 68,856 23 
15,787 16,591 8,161 7,172 1,361 19 - 53,403 21 
3,120 919 5,645 2,017 276 - - 13,470 25 
8,605 14,O09 45,343 21,212 7,373 7 7 100,064 26 
I,S49 111 8i7 80i 695 11 16 3,906 27 
41 1 1 - - - - 43 28 
19 - - - I - - 20 29 
1,014 102 816 792 656 11 26 3,624 30 
- - - - 3 - - 5 31 
138 8 10 6 25 - - 193 32 
7 - - 4 10 - - 21 33 
6,713 8,023 19,064 15,943 9,666 109 3 61,503 34 
5,014 897 1,823 2,468 983 12 5 12,837 35 
2,709 310 466 198 211 I - 8,232 36 
8,307 .u,1 S9 18,097 13,827 793 - - 106,721 37 
179 192 1,209 28 I - - 1,616 38 
2,748 10,288 6,598 3,930 416 - - 24,456 39 
806 7,987 3,327 4,618 31 - - 16,861 40 
4,574 25,662 16,963 15,251 345 - - 63,788 41 
7,636 891 1,787 2,254 1,454 6 53 21,249 42 
3,4-08 
8 380 69(J 1,70(J 9 3,141 IS, 711 43 
19 4 4 2 - - - 98 44 
508 4 8 8 13 - - 665 45 
7 - - - I - - 9 46 
1,378 40 87 80 50 - - 1,765 47 
I - - - 29 - - 34 48 
11 - - 2 - - - 29 49 
- - - - - - 3,242 3,269 50 
2 - - - 20 - - 22 51 
28 8 6 10 951 1 - 1,016 52 
8 - - - - - - 8 53 
- - 6 - I 1 - 8 54 
35 111 34 156 23 - - 381 55 
309 45 84 94 60 1 - 1,970 56 
217 17 - 1 2 - - 279 57 
10 5 7 15 22 - - 70 58 
29 - 34 - 14 - - 80 59 
47 13 2 44 106 2 - 467 60 
704 186 67 156 395 2 - 2,208 61 
91 5 38 28 10 1 - 313 62 
4 - 3 - 9 1 - 20 63 


623ï3-11 



162 


POPULATION 


22.-Raclal Origins of the People for Xlne Cities of 60,000 and over, as shown 
b)" the ('ensus of 1921. 


Origins. Montreal. Toronto. Winnipeg. Vanoou- Hamilton. Ottawa. Quebec. CaI- London. 
ver. I!;ary. 
British- - - - - - - - 
English.. .. .. . . . 88,014 260,860 58,321 49,931 56,984 25,907 3,728 27,425 34,378 
Irish......... .. . 34,484 97,361 23,315 14,126 16,845 27,551 4,075 9,082 10,806 

cotch.. ........ 25,672 83,620 37,069 27,878 20,263 14,434 822 15,599 9,789 
Other. . . . . '" . . . 460 3,389 1,864 1,674 1,005 323 10 843 539 
Total British 148,630 <<5,230 120,569 93,609 95,091 68,215 8,635 5
,9.9 55,512 
French.... ..... . . . 390,168 
 -a,944 2,252 ----.:956 30,442 85,350 1;408 -mi 
Austrian. . .. . .. . . . 1,223 1,165 6,785 271 872 222 7 435 84 
Helgian.......... . 1,941 215 284 228 15 93 71 91 19 
Chinese.. . . . . .. . . . 1,735 2,134- 814 6,484 374 282 98 6b8 238 
Czech (Bohemian 
and Moravian).. 66 72 305 72 78 25 9 26 
Dutch....... ...., 432 3,961 1,236 738 1,615 402 10 628 62 
Finnish.... . 8 735 70 301 19 8 - 22 1 
Gl'rman. . . . .. . . . . 1,520 4,689 4,762 1,117 2,944 2,005 Y4 876 1,23 
Greek........... . 1,446 812 139 328 125 97 73 68 61 
Hebrew.......... . 42,717 34,619 14,449 1,270 2,560 2.799 375 1,247 70 
Hungarian....... . 67 59 344 25 200 2 3 14 
Ino.ian........... . 156 183 44 59 219 44 12 22 - 
Italmn.. . .. . . . . . . . 13,922 8,217 1,311 1,590 3,268 1,124 156 425 58 
Japanese......... . 15 42 35 4,246 - 9 - 41 
Negro.. .. 862 1,236 424 324 375 38 14 66 20. 
Polish... ...... 1,4:l7 2,380 5,696 174 1,478 172 7 287 17 
Rumanian....... . 1,026 25ô 389 34 435 207 1 97 
Russian.......... . 2,067 1,332 3,791 357 950 133 5 1,973 11. 
Scandinavian.... . 977 1,109 6,147 2,660 467 371 37 1,098 17 
Sl'rbo-Croa tian. . . ,')9 163 53 127 157 - 1 12 

wiS5. ........... 428 5S3 278 154 122 79 18 154 5 
Hyrian........ .... 1. 499 387 156 94 9 152 64 18 7 
"Ckranian- 
Rukovinian - 16 6 - - 15 - - 
Galician.. . ... 327 365 2,013 76 120 69 - 57 
Huthellian. .. 34 116 1 ,54!) - 145 26 - 4 - 
l:kranian. ... 690 û52 2,813 31 105 100 - 92 
Y arious. . . . . . . . ., 1,623 1,333 159 350 281 37 15 24 3 
l"nspecificd. ... 2.341 1.472 422 2-16 16.5 675 138 208 22 
Grand total - 6 18,506 5
l,893 Ii9,tJ :;7 111,211 114,151 101,843 95,193 13,:105 "Sõ,95 


3 
4 
4 
3 
2 
58 
2 


4 
!J 
3 
9 
5 
9 
3 
3 
6 
7 
6 
7 
3 
1 
-, 


7.- Religions. 
The rcligion:s of the people of Canada have been recorded at each of the censuses 
taken sinf'e 1S71, the instruction book issued to the enumerators at the census of 
1921 stating that the religion of each person shall be recorded, specifying the 
denomination, sect or community to which the person belongs or adheres, or \\hich 
he or she favours. The number of persons stating their preference for each of the 
principal religious bodies at each of the censuses is given in Table 23, while per- 
cf'ntage figures are presented in Table 24. 
In recent years there will be noted certain changes in the religious distribution 
of the population, corresponding in a considerable degree to the changes in racial 
origin noted above. For example, contemporaneously with the increase in the 
percentage of persons of English race during the past 20 years, there has taken 
place an increase in the Anglicans from 12.69 p.c. of the population in 1901 to 
16.02 p.c. in 1021. The Presbyterians, to some extent as a result of Scottish immi- 
gration, have also increased from 15.68 p.c. of the total population in 1901 to 16.03 
p.c. in 1921. Further, synchronizing with increasing immigration from continental 
Europe, the Lutherans have increased in the same period from 1.72 to 3.28 p.c., 
the Greck Church from 0.29 p.c. to 1.93 p.c. and the Jews from 0.31 to 1.42 p.c., 
while increasing Asiatic immigration is reflected in the growth of the adherents of 
Eastern religions from 0.29 p.c. to 0.46 p.c. 
Of the total population of 1921 (8,788,483) 8,572,516, or 97.6 p.c., are classi- 
ficd as bf'longing to some Christian denomination or sect; 173,143 or 1.9 p.c. a.'i 



RELIGIONS 


163 


non-Christian, this figure including 125,190 Jews, 40,727 of Oriental religions and 
7,226 Pagans, leaving less than 0.5 p.c. otherwise reported. 
In Table 25 are given for Canada and for the provinces, the number of persons 
accredited to each of 64 specified religions, as well as (in a footnote) the totals for 
Canada for 57 others. In addition there were 119 sects enumerated, each with 
fewer than 10 adherents. Thus altogether 240 distinct sects or denominations are 
reported as compared with 203 in 1911 and 157 in 1901. 
23.-Religions of the People at each Decennial Census, 18i1-1921. 


Religions. 
Adventists......... ......... 
Agnostics.................. . 
Anglicans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Baptists 1 ........ . . . . . . . .. .. . 
Brethren. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Buddhists............ _. _. _.. 
Christians.............. .. 
Christian Science. . . . . . . . . . . 
Confucians..... ............. 
Congregationalists......... . 
Disdples or Christ... . . . . . . . 
Doukhobors............... . 
Evangelical Association. .. . . 
Friends I Quaker). .. .. . .. .. . 
Greek Church..... ......... 
Jews...... _ _ _.. _............ 
Lutherans......... . . . . . . . . . . 
Mennonites (inc. Hutterites) 
Methodists.. _. .......... .... 
Mormons...... _........... 
Xo Religion................ 
Pagans......... ............ 
Plymouth Brethren........ 
Presbyterians... ..... _ _. _ __ 
Protestants... . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Roman Catholics.......... 
Salvation Army............ 
Union Church. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Urutarians... ,.............. 
Other f'ects. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . 
Not given........... _...... 
Total. ..... . . . . . . . . 
Ilncluding Tunkers. 


187l. 1881. 
6,179 7,211 
- - 
494,049 574,818 
239,343 296,525 
2,305 8,831 
- - 
- - 
- - 
- - 
21. 829 26,900 
- 20,193 
- - 
4,701 - 
7,345 6,553 
18 - 
1,115 2,396 
37,935 46,350 
- 21,234 
567,091 742,981 
534 - 
5,146 2,634 
1,886 4,478 
2,229 - 
544,998 676,165 
10,146 6,519 
1,492,029 1,791,982 
- - 
- - 
2,275 2,126 
27,553 20,145 
17,055 86,769 
3,485,761 4,32",810 


1891. 1901. 1911. 1921. 
6,354 8,058 10,406 12,215 
- 3,613 3,llO 594 
646,059 681,494 1,043,017 1,407,959 
303, 839 318,005 382,720 421, 730 
11,637 8,014 9,278 ll,626 
- 10,407 10,012 11,288 
- 7,484 17 , 264 12,559 
- 2,619 5,073 13,826 
- 5,115 14,562 27,319 
28, 157 28,293 34,054 30,574 
12,763 14,900 ll,329 9,371 
- 8,775 10,493 12,658 
- 10,193 10,595 13,908 
4,650 4,100 4,027 3,149 
- 15,630 88,507 169,822 
6,414 16,401 74,564 125, 190 
63,982 92,524 229, 864 287,484 
- 31,797 44,625 58,797 
847,765 916,886 I, 079, 993 I, 158,744 
- 6,891 15,971 19,656 
- 4,810 26,027 21,738 
- 15,107 ll, 840 7,226 
- 3,040 3,438 6,482 
755, 326 842,531 1,1l6,071 1,408,812 
12,253 11,612 30,265 36,350 
1,992,017 2,229,600 2,833,041 3,383,663 
13,949 10,308 18,834 24,763 
- 29 633 8,728 
1,777 1,934 3,224 4,925 
36,942 17,923 31,316 57,976 
89,355 43,222 32,490 19,351 
4,833,239 5,371,315 7,%06,643 8,7o S,483 


24.-Ratio per cent of Specified Denominations to Total Population in Census Years. 


DE'norT'inntion!>. 1871. 188l. 1891. 1901. 19l1. 1921. 
p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. 
Ad ventists. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0.18 0.17 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.16 
Anglicans.................. . 14.]7 13.35 13.37 12.69 14.47 16.02 
Bapti'!t".. .. . . . ... . .... . . .. . 6,87 6.86 6.29 5.92 5.31 4.80 
Christians................. . - - - 0.13 0.23 0.14 
Con

ationalists. . . . . . . . . . 0.63 0.62 0.58 0.53 0.47 0.35 
Disciples. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . - 0.47 0.26 0.28 0.16 0.11 
Eastern I"E'ligions 1 ............ - - - 0.29 0.39 0.46 
Evangelicals. . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.13 - - 0.19 0.15 0.16 
Greek Church.............. - - - 0.29 1.23 1.93 
JewR....................... . 0.03 O.flO 0.13 0.31 1.03 1.42 
Lutherans. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.09 1.06 1.32 1.72 3.19 3.28 
Mennonites l ... .............. - - - 0.69 0.62 0,67 
Methodists..... _ _.......... 16.27 17.]] 17.54 17.07 14.98 13.18 
Mormons.. . . . . .. . . .... . . .. . 0.02 - - 0.13 0.22 0.22 
No Religion..... ........... 0.]5 - - 0.09 0.36 0.25 
Pagans..................... . 0.05 0.10 0.56 0.28 0.16 0.08 
Presbyterians.............. . 15.63 15.64 15.63 15.68 15.48 16.03 
ProteBtants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.29 0.15 0.25 0.22 0.42 0.41 
Roman Catholics... . . . .. .. . 42.80 41.43 41.2] 4] .5] 39.31 38.50 
Salvation Army......... . . . . - - 0.29 0.]9 0.26 0.28 
All other.:!.. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.20 0.37 0.5!! 0.94 0.95 1.32 
[Tnspecified................ . 0.4!1 2.07 ] .85 O'RO 0.47 0.23 
Total............ .. 10).09 100.00 100." 101.00 101.01 lei." 


J Eastern Religions include Confucians, Budùhi:,ts, Mohammedans, Shintos, Sikhs, Hinùus. 
I Included with Baptists in 1891. 
1237
111 



164 


POPULATION 


No. 


Religions. 


Population 


Total............... . 


25.-Religlons of the People by 
Prince Nova New 
Edward Scotia. Brunswick. Quebec. 
Island. 
88,615 523,837 387,876 2,361,199 
14 1, 240 956 1,656 
1 20 1 27 
5,057 85,604 47,020 121,932 
- 5 4 ... JI 10 
1 7 23 r 40 
5,316 86,833 86,254 9,256 
- - - - 
4 19
 270 651 
- 7 - 87 
- - - 13 
- ï 25 21 
- - - - 
123 83 51 21 
- - - - 
475 I,C03 596 182 
')
 I 224 152 427 
117 206 24 
12 I 87 - 12 
91 78 .')7 1,314 
8 I 2,3ï2 559 4,715 
4261 1 1 8 
746 911 7 
- I - - 1 
- 4 - 4 
I 33 56 96 
;: I 28 4 111 
27 7 17 

I 16 - 
_51 116 5,961 
74 28 236 
16 460 98 53 
- - - - 
18 1.974 1, 213 47,759 
- - - - 
- 8,077 378 
 2,209 
3 2 4 6 
11,408 59,065 34,872 41 . 884 
- 40 - 10 
- 40 10 31 
- - - - 
8 46 7 59 
- - - - 
6 1 - 29 
13 18 22
 I 35 
75 555 979 
1 7 68 I 286 
25 76 218 374 
5 - - - 
- 121 110 337 
25,945 109,860 41,211 73,445 
35 165 423 18,620 
- - 7 9 
39,312 160,802 170,319 2,019,518 
108 2,071 736 658 
- - - 11 
- - - - 
2 7 2 99 
- 18 2 6 
- - - 14 
- - 14 1 
- 5 - 38 
17 89 46 67fi 
- 19 1 6 
1 114 94 378 
24 42 41 150 
85 418 453 6,690 


1 Adventists...................................... 
2 Agnostics........................................ 
3 Anglicans........................................ 
4 Apo:;,tolic Brethren............................... 
5 -\thei5ts....... . . . .. ... ....... . .. .... .. . . . . . . . 
6 Baptir"ts............................... ........ 
7 Believers........................................ 
8 Brethren........................................ 
9 Bud.-Ihi"'ts....................................... 
10 Catholic AposttJlic............................... 
11 Chri5tadelphians.... ....................... 
12 Chri
tian Alliance. ...................... 
13 Christian Church........ .................... 
14 Christian Reform........ . .. .. . .. . . .. . . 
15 Christians.................................... . 
16 Christian Science................................ 
17 Church of Christ.............. .,. ............... 
18 Church of God (Kew Dunker)...................1 
19 Confucians....................................... 
20 Congregationalists............................... 
21 Dei"t. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
22 Di"ciples of Christ. . .,. . - - . . .. .. .. .. 
23 Doukhobors.. ......................... ... 
24 Dutch Reforln......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
25 Evangclical Association.......................... 
26 Free Thinkers.... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . <0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
27 Friends.. .................................... 
28 GObpel People. . .. ............................... 
29 Greek Church.... .............................. 
30 Holiness Movement. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
31 International Bible Students Association. -.. -.... 
32 Independents................................ ... 
33 Je\\8................ ............................ 
34 Labor Church. . .. . .. ........................... 
35 Lutherans... ................................... 
36 )Ipnnonites (inc. Hutterites) .... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
37 )I ethodists. . . - . . 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
38 )fj,,"'ion............ ....................II! 
39 }Iohammedans....... .............. 
40 Moravians......................... ..... 
41 Mormons........................................ 
42 New Thought.................................. 
43 Non-Conformists................................ 
44 Non-Sectarian................................... 
45 No Religion..................................... 
46 PagallJ:J...... ................................... 
47 Pentecostal............. -. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . 
48 Peoples Church... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
49 Plymouth Brethren......... . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . 
50 Presbyterians.................................... 
51 Protestants...................................... 
52 Reformed Church.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . 
53 Roman Catholics.... ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


 
i
h:t:d1H:;à'
::::...

::: ::::::::::::::::::::: 


 


il

ii
i
::::::::::::::. ::::.:.::::::::::::::: 
58 Swedenborgian (New Church)... ................. 
59 Theosophi..,ts.................................... 
60 l'ndenominationalists......... ........... ........ 


 F


:ri



.
:::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::: 
63 United Brethren in Christ.......... ............. 
64 Vniversali5ts.................... ................ 
65 Varioua !'Ccts l ....... . .. . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
66 Not Given............. ..................... 
Totals for Canada includ{' personnel of Royal Canadian Navy. 
IVarious sects comprise 25 Armenian, 25 Assembly, 12 Bahais, 17 Big Church, 17 Body of Christ, 71 
Brotherhood, 10 Brother of Man, 95 Carmelite, 19 Children of God, 27 Church Community, 95 Church of 
Fir><t Born, 16 Christ's Church of China, 76 Communist, 45 Daniel's Band, 34 Dissenters, 12 Ef'oteric Law, 
n First Christ Church, 138 Followers of Christ, 33 Followers of Je.<us, 37 Golden Rule, 17 Holy Cross, 
58 Holy Roller, 39 Holy Worker, 23 Interdenominationa1, 74 Jesus Way, 18 Liberal, 72 Lith. Nat. Cath 



RELIGIONS 


165 


Pro'inces, Census 1921. 


001 IriO. 
Ianitoba. Sas1..at- Alberta. British Yukon. Northwest Canada. 
o. 
chewan. Columbia. Territories 
2,9:n,6G
 610, US 757,510 588,-154 521,582 4,151 7,988 8, .S8,483 
1,998 578 2,893 3,533 1,34ï - - 14,215 1 
65 53 44 111 273 - - 594 2 
6-18,883 121. 309 116,224 98,395 160,978 1,582 648 1,407,959 3 
137 295 135 2-1 238 - - 848 4 
132 113 68 269 388 - - 1,041 5 
U8,634 13,652 23, 696 27, 839 20, 158 85 10 421,730 6 
178 11 86 21 17 - - 313 7 
6,442 625 1.159 1,103 1.180 - - 11, 626 8 
114 19 97 393 10,559 12 - 11, 288 9 
150 16 26 5 61 - - 271 10 
1,151 105 71 88 342 - - 1.810 11 
279 - 4 - - - - 283 12 
1,266 371 6-1! 1,438 226 - - 4,223 13 
1 45 65 242 - - - 353 14 
4,754 281 2,030 2,298 940 - - 12,559 15 
5,032 1,361 925 1,933 3,711 59 - 13.826 16 
1,036 625 745 777 186 - - 3.740 17 
613 65 327 595 70 - - 1. 781 18 

,113 691 1,128 2,266 19,663 - - 27,319 19 
12,218 2,395 2,555 3,228 2,513 3 6 30.574 20 
448 2 - 10 7 - - 477 21 
6,460 302 223 197 99 - - 9,371 22 
17 84 7,176 306 5,074 - - 12,658 23 
15 110 127 680 39 - - 979 24 
10,311 220 1. 489 1. 626 76 - - 13,908 25 
180 79 126 197 388 12 - 1, i26 26 
1,987 109 411 309 281 1 - 3.149 27 
2,140 54 90 65 52 - - 2,449 28 

O, 509 56,670 47,171 35,815 2,612 13 - 16
, 822 29 
2,233 162 380 160 60 - - "3 , 333 30 
2,655 756 800 627 1,213 - - (J, 678 31 
171 79 55 18 19 - - 342 32 
47,458 16,593 5,328 3,186 1,654 6 1 125,190 33 
6 764 21 38 1 - - 830 34 
66,863 39,472 91. 988 60,573 17,659 254 11 287,484 35 
13,645 21,295 20,544 3,125 172 - 1 58,797 36 
685,406 71,200 100,8.51 89,070 64,810 117 18 1. 158,744 37 
490 120 533 45t 116 - - 1,763 38 
77 31 1-14 63 82 - - 478 39 
29 - 42 648 22 - - 741 40 
5,789 331 1. 440 11,373 600 3 - 19,656 41 
15 - 7 4 232 - - 258 42 
125 109 47 82 217 - - 616 43 
194 79 149 182 229 - - 907 44 
3,231 1,491 2,610 5,089 7,149 295 36 21,738 45 
2,63.5 599 1,556 479 610 - 985 7.226 46 
2,713 1,228 1,075 1,048 246 - - 7,003 47 
5 87 - 9 2 - - 108 48 
3,370 613 438 426 1,067 - - 6,482 49 
613,429 138,201 162,165 120,868 123,022 579 45 1,408,812 50 
4,312 2,697 3.250 3.252 3,389 207 - 36.350 51 
33 111 3ï4 781 27 - 1 1,3t3 52 
575,266 105,39t 147,292 97,178 63,980 699 3,849 3,383,663 53 
13,746 2,027 1,552 1,773 2,086 - - 24,7ß3 54 
3 3 3 10 819 - - S-t9 55 
3 - 1 6 417 - - 427 56 
763 128 26 210 319 - - 1,558 57 
727 75 236 43 36 - - 1.143 58 
168 16 5 28 135 - - 366 5
1 
209 Ii2 80 47 54 - - 577 CO 
1,817 3,348 2,891 579 50 - - 8,nS 61 
1,082 1,5-11 337 570 544 3 20 4,9
5 62 
1,872 43 301 1,012 74 - - 3,328 63 
317 21 63 76 30 - - 1. 094 64 
844 363 315 460 299 2 - 2.540 65 
4,698 730 876 1,155 1. 663 225 2,357 19,351 66 


Church, 13 Lot of Jesus, 34 Materialbt, 64 :\Iessiah. 16 
Ietropolitan, 27 Nationalist, 29 Philo
ophist, 30 
Polish Church, 24 Provestory, 56 Rationali8t, 15 Rosecrucian, 30 Round Church. 21 
abhath Keílper. 
134 Raints, 12 Saved by Grace, 13 Schi"matic. 37 Rectari"t, 61 Serbian Church, 76 Shiloite, 50 Socialists, 
25 Solomon Reformists, 34 8\\-is;; Ch., 27 Taoi"t, 16 Temple of God, 15 Temple 
ociety, 13 TI'
timony of 
Jesus, 33 Truth, 32 Ukranian Catholic, 11 Workers, 21 Zion Chapel, 92 Zionist-togethpr \\-ith 364 of 
119 other swts each of which num bers fewer than 10 adherents. 



166 


POPULATIOX 


8.-Bi
thplaces. 
The nativity of the population of Canada, as at ea'ch of the six censuses, 
 
shown by Canadian-born, British-born, United States-born and other foreign-boB 
in Table 26. The table shows that in 1871, 97.22 p.c. of the population were born 
under the British flag, while half a century later the percentage had declined to 
89.87 p.c. Among these, the Canadian-born population was at its maximum per- 
centage in 1901, with 86.98 p.c. of the total, while in 1921 that percentage is at its 
minimum, 77.75 p.c. As a consequence of the large immigration from the United 
Kingdom in the first two decades of the century, the British-born population has 
increRf;('d from 7.83 p.c. in 1901 to 12.12 p.c. in 1921. 
The foreign-born population has been divided into United States-born and 
other foreign-born. \Vorthy of note is the fairly steady increase of the United 
States-born population from 1.85 p.c. in 1871 to 4.26 p.c. in 1921. Other foreign- 
born increased from 0.93 p.c. in 1871 to 6.25 p.c. in 1911, but have declined slightly 
to 5 .R7 p.c. of the total population in 1921. 
The nativity of the 1921 population is indicated by sex in Table 27, for the 
various provinces and territories. In the Maritime Provinces, the population is 
shown by the census to be about 93 p.c. native-born, and in Quebec about 92 p.c. 
In Ontario, however, the proportion sinks to about 78 p.c., in Manitoba to about 
63 p.c., in Saskatchewan to about 64 p.c., in Alberta to about 53 p.c., and in 
British Columbia to barely over 50 p.c. 
About 40 p.c. of the total British-born population is in Ontario, while the 
Briti....h-born element bears the greatest proportion to the total in British Columbia, 
viz., 30.6 p.c. The foreign-born element reaches its maximum percentage in the 
rapidly growing provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta-where it constitutes 
26.3 p.c. and 29.5 p.c. of the total population respectively. 


26.-Birthplaces of the Population of Canada according to the {'ensuses of 1811-U21. 
. 


Proportion to Total Population. 
Foreign Born. 
Canadian British Total Foreign Born. 
"\. ear. Born. Burn. Popula- 
Born Born tion. Canadian British 
in in other Born. Born. United Other 
United Foreign States Foreign 
States. Countries. Born. Born. 

 - - - - - - - - - 
No. No. No. No. No. p.e. p.C. p.c. p.C. 
1871. 2,892,358 496,477 64,447 32,479 3,485,76] 82.98 ]4.24 ].85 0,93 
1881.. .. 3,715,492 478,235 77,753 53,330 4,324,810 85.91 11.06 1.80 1.23 
1891. . .. 4,185,877 490,232 80,915 76,215 4,833,239 86.61 10.14 1.67 1.58 
1901.. . . 4,671,815 420,712 127,899 150,889 5,371,315 86.98 7.83 2.38 2.81 
1911.... 5,619,682 833,422 303, 680 449, 859 7,206,643 77.98 11.56 4.21 6.2i 
1921. .. . 6,832,747 1,06-5,454 374,010 5]6,272 8,788,483 77.75 12.12 4.26 5.87 



BIR1'HPLA.CES 


167 


2i.-Population Classified by Sex and Xathlt)', b)" Provinces and Territories, 
according to the ('ensus of 1921. 


Total. Can:ldian Born. British Born. Foreign Born. 
Provinces and 
Territories. 
:Male. Female. Both Male, Female, Male. Fe- Male. Ft'- 
Sexes. male. male. 
- - - - - - - 
P. E. Island.... 44,887 43,728 88,615 43,702 42, 548 509 565 676 615 
Nova Scotia.... 266,472 257,365 523, 837 243,181 237,151 15,445 14.074 7,846 6.140 
:'Il ew Bruns\\ ick 197,351 190,525 387,876 186.417 180,001 5,495 5.214 5,439 5,310 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . 1,180,028 1.181,171 2,361.199 1. 082.483 1,090,140 44,830 45,034 52,715 45,997 
Ontario........ . 1. 481, 890 1,451,772 2,933.662 1.139.262 1.152,717 237, 220 222,357 105.408 76,698 
)Ianitoba...... . 320,567 289,551 610,118 198.284 189,462 61,651 51,463 60,632 48,626 
Saskatchewan. . 413,700 343,810 757,510 241.557 216,276 57,430 42.925 114,713 84. 609 
Alberta........ . 324,208 264, 246 588.454 166,176 148,914 55, 724 43,668 102,30!! 71, 664 
British Colum- 
bia.. . .. 293,409 231,173 524.582 136,758 127,288 87, 769 72,983 68.882 3C,902 
Yukon Territ'y. 2,819 1,338 4,157 1,583 1,017 486 86 750 235 
N. W. Tt'rritor- 
ies........... . 4,129 3,859 7,988 3.951 3,830 80 13 98 16 
Royal Canadian 

avy... ...... 485 - 485 49 - 433 - 3 - 
- - - - - - - - - 
Canada-1921. . 4,529,9,15 -I. 
8.538 8,788,483 3,443,403 3,389,344 567,072 498,382 519,-170 370,Sn 
.. 1111. . 3,821,99ã 3, 38j. 648 7,206,6-13 2,8-19.442 2,770,240 501,138 332,28-1 -171,415 28%,124 


9.-Rural and Urban Population. 
In Table 28 are given statistics showing the growth of rural and urban popula- 
tion respectively since 1891. For the purposes of the census, the population residing 
in cities, towns and incorporated villages has been defined as urban, and that out- 
side of such localities as rural. Thus the distinction here made between Hrural" 
and lIurban" population is a distinction of provincial legal status rather than of 
sue of aggregations of population within limited areas. Since the laws of the various 
provinces differ in regard to the population necessary before a municipality may be 
incorporated as urban (the laws of Saskatchewan, for example, making provision 
that 50 people actually resident on an area not greater than 640 acres may claim 
incorporation as a village, while the Ontario law now requires that villages asking 
for incorporation shall have a population of 750 on an area not exceeding 500 acres), 
the line of demarcation between rural and urban population is not uniformly drawn 
throughout the Dominion, as far as comparable aggregations of population are 
concerned. To a limited extent, however, Table 30 will permit the student of popu- 
lation statistics to make, at least for Canada as a whole, his own line of demarcation 
between rural and urban population.] 
1 In the United States, urban population is classified by the Census Bureau as that residing in cities and 
other incorporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more, and in "to\\ns" having 2,500 inhabitants or 
more in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. \\ hile such "towns", under the forms of 
local governmt'nt existing in these states are partly rural in character, the United States Census Bureau 
considers that the total urban population of these state>> ;'3 not greatly exaggerated thereby. 



16R 


POPULATION 


'Yhile a summary comparison betwecn urbanization in Canada in 1921 and in 
the United States in 1920 would lead us to the conclusion that our country, though 
far less densely peopled than the united States, had an almost equally large per- 
centage of its population in urban communitie!', viz., 49.52 per cent in Canada as 
compared with 51.4 per cent in the United States, the fact that in the United States 
inhabitants' of places having under 2,500 population are included with rural popu- 
lation, while in Canada the inhabitants of many places with less than 100 popula- 
tion are classed as urban, must be taken into account. A faircr basis of comparison 
is secured if the same population limits are taken for both countries, as may be done 
by using Table 30. Thus, at the census of 1920, the United States had 25.9 p.c. 
of its population resident in cities of 100,000 and over, while Canada in 1921 had 
only 18.87 p.c. of its population in such places. The united States had an additional 
16.4 p.c. of its population rcsiding in cities of between 10,000 and 100,000 popula- 
tion, and 4.7 p.c. in cities and towns of 5,000 to 10,000, while Canada had in cities 
of these categories only 13.32 p.c., and 4.36 p.c. rcsp<,ctively of its population. 
Thus, taking all places of 5,000 and over-the lowcst population for which com- 
parütive figures arc readily available-47 p.c. of the population of the united States 
residEd in such places as compared with 36.55 p.c. of the population of Canada, 
showing thc much higher degree of urbanization which has been reached in the 
United St:Jtes-a natural thing in an older f'ettl(d and more densely peopled country. 
On tl'e basis of the renf'US cla!'sificaticn, it is apparent from Table 28 that in 
the last decade, as in the previous one, urh: n communities absorbed somewhat 
over two-thirds of the totd inrre::
<, in population, with the result that the urban 
population of Canada was in 1921 nearly equal to the rural. Out of every 1,000 
perwns in the country, 505 were residEnt, on June 1, 1921, in rural and 495 in urban 
communities, as comparcd with 545 in rural and 455 in urban communities on 
June 1, 1911, 625 in rural and 375 in urbnn conrmunities in 1901, and 682 in rural 
and 318 in urban communities in 18m. 
From Table 30, showing the di!'tribution of urban population in Canada by 
f'ize of citics and to\\ ns, it becomes evident that for the first time in its census history 
Canada possesses cities of more than half a million population. These are Montreal 
and Toronto, with 618,506 and 521,893 inhabitants respectively, the former having 
in its nf'ighbourhood several "satellit<," cities, Yerdun, ,:restmount, Lachine, Outre- 
mont, "hich, with other smaller towns in it!' vicinity, bring the population of 
"Greater 
[ontreal" to the 700,000 mark. Xo other city has attained the 200,000 
mark, but during the past decade Hamilton and Ottawa have been added to 'Vinni- 
peg and Yancouver as cities of ovcr 100,000 population, while Quebec, which in 
1911 was, together v.ith Hamilton and Ottawa, in the 50,000 to 100,000 class, has 
becn joined in that class, though at a considerable interval, by Calgary, London, 
Edmonton and Halifax. Details of the popul:1tion of these and other smaller cities 
and towns of 5,000 and OVer, are givcn by censuses from 1871 to 1921 in Table 32, 
while the populations of urban communiti('s having a population of from 1,000 to 
5,000 ill I! 21 are given for 1901, 1911 and 1ft!1 in Table 33. 



RURAL AXD URBA.X POJ>ULATIOl\ 


169 


28.-Rural and Urban Population b)O PrO\'inces and Tt'rritories. 1891. 1901. 1911 
and 1921. 


1891. 1901. 
Provinces. 
Rural. Urban. Rural. Urban. 
Prince Edward Island.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 94.823 14,255 88,304 14,955 
K ova Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373,403 76.993 330,191 129,383 
K ew Brunswick.. . . .. . . . . . . . __ . . . . __ 272,362 4S,901 253,835 77,285 
Quebec........ .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . 988.8
0 499,715 994,833 8 654,065 8 
Ontario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,295,323 818,998 1,246.969 935,978 
Manitoba. . . .. ................................. 111,498 41,008 184,775 3 70,436 3 
Saskatchev.an....... ................. _1 - 77,013 8 14,2ßß9 
Alberta.... . ..... ............ .. .. _1 - 54,489 2 18,533 2 
Briti;;h Columbia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 60,945 37, 2
8 88,478 90,179 
Yukon Tcrri,.ory................ ... _I - 18,077 9,14:! 
Korthwest Territories.......... _I - 20,129 - 
Royal Canadian Navy.. . . .. .. .. .. . .. ... . . . . . - - 3... ,..
 I ,.....
 
---- 
('anada. . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 3.296,141 1.5:17,098 


1911. 1921. Kumerical increase 
in dccade 1911-21. 
Provinces. ---- 
Rural. "Crban. Rural. Lrban. Rural. ürban. 
-- 
Prince Edward Island...... 78,758 14,970 69,522 19,093 -9,236 4,123 
Nova Scotia........ ........ 306,210 186, 128 296,799 6 227,038 f -9,411 40,910 
New Brunswick............ 252,342 99,547 263 ,432& 124,444& 11,090 24 ,897 
Quebec......... ........... 1,038,934 8 966,842 8 1,038,630 1,322,569 - 304 355,727 
Ontario. . . . . . . . . . I, 198, S03 7 1,328.489 1.226,379 1,707,283 27,576 378,794 
Manitoba. . . . . . . . . . . ....... 261,029. 200,365 348,502 261,616 87,473 61,251 
Saskatchewan. .. . .. . . . . .. . . 361,037 8 131,395 8 538,552 218,958 177,515 87,563 
Alberta. . . . . . . . . . 236.633 2 137,662 2 365,550 222,904 128,917 85,242 
British Columbia..... ISS, 796 203,684 277,02(\ 217,562 83,224 43,87
 
Yukon Tprritory............ 4,647 3,865 3,182 975 -1,465 -2,890 
North\\e.
t Territories. . . . . . 6,507 10 7,988 1,481 
Royal Canadian Navy... .. 4S5 4S5 
-- --- -- 
Canada. . . . . 3,93:1,696 3, '!n. 947 4..J36.0.u 4,3;,)2,H2 "O!,3-1ã 1,0.9. -19,") 


1 The population (9
, Ni7) in territory now comprised in the provincPQ of Alberta, ::;askatche\\an and in 
the Yukon and Northwlost Territories was classified as rural in the Census of 1891. 2 Volume 1, Census 
1911, places the urban population of Alberta for that year at 141,!.37. Induded in this figure was th(' 
population (5,250) of tw "h (' places which, according to the Report of the .\runicipa! Commissioner for 
Alberta, were not then incorporated. The places so included v. ere .-\etm" Bankhead, Bellevue. Bick('rdike, 
Cann'ore, Cardiff, Exshaw, Hillf'rest, Passburg, Queenston and Elmpark. The correction r
suhing from 
this and from other small adjustmpnts conI' 'quent upon more definite knowledge as to incorporated areas, 
places the urtan population for 1911 at 137,6üJ. 
imihr corrections bMe been made in the urban and rural 
figures for th(' Census of 1901. 3 As correct..,d in Cpnsu" Report, Prairie Provinces, 1!Jl6. 'As changed by 
Extension of B }undaries Act, 11)12. & Corrected by inFormation received bince Bulletin 1 v.-as printed, 
which transfclrel population of Shediac and Hampton to urban f'oluma and population of ::;alisbury to rural. 
· Corrected by information received Blnce Bulletin 2 v. as printed, giving Clark's Harbour as an incorpor- 
ated to\\n. 7 As changed by Extension of Boundaries Act, UJl:!. 8 The urban population of 970,791 shown 
in Volume I, Census 1911. is reduced to 966,843 by the transfpr of the population of Maniv.aki, 
iartinville, 
:\Ioisie, St. Bruno, S1. 
Iartin and St. Vincent de Paul from urban to rmal; by adjustments in area of the 
villages of 8te. Anne and Ste. Geneviève; and Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. 8 Urban and rural 
population for 1911 and 1901 are as corrected in Census Report, Prairie Provinces, 1916. 10 As reduced by 
Extension of Boundaries Act, 1912. 



170 


P()PULATIOV 


2I.-Percentage Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by PrO\lnces and 
Territories. 1891. 1901, 1911 and 1921. 


1891. 1001. 
Provinces. 
Rural. "Lrban. Rural. Urban. 
Prince Edward Island.............. .... ....... ....... 86.93 13.07 85.52 14.48 
Nova Scotia....... .......................... ......... 82.91 17.09 71.85 28.15 
New Bruns" ick....... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eo.. . . . . .. . 84.78 15.22 76.66 23.34 
Quebec..... . . . .. .... .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... eo. . . . .. . 66.43 33.57 60.33 39.67 
Ontario......... . . .. .. . . . . . . ., . - ... .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. ... . 61.26 38.74 57.12 42.8" 
l\Ianitoba....... ............................ ."- -.-.- 73.11 26.89 72.40 27.60 
Saskatchewan.. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . -I - 84.37 15.63 
Alberta.............................................. . _1 - 74.62 25.'38 
British Columbia................................. .... 62.08 37.92 49.52 ;;0.48 
Yukon Territory...................... .... ....... ..... _1 - 66.41 33.59 
Northwest Territories........ ..... ... ..... ..... ...... _1 - 100.00 - 
Royal Canadian Navy................................ - - - - 
Canada.... . .. .. .... .. .. .... .... ...o. .... .... .. .. .. . .. . . .. .... .. .. .. .. . 68.%0 31.80 6
.50 37.:;0 



 

 
Qu 
o 
) 
Sas 
A 
B 
Y 
N 


1911. 1921. 
Provinces 
Rural. Urban. Rural. Urban. 
Prince Edward Island........... _....... ............ 84.03 15.97 78.45 21.55 
. ova Scotia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.20 37.80 56.66 43.34 
ew Bruns" ick. . . . . .. . .. . . eo . .. . . eo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.71 28.29 67.92 32.08 
ebec........... . ...o. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. 51.80 48.20 43.99 56.01 
ntario................. ............................. 47.43 52.57 41.80 5R.20 
lanitoba.... ... ......... . '.' .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 56.57 43.43 57.12 42.88 
katchewan..... ...... .......... ................... 73.32 26.68 71.10 28.90 
Iberta. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.22 36.78 62.12 37.88 
ritish Columbia.................................... 41HO 51.90 52.81 47.19 
ukon Territory............ ........................ 54.59 45.41 76.55 23.45 
.w. Territories.... _..' _. ........................ 100.00 - 100.00 - 
Royal Canadian Navy............................ ., - - 100.00 - 
Canada........... ..... ... ............... .. 54.iS 45.42 50.jð 41.52 


NOTE.-In using this table, reference should be made to the notes appended to the preceding table 
showing rural and urban population by numbers. 
1 The population in the territory now comprised in the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and 
the Yukon and 
orthwest Territories was classified as rural in the census of 1891. 



RURAL _LYD URBA:-.,r POPUL.ITIOX 


171 


3O.-Urban Population of Canada. dhided by Size of lUunidpality ("rOUI)S, 1901. 
1911 and 1921. 


1901. 1911. 1921. 
In Cities and Towns Num- Per cent Num- Per cent Num- Per cent 
of ber Popula- of ber Popula- of ber Popula- of 
of tion. Total of tion. Total of tion. Total 
Places. Pop. Places. Pop. Places. Pop. 
- - - - - - - - 
Over 500,000... ..... - - - - - - 2 1,140,399 12.97 
Between- 

 400,000 and 500,000 - - - 1 470,4.80 6.53 - - - 
300,000 and 400,000 - - - 1 376,538 5.22 - - - 
200,000 and 300,000 2 475,770 8.86 - - - - - - 
100,000 and 200,000 - - - 2 236,436 3.28 4 518,298 5.90 
50,000 and 100,000 3 181, 402 3.38 3 247,741 3.44 5 336,650 3.83 
25,000 and 50,000 5 188,869 3.52 6 241,007 3.34 7 239,096 2.72 
15,000 and 25,000 3 55,499 1.03 13 237.551 3.30 19 370.990 4.22 
10,000 and 15,000 8 95, 266 1.77 18 221.322 3.07 18 224.033 2.55 
5.000 and 10,000 37 275,919 5.14 16 323,056 4.48 54 382.762 4.36 
3,000 and 5,000 50 190,789 3.55 60 226,212 3.14 73 276,026 3.14 
1,000 and 3,000 187 320,433 5'97 251 429,553 5.97 292 489,461 5.57 
500 and 1,000 179 130,238 2.42 247 180,784 2.51 = } 374,727 4.26 
Under 500.......... - 107.614 2.00 - 90,284 1.25 
- - - - - - - - - 
Total. . .. . . . . . - 2,021.799 37.14 - 3,280.96,1 4,).53 - 4.352,402 49.52 


31.-Ratlo of Females to l\'lales in Rural and rrban Populations, 1921. 


Provinces. Rural. Urban. Provinces. Rural. Urban 
p.c. p.c. p.c. p.c. 
Frince Edward Island. . . . . . . . . 93.55 112.90 Alberta..... . 74.63 94-()4 
Nova Scotia.... 92.45 102.26 British Columbi
'.::: ::: :: : : : 71.91 87.16 
New Brunswick. :::: :.::: ::::: 91.48 108.19 Yukon. __ . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 45.76 51.33 
Quebec..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.09 106.02 N. W. Territories........... . 93.46 - 
Ontario........ . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.66 105.24 - - 
Manitoba. . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84.36 98.90 ("an ad a, 1921.. . . . . . . . . . . 81'%0 102.68 
Saskatchewan... ............... 79.29 93.23 Canada. 1911. . . . . . . . . , . . 83.52 9t.95 


32.- Population of Cities and Towns having over 5,000 Inhabitants In 1921. 
compared with 1871-81-91-1901-1L 
NOTE.-The cities aud towns in which a Board of Trade exists are indicated by an asterisk C.). In all 
cases the population is for the city or town municipality as it existed in 1921. 


Cities and ToWIl.'I. 


Population. 


Provinces. 


1871. 


1881. 


1891. 


1901. 


1911. 


1921. 


'
Iontreal...................... Quebe<'... .... 115,000 155,238 
.Toronto...... _..' __. .... Ontario.... ... 59,000 96,196 
'Winnipeg.... _ _ _ ..... ....... ).Ianitoba.... _... ... 241 7,985 
.Vancouver.................... British Columbia... 
'Hamilton.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Ontario............. 26,880 36,661 
'Ottawa. . . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . " ... .. . .. . . . .. 24,141 31, 307 
.Çuebec........................ Quebec............. 59,699 b2,446 
.Calgary....................... Alberta............. 
.London....................... Ontario............. 18,000 26,266 
.Edmonton.................... Alberta...... 
.Halifax........................ Nova Scotia. _ __. 29,582 36,100 
.St.John....................... New Brunswick__.. 41,325 41,353 
.Victoria....................... British Columbia... 3,270 5,925 
.Windsor....................... Ontario............. 4,253 6,561 
.Regina.. ...................... Saskatchewan....... 
.Brantford..................... Ontario............. 8, 107 9,
16 
.Saskatoon..................... Saskatchewan....... 
.rrcl1
'::::::::::::::::::::::: Q

bec:::: ::::::::: 3,800 6,890 


219,216 
181,215 
25,639 
13,709 
48,959 
44,154 
63,090 
3,876 
31. 977 
38,437 
39.179 
16,841 
10.322 
12,753 
296 
11,26" 


328,172 490,504 1 
209,892 2 381.833' 
42,340 136,035 
27,010 100,401 
52,634 81,969 
59, 928 8'1,062 
68.840 78,710 
4,392 43,704 
37,976 46.300 
4,176 31.064 3 
40,832 46,619 
40,711 42,511 
20,919 31,660 
12,153 17,829 
2,249 30,213 
16,619 23,132 
113 12,004 
1. 898 1 11, 629 
13,993 18,222 


618,506 
521,893 
179,087 
117,217 
114,151 
107, 843 
95,193 
63,305 
60,959 
58,821 
58,372 
47,166 
38, 727 
38,591 
34,432 
29,4"0 
25,739 
25,001 
24,117 



1'72 


POPULATIOX 


32.- Population of Cities and Towns Ita\in
 mer 5.000 inltal)itants in 1921. 
compared "itlt 1871-81-91-19al-11.-contiuul'd. 


Cities and Towns 


Provinces. 


"Sherbrooke. . . . . . . . . .. Quebec............. 
.Sydney........... .... NovaScotia........ 
Three nher
....... Quebec............. 
:
!tchener.......... O
!ario............ . 
hmg...ton..... _., .. 
.::;ault Ste. Marie............... co ....... 
.Pl'terborough................." ....... 
.FortWilliam............. ., " ............. 
.
t. Clithulincs....... . . .. . . . . . . " . . . ., . . . . . . . . 
.MooseJaw................ Saskatchewan. ..... 
.Guelph........................ Ontario............. 
\\'e"tmount... ..,... QupLl'c............_ 
.
Ioncton. . . .. New Bruns\\, ick... . . 
.Glace Bay. Kova ðcotia.... ... 
.:--:tratford........ . .. ..... Onbrio............. 
.St. Thoma..... " 
.Lachine.... .,. Quehec....:::::::.::: 
.Brandon. . . ............ . . .. '\[anitoba........... 
:
ort.Arthur. ...... U
!ario............. 
tsarma........... ....... ..... 
*Niag3ra Falls. . . . . . " 
.New Westminster........ :: British 'ë
i
b'i
'. _. 
.Chatham.. ......... ... .... Ontario............. 
Outremont......... ........ Quebec........ . 
.Galt................... ...... Untario............. 
.St. Boniface................... )[anitoha........... 
.Cbarlottewwn and Royalty... P. E. Island. . . . . .. . 
:Bellevi
le. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. On

rio............. 
Owen Sound. .. . . . .. .. _ _ .. __ . . . . . 
.OS}l3,\\3.. _..._. .... .0.".. . . 
..Lethbridge.................... Alberta............ . 
.St. Hyacintbe.......... ....... Quebec.... .... ..... 
.
orth Bay....... ............. Ontario.... ...... . 
.. 
ha
inigan Falls.. ........ Qu
?ec....... .... 
LéV1S.... . 
.Brockville. ... Ontario'.....::....:::: 
.Amherst........... 
OVR I:::\cotia........ 
.Wood!-'tock...... ." Ontario.... .. 
.l\1e(IÏ{'ine Hat..... .. . Alberta.. 
.Vallpyfic1d........ ........ Quebec. ......... 
.Joliette.. .............. ..... ". . . . . . . . . .. 
.Nanaimo and suburbs......... Briti!'h Columbia. 
.Kew Gla!>gow.... .,. Kova Scotia. ....... 
.Chicoutimi.......... Quebl'c............. 
.Orillia............ ...... Ontario............. 
.Welland......... .... co ..... 
· f'u<.U>ury . . . . . . . . . _ . " . _. .... _ . . . 
::;YÙDey Mines............... . Nova Scotia...... . 
.::;orel.......................... Qm.hpc............. 
*Frederi('wn.... ........... 
ew Brunswick..... 
*Dartmouth................... :\ova Scotia........ 
.Thetford Mines................ Quebec....... .... 
Pembroke....... .......... Ontario. ............ 
:1{i.v{

en.d
 i

p: ..:.....:.::::::: Qu

ec.. .::: : 
.Korth Vancouvl'r _. 13ritish Columbia... 
.Grand ".lère. ... . .. . Quebec . . 
.Lindsay.... ........... .. Ontario......... ... 
.Truro...... ......... ..,..... Ko\'a Scotia........ 
Prince Albert.. .. .. .. ... ::;aBkatchewan....... 
.C'ornv.al!......... Ontario............. 
*Yarmouth......... .......... 1\ovu Scotia........ 
Walk{>rville...... Ontario. ........... 
.N





............:::...........::::: .::::: 
.SmithFalls. ........ ..... " . 
.Granby. . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Quebec............. 
.Portage la Prairie.. . . . . . . .. l\iani taba.... . . . .. . . 
Cap 
ragd('leine.. . . ..... Quebec............. 
.Korth Sydney..... r-iova I:::\cotia........ 
.Prince Rupert.... British Columbia... 
.Trenwn....... '" ........ Ontario..... ... ..... 
.\\' aterloo. . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1871. 


4,432 


7,570 
2,743 
12,407 
879 
4,611 


7,864 


6,878 
200 
600 


4,313 
2,197 
1,696 


2,929 


5,873 


3,827 


8,S07 
7,305 
3,369 
3,185 


-3,746 


6,!ì91 
5,102 


982 


1,800 
3,047 


1,393 
1 3')0) 
1: 1Ïõ 


5,636 
6,OOt.i 


1,508 
3 0.)0) 
1:ã4Ï 


4,049 


2,033 
2,500 


3,398 
1,150 
876 


1,226 


1,796 
1,594 


1881. 


7,227 
1. 480 
8,670 
4.054 
14,091 
780 
6,812 


9,631 


9,890 
884 
5,032 


8,239 
8,367 
2,406 


3,874 
2,347 
1,5110 
7,873 
387 
5,187 
1,28
 
11, 4
5 
9.5Hi 
4,426 
3,992 


5,321 


7,597 
7,60!) 
? ')74 
5:373 


3,906 
3,268 
1,645 
2,5\):> 
1,!m 
2,911 
1,87U 


2,340 
5,7\11 
6,218 
3,786 


2,820 
4,314 
2,291 


5,0110 
3,461 


4,4t.i8 
3,4
,') 


1,0\1;) 
4,854 
2087 
1:040 


1,437 
1,520 


3042 
:Ú66 


Population. 


1891. 


10,110 
2,427 
8,334 
7,425 
19,263 
2,414 
9,717 


9,170 
10,537 
3,076 
8,762 
2,459 
9,500 
10,366 
3,761 
3,778 


6,692 
3,349 
6,67S 
9,052 
795 
7,535 
1,553 
11,373 
9,916 
7,497 
4,066 


7,016 


7,301 
8,7!Jl 
3,781 
8,612 


5,515 
3,347 
4,5!15 
3,776 
') ')77 
1:752 
2,035 


? 44" 
6:669 
6,5U2 
6,252 


4,401 
4,722 
4,175 


6,081 
5,102 


6,8115 
6, OS!! 
933 
2,Obl! 
5,550 
3 864 
1:710 
3,363 
1,289 
2,513 
4,363 
2,9.11 


1901. 


11, 765 
9,909 
9,981 
9,747 
17,961 
7,169 
12.886 
3,6
3 
9,946 
1,558 
l1,l!J6 
8.856 
9,O
6 
6.1115 
9,959 
11,485 
6,365 
5,620 
3,214 
8.176 
5,702 
6,4119 
9,068 
1,141' 
7,866 
2,019 
12,080 
11,117 
8,776 
43 0 4 
2:072 
9,210 
2,530 
2.7ti8 
9.242 
S.\140 
49M 
8:ð:3:J 
1,570 
11 ,055 
4,220 
6,130 
4,447 
3,826 
4,907 
1,8ti3 
2 , 0:!7 
3, Hll 
7,0,')7 
7,117 
4,80ß 
3,256 
5,156 
4,O:!O 
4 ,56\) 


16,405 
17 ,723 
13,691 
15,196 
18.874 
14,920. 
18.360 
16,499 
12,484 
13, 823 
15,lï5 
14,579 
11,345 
16.562 
12.946 
14,054 
ll,688
 
l:i.839 
11.220 
9,947 
9,248 
13,199 
10,770 
4,820 
10 2!J<I 
7:4

 
11,203 
9,876 
12,558 
7,436 
9,035 
9,797 
7,737 
4,265 
8 703 6 
9:374 
8,973 
9,320 
5,608 
!I,4t!J 
6,316 
8,
06 
6,383 
5,880 
6,828 
5,318 
4,15U 
7,470 
8,420 
7,208 
5,058 
7,261 
5,62t.i 
5,!.10.3 
6,774 

,I\)t.i ï 
4,783 
6,!J64 
6,107 
6,254 
6,598 
6,600 
3,302 
4,tifi3 
6,420 
fj,.
70 
4,750 
5,ð
2 
2,101 
5,418 
4,184 
3,988 
4,3,j!J 


2,511 
7,OU3 
5,9\13 
1,785 
6,704 
6,430 
1,&J5 
3,174 
5,\149 
5,1.'i5 
3,773 
3,901 
1 464 
4:64ti 
4,217 
3,5;H 


1911. 


1921. 


23,515 
22,545 
22.367 
21,763 
21,753 
21.092 
20,994 
20,541 
19.881 
19,285 
18,128 
17,593 
17,488 
17,007 
lti,094 
16,026 
15,404 
15,397 
14,886 
14,877 
14,764 
14,495 
13,256 
13,249 
13,216 
12,821 
12,347 
12,206 
12,190 
11,940 
11,097 
10,859 
10,692 
10,625 
10,470 
10,043 
99\18 
9:935 
9,634 
9,215 
9,113 
9,088 
8,974 
8,937 
8,774 
8,654 
8,621 
8,32 
8,174 
8,114 
7,89!} 
7,881ì 
7 87,') 

'734 
7:ïO.J 
7,652 
7 ti31 
7:620 
7,562 
75,')8 
7:419 
7,073 
7,059 
7,016 
6,1136 
6,790 
6,71)5 
6,766 
6,738 
6 58-=; 
6:393 
5,902 
5,8SJ 



POPULATIOK OF CITIES, TOWYS A.VD VILLA.GES 173 


32.-Populatlon of Cities and Towns ha\inl!; over 5,000 inhabitants In 1921, 
compared with 1811-81-91-1901-11.-concluded. 


Cities and Towns. 


1921. 


Province
. 


*Collingwood.. . __ . . . . . . . . . .. . '. Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ford Ci ty . . . .. .... . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
*Springhill..................... Nova Scotia........ 
NewWáterford................ " ........ 
La Tuque........ ..... ..... ... Quebpc............. 
*Campbellton. ................. New Bruns\\ick..... 
*Hawkesbury.................. Ontario............. 
*St. Jérðme.................... Quebec............. 
*Preston....................... Ontario............. 
*Kenora.. __.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . 
*Cobourg..... ............ 
Eastview. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 
Stellar ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . ., 1\0 va Scotia. __ . . . . . 
*Xelson........................ Briti:,;h Columbia... 
'lagog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Quebec............. 
*Y orkton. . . . . . . .. . . .. ........ ::;askatchewan....... 
*Ingersoll.......... ......... Ontario. 


Population. 


1871. 


1891. 


1901. 


5,755 
4,559 


2,652 
4,150 
3,619 
2,308 
5,202 
4,239 
776 
2,335 
5,273 8 
3,516 
700 
4,573 


1911. 


7,090 
5,713 
2,934 
3,817 
4,400 
3,473 
3,883 
6,158 
5,074 
3,169 
3,910 
4,476 
3,978 
2,309 
4,763 


5,882 
5,870 
5,681 
5,615 
5,603 
5,570 
5,544 
5,491 
5,423 
5,407 
5,327 
5,324 
5,312 
5,230 
5,159 
5,151 
5,150 


1881. 


2,829 


4,445 
900 


4,939 
4,813 


1 Includes )!aisonneuve, Cartienille, Bordeau and Sault-au-Récollet. 2 Includes :North Toronto, less 
67 in 1911 transferred to Township of York. 3 Include
 town of Strathcona. 4 Includes town of Steelton. 
i Includes parish of Lachine and Summerlea town. 6 Includps 
otre-Dame des Victoire8. J Includes 
North Vancouver District. 8 Includes suburbs in 1901. 


1,671 
1 159 
1:408 
4,442 


1,920 
2,032 
1,419 
4,957 


2,042 
2,868 
1,843 
1,806 
4,829 
2,410 
2,100 
4,191 


&a.-Population of Towns and \ïllages having between 1,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 
1921, as compared \\ith 1901 ami 1911. 


1,174 
4,022 


1,248 
4,318 


Towns and Villages. 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


Prinre Edward IsIa.nd. 
Summerside.................... 2,875 2,678 3,22S 
Souris.......................... 1,1401,0891,094 
Nova Scotia. 
Westville.................. ..... 
Windsor. ... __. . . . . . . 
Bridgewater............... .... 
Pictou........................ . 
Inverness...................... . 
Trenton....................... . 
Lunenburg.................... . 
Parrsboro..... .. . . . . . . . . . .. . " . 
I{entville. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Dominion.. ............ 
Liverpool.. . .. __. ..... .. . 
Antigonish... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 
Wolfville..... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Joggins....... . .. .. . . . . .. . . " . . . 
Canso. .. . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Wedgeport.................... . 
Oxford. . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shelburne. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Digby.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Iahone Bay....... 0........... 
Louisburg..... . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Bridgetown. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 


N'ew Brunswick. 
Chatham........ ... 0.......... 
Edmundston........... ........ 

 e\\castle.......... . . . .. .. .. . . . 
St. Stephen.. . 0............... 
Woodstock............ . ...... 
Bathurst...... . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . . 
Sussex.......... . . . . . o. . . . . . . .. . 
Sackvllle.......... 0 . .. . . . . '.' . . 
111 ill town 0 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Shediac..............o..... .... 
Dalhousie...... . . . .. . ... .. ..... 
Devon... '.. .. . . . . .. 0 . 0 . . . .. .. . 
Marysville.................... . 


3,471 
3,398 
2,203 
3,235 
306 
1,274 
2,916 
3,391 
1,731 
1,546 
1,937 
1,838 
1,412 
1,088 
1,479 
1,026 
1,285 
1,445 
1,150 
866 
1,046 
858 


4,868 
2,507 
2,840 
3,644 
1,044 
1,3!J8 
1,444 
2,044 
1,075 
862 


1,892 


4,417 
3,452 
2,775 
3,17!J 
2,71!J 
1,749 
2,681 
2,856 
2,304 
2,589 
2,10!J 
1,787 
1,458 
1,648 
1,617 
1,392 
1,392 
1,4&5 
1,247 
!J51 
1,006 
996 


4,666 
1,821 
2,945 
2,836 
3,856 
960 
1,!J06 
2,039 
1,804 
1,442 
1,650 
1,837 


Towns and Villages. 


4,550 
3,5!H 
3,147 
2,!J88 
2,9ti3 
2,844 
2,7!J:! 
2,74b 
2,717 
2,390 
2,294 
1,71ö 
1,743 
1,732 
1 626 
1:424 
1,402 
1,360 
1,230 
1,177 
1,1

 
I,08t 


New Brunswick-concluded. 
Grand Falls...... . .. .. . ... .. . . . 
Sunny Brae.................... 
Richibucto.................... . 
St. George..................... 
St. Andrews. .................. 


4,506 
4,035 
3,507 
3,452 
3,380 
3,327 
2,1!J
 
2,1

 
l,97u 
1,9

 
1,950 
1,924 
1,614 


Quebec. 

:nu

è

.-.-::: 
 
 
:.... . 
 
:::: 
Longueuil (city)............... . 
:\[ontmagny... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
::;t. Lambert.. . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. . . 
B uchingham . ., ............... 
East Angus.... ................. 
Victoriaville.................. . 
Rimouski.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Coa ticook . . . .. .. . . 0 . . . .. . . . . . . . 
St. Pierre......... ... 0.... 
Farnham.. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Beauport. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 
St. Laurent..................... 

Iégantic......... .............. 
St. Jérôme de 1Iatane.......... 
Ste. Thérèse................... 
Aylmer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Drummondville............... . 
Ste. Agatha des Monts......... . 
l\Iont JoIL. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Black Lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Pointe Claire St. Joachim....... 
Bromptonville............... 0" 
Lachute. . .... . . . . ... .. ... .. . .. . 
l{enogamÍ.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0 . 
Iberville........ . . ... ... .. o. .. . . 
Richmond.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Nicolet....... .. .... .......... 
Windsor. . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . .... . . . 
Baie St. Paul.. . . . ... .. ........ . 
Beauharnois.. .. ........ 0....... 
Ste. Anne de Bellevue........... 
Mont-Laurier..... 0...... ....... 
Bagotville. .. . . . . . . . . . .. '" . . .. . 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


644 1,280 1,327 
- - 1,171 
100 871 1,158 
733 988 1,110 
1,064 !J87 1,065 


3,416 


2,835 
1,919 
1 36') 
2:936 


1,693 
1,804 
2,880 
505 
3,114 


1,390 
2,171 
1,176 
1,541 
2,291 
1,450 
1,073 
822 


555 


2,022 


1,512 
2,057 
2,225 
2,149 
1,408 
1,976 
1,343 
507 


3,978 
2,354 
3,972 
2,617 
3,344 
3,854 


4,966 
4,1$51 
4,682 
4,145 
3,890 
3,835 
3,802 
3,759 
3,612 
3,554 
3,535 
3,343 
3,240 
3,232 
3,140 
3,050 
3,043 
2,970 
? 85'
 
2:81
 
2,799 
2,656 
2,617 
2,603 
2,592 
2,557 
2,454 
2,450 
2,342 
2,330 
2,2!Jl 
2250 
2:212 
2,211 
2,204 


3,028 
3,097 
3,165 
2,201 
3,560 
1,860 
2,816 
2,056 
2,12U 
3,109 
1,725 
2,020 
2,141 
2,645 
793 
1,239 
2,40i 


1,905 
2,175 
2,593 
2,233 
1,857 
2,015 
1,416 
752 
1,011 



174 


POPULATION 


33.- Population of Towns and VUlages having between 1,'" and 5,000 Inhabitants in 
1921, as .:ompared with 1901 and 1911.-continued. 


Towns and Village&. 


Quebec-concluded. 
Berthier. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Asbestos. ...................... 
Laprairie..... ............... 
R.oberval. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 
I oretteville. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 
\Vaterloo...................... . 
Terrebonne................... . 
Plessisville . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Laval d(,8 Rapides............. 
Pointe Gatineau......... . . .. . . . 
:Montmorency .--.... --......... 
Malbaie.. . . .. . .... ......... - . . 
Montreal West................. 
Ste. R.ose...................... 
:-:aindon. ....................... 

t. Tite........................ 

Iontreal East................. 
Louiseville. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Point-aux-Trembles.... . .. .. ., . 
Chandler.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

{arieville. . ... . . . .. .......... 
Grande Baie..... . .. . . .. . . .. . . . 
Sacré Cæur de J ésus.. .. .. . . . .. 
St. Raymond.................. 
Bedford. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .... .. . 
::5t. Gabriel de Brandon... .. ., . 
::-it. Joseph (Richelieu).......... 
Ste. Anne de Beaupré.......... 
Disraeli. . . .. .... .. . . 
 
Lennoxville............. . 
Acton Vale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
I;t. Marc-des-Carrières......... 
Amos......................... . 
DorvaL................ ....... 
Bienville...................... . 
St. Casimir...... . .. . . . ... . . .. . 
TroÎS-Pistoles... __ __.. . . .... ., . 
Beauceville..... _........... --. 
::;t.J08eph (Beauce)....... .... 
R.ock Island................... 
Pont R.ouge.................... 
Belæil.... . . . . . ... . . .. . . .. " ., . 
::5t. Benoit Joseph Labre........ 
Hun tingdon . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
I)ierreville. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Iontreal North................ 
Lac-a.u-SauDlon............... . 
St. Jacques.................... 
L.AS80mption................. . 
Ste. l\!arie... . .. .. .. . .,. ... . .. . 
St. Félicien... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
Courville... . . .. . . . . " . . .. . . . . . 
Danville...................... . 
Charlesbourg... .... ........... 
Giffard....................... . 
ArthabasI..a........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Donnaconna. ................ . 
Baie Shawiniga.n............... 
Port d.Alfred......... ......... 
Almaville........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Laurentides.............. ...... 
Como............. ......... .... 
DeschailloIlB.................. . 
St. Rémi.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Greenfi('ld Park. - .............. 
Macamic.. ...... . ............. 
St. Eustache... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cowansville................... . 
La Providence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. 
Chambly BS8in................ 
St. George East................ 
Rawdon....................... . 
Montreal South. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Abord-à-Plouffe...... .......... 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


Towns and Villages. 


Ontario. 
1.364 1,335 2,193 Dundas........................ 
783 2.224 2.189 Renfrew........................ 
1.451 2.388 2,158 Thorold........................ 
1.248 1,737 2.068 Brampton............. __....... 
1.555 1.588 2,066 PortHope................ .... 
1,797 1,886 2,06.'3 Cobalt......................... 
1.8
2 I, WO 2,056 Sandv.ich...................... 
1,586 1.559 2,032 Paris........................... 
- 1,9S9 Sturgeon Falls... ............... 
1.583 1,751 1,9I!! Goderich....................... 
1.7171,904 Arnprior....................... 
826 1,449 1.883 Peneta.nguishene................ 
352 703 1,882 Walla.ceburg............. .... 
1.154 1.480 1,811 Simcoe......................... 
991 1.438 l:
: 



a

:::::::::::::::::::::: 
1.776 Carleton Place.. . . . . .. .... . . . . . 
1,565 1,675 1,772 Perth.......................... 
- 1.1671.764 Mimico........................ 
1,756 Haileybury.................... 
1,306 1.587 1,748 Leamington. __................. 
- 1.355 1'73 
 Newmarket........ ........ 
206 9961,709 Gananoque..................... 
1.2721,6531,693 Parry Sound................... 
1.364 1,432 1,669 Rockland.....................
 
1.1991.6021,66 PortColborne.................. 
6471,4161,658 Picton......................... 
847 2.066 1'64'1 11 Cochrane....................... 
1.018 1,606 1,646 Oakdlle........ ....... ... ..... 
1.120 1,211 1,554 Bowmanville.......... ..'. __._ 
1.175 1,402 1,549 Dunnville.......... __ ... _ .. 
2
6 1,2:4 l:

 1 2:1 }Y:r
i
:::::::::::::::::::::::: 
481 1,005 1,46 Fort Frances................ .. 
851 1.004 1.462 Napanee....................... 
- - 1,457 Tilsonburg..................... 
- - 1,454 CampbelUord.................. 
- 1,6771,44' \Vhitby.............................. 
1.117 1.440 1,445 Hanover....... ..........__ 
615 861 1,442 Hlspeler.. .. .. __ . . .. .. . __ .... . 
- - 1,419 Amherstburg................... 
702 1,501 1.41b Bwlington..................... 
- 1,070 1.416 \ Strathroy...................... 
1,1221,265 1,401 
ewToronto................... 
1.108 1.363 1.394 
Ieaford........................ 
- - 1.360 Prescott........................ 
- 1,1711,354 Copper Cliff......................... 
- - 1.332 Merritton.. ......... ....... . 
1.605 1.147 1,32(] ListoweL __......... __ __ __ __.. 
- 1,311 Bracebricùte ............................ 
- 581 1,30e Almonte.......................... 
- - I, 293 Bridgeb
 . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 
1.0
7 1.3:1 1.2

 Portsmout .................... 
1.26/ Walkerton...................... 
- - 1,254 Aurora......................... 
995 1,458 1,234 New Liskeard.................. 
- 1,225 Huntsville.. .. ... -.... -....... 
- 1,0241,213 Alexandria........... ......... 
- - 1.213 Aylmer......................... 
- - 1.1740rangeville..................... 
934 1,128 1.150 Wingham....................... 
628 898 1.146 Kincardine............. ... ...... 
1.213 1.161 1.142 Georgetown....... .......... .... 
1.080 1.0211.135 Clinton......................... 
- - 1,112 Elmira............ ............. 
- - 1,104 Grimsby......................... 
1.098 1 Milton.......... ..... ........... 
1,094 Ridgetown. ........ ............. 
1.07 Deseronto...................... 
1,06 Blind River.................... 
I, 05 Seaforth. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 
- 1,04 
Iitchell....................... 
790 1,03 Fergus......................... 
- 1,011 I{ingsville...................... 


1,079 996 
699 881 
819 894 
849 900 
544 1. 410 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


3,173 4,299 4,978 
3,153 3,846 4,906 
1,979 2.273 4,825 
2,748 3,412 4.527 
4,188 5,092 4.456 
- 5,638 4.449 
1.450 2,302 4.415 
3.229 4,098 4.368 
1,418 2,199 4.126 
4,158 4.522 4,107 
4,152 4,405 4,077 
2,422 3.568 4.037 
2,763 3,4
8 4,006 
2,627 3,227 3,953 
3.384 3.388 3.847 
- - 3,843 
4.059 3,621 3,841 
3,588 3,588 3,790 
437 1,373 3.751 
- 3,874 3.743 
2,451 2,652 3,675 
2,125 2.996 3,626 
3,526 3.804 3.604 
2.884 3.429 3.546 
1.998 3,397 3.496 
1,253 1,624 3.415 
3,698 3,564 3.356 
- 1.715 3.306 
1,643 2,372 3.298 
2,731 2,814 3,233 
2.105 2,861 3,224 
1.083 1,875 3.166 
4,135 3.518 3,148 
697 1,611 3.109 
3,143 2,807 3,038 
2,241 2,758 2,974 
2,485 3,051 2.890 
2,llU 2,248 2,800 
1,392 2,342 2,78J 
2,457 2,368 2,777 
2,222 2,560 2,769 
1,119 1.831 2,709 
2,933 2,823 2,691 
209 686 2,669 
1,916 2,811 2.650 
3,019 2,801 2,636 
2,500 3,082 2.597 
1. 710 1.670 2.544 
2,693 2,289 2.477 
2,479 2,776 2,451 
3,023 2,452 2.426 
1,356 1,770 2,401 
1.827 1,786 2.351 
2,971 2,601 2,344 
1.590 1,901 2,307 
- 2.108 2.268 
2,152 2.358 2,246 
1,911 2,323 2,195 
2,204 2.102 2.194 
2,511 2,340 2,187 
2,392 2,238 2,092 
2,077 1,956 2,077 
1,313 1,583 2,061 
2,547 2,254 2,018 
1.060 1,782 2,016 
1,001 1.669 2,004 
1,372 1.654 1.873 
2,405 1,954 1. 855 
3,527 2,013 1,847 
2,656 2,558 1,843 
2.245 1,983 1.829 
1. 945 1.766 1,800 
1,396 1.534 1. 796 
1,537 1,427 1.783 



POPULATION Oft' 1'OW.vS AXD VILLAGES 


175 


Ia.-Populatlon of Towns and VUlages having between 1,000 and 5,OH Inhabitants in 
1921, as compared with 1901 and 1911.-concluded. 


Towns and Villages. 


Ontarlo--concluded. 
Wiarton......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Acton......................... . 
:Mount Forest. ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chesley......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Tilbury....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Thessalon........ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Essex. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Blenheim..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Fort Erie........ _ _............ 
Southampton................. . 
Humberstone................. . 
Palmerston................... . 
Vankleek Hill......... . . . . . . . . . 
Durham........ ........ ....... 
Port Dalhousie................ 
Gravenhurst..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Yictoria Harbour. . _ . . . . . . . . . . . 
Port Dover..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Mattawa...................... . 
Morrisburg. ........ . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Rainy River............. ...... 
Exeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Forest........ ................. 
Brighton........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Alliston.. . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . 
Niagara. . . . . . . . .. . _ _. ..... _ _ 
New Hamburg................. 
I>resden...................... . 
Tweed............... .......... 
Keewatin..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . 
L.Orignal..................... . 
Port Elgin.... ................. 
Capreol. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Havelock. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Harriston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Point Edward................. 
Beamsville. . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 
CardinaL..... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Caledonia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 
Kemptville.... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Lakefield.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Iroquois Falls.................. 
Norwich...................... . 
Hagersville................... . 
Riverside. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Parkhill.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Port Perry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chippawa..................... . 
Elora. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sioux Lookout................. 
Winchester.. . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . 
Port Credit. .................. 
\Vaterford. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 
Arthur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bobca:vgeon .................... 
Port McNicoll.............. .... 
Shelburne. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 
\Vatford............. ..... ...... 

Iadoc... . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. .. 
Richmond HilL....... . . . . . . .. . 
Stouffville.................... . 
Chelmsford. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Fenelon Falls................... 
Dryden..... ................... 
Eganville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 
Markhan1.................. .... 
Ta vistock... .... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 


Manitoba. 
Transcona..................... . 
Dauphin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Selkirk.. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Neepawa....................... . 
Pas........... .................. 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


2,443 2.266 
1.484 1.720 
2.019 1.839 
1,734 1,734 
1.012 1.368 
1. 205 1,945 
1. 391 1.353 
1.653 1.387 
890 1,146 
1.636 1,685 
- 
1.850 1.665 
1.674 1.577 
1. 422 1. 581 
1.125 1,152 
2.146 1.624 
989 1.616 
1,177 1,138 
1.400 1,524 
1,693 1,696 
- 1,578 
1.792 1,555 
1,553 1,445 
1,378 1.320 
1,256 1.279 
1.258 1,318 
1,208 1.484 
1,613 1,551 
1,168 1,368 
1,156 1,242 
1.026 1,347 
1,313 1,235 


984 
1,637 
780 
832 
1.378 
801 
1. 523 
1,244 


1.269 
1,020 


1.430 
1,465 
460 
1,187 


1,101 


1.122 
1.285 
914 


1. 188 
1.279 
1.157 
629 
1.223 
493 
1.132 
140 
1,107 
967 
403 


- - 4.185 
1,135 2,815 3,885 
2.188 2,977 3,7

 
1.418 1,864 1,887 
- - 1.858 


1,436 
1,491 
874 
1.096 
1,111 
952 
1,192 
1.397 


1,112 
1.106 
1.289 
1,148 
707 
1.197 
550 
1,143 


1,083 
1,102 
1,000 
1. 113 
1. 092 
1,058 
652 
1.034 
550 
1,053 
715 
1,189 
909 
981 


Towns and Villages. 


1,726 
1,722 
1,718 
I, 70
 
1,673 
1. 651 
1.588 
1.565 
1.546 
1,537 
1,524 
1,523 
1,499 
1,494 
1.492 
1.478 
1,463 
1.462 
1.462 
1. 444 
1. 444 
1.442 
1.422 
1.411 
1.376 
1.357 
1. 351 
1,339 
1. 339 
1.327 
1.298 
1.291 
1.287 
1,268 
1.263 
1.258 
1.256 
1,241 
1,223 
1.204 
1,189 
1.1

 
1.17tì 
1,169 
1, ]55 
1. 152 
1.143 
1.137 
1.136 
1,127 
1. 126 
1,123 
1,123 
1.104 
1. 095 
1. 074 
1. 072 
1,059 
1.058 
1,055 
1. 053 
1.045 
1. 031 
I,Og 
1,015 
1.012 
1,011 


ltIanltoba-concluded. 
Souris....... '" . .. . . .. .. ...... . 
Carman....... .............. ... 
l\Iinnedosa.................... . 
Virden.... . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . ... 
Morden....................... . 
Stonewall..................... . 
Tuxedo. ._...................... 
Saskatchewan. 
North Battleford (city)........ 
Swift Current (city)............ 
Weyburn (city). ................ 

Ielville....... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Estevan. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Kamsack.. . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . 
Humboldt.... _................ 
l\Ielfort.......... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 
Biggar... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ... . 
Indian Head.. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 
Canora. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Battleford......... . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Shaunavon.................... . 
*

;:

.

:::::::::::::::::: : 
Moosomin..................... . 
}:
si

b
i

 
:::: 
:: : : : : :: : :: : :: : 
Kindersley. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Maple Creek. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Alberta. 
Drumheller....... _....... _..... 
Red Deer (city)................ 
Wetaskiwin (city)... ............ 
Camrose....................... . 
Macleod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . 
Tab('r. . . . ...................... 
Cardston. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . 
Ponoka........................ . 
Coleman. .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 
Blairmore.. _... ............... 
Vegreville. . . . .. . . . . ... . . ... '.' . 
Stettler....... .. . . . . . . ... ... . . . . 
Raymond.... ............ ....... 
Hanna......................... . 
Vermilion.. ............. ........ 
High River.............. ....... 
Ed
on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . ... . . 
Redcliff.. .. .. .. .. .. ..... ... '. . . 
Lacombe........... ... ... ...... 
l\Iagrath..... . . . . . ... ... .. .... . . 
Grande Prairie........ ... ... . . . . 
Rig Valley. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 
Beverly........................ . 
British Colcmbla. 
}{amloops.......... ............ 
Fernie. .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . ... . 
Vernon. ............. ............ 
Cumberland........ ............ 
Trail. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . 
Revelstoke. . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . 
Cran brook. . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . 
Kelowna. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Port CoquitIam................. 
Rossland...................... . 
Prince George.......... . . . . . . .. . 
Ladysmith..... ......... ... .... 
Chilliwack........ ..... ..... ... . 
1IIerritt... . . .. . . .. ... .. .... .. . . . 
Grand Forks.................... 
Duncan..... _. . . .... ... . . . ... . . . 
Port Alberni.................... 
Port Moody. . . . . . ... ... . . . . . . . . 


1901. 1911. 1921. 


839 1,854 1,710 
1,439 1,271 1.591 
1.052 1.483 1,505 
901 1.550 1,361 
1,522 1,130 1.268 
589 1,005 1,112 
- - 1,062 


- 2,105 4.108 
121 1,852 3,518 
113 2.210 3.193 
- 1. 816 2.808 
141 1,981 2.290 
- 473 2.002 
- 859 1,822 
- 599 1,746 
- 315 1,535 
768 1,285 1.439 
- 435 1.230 
609 1,335 1,229 
- - 1,146 
- - 1,106 
- 781 1,101 
868 1,143 1,099 
413 1,172 1,074 
- 1,006 
- 456 1,003 
382 936 1.002 



23 
550 


- 2.499 
2.118 2.328 
2,411 2.061 
1.586 1,892 
1,844 1,723 
1.400 1.705 
1.207 1.612 
642 1.594 
1.557 1.590 
1.137 1.552 
1,029 1.479 
1,444 1,416 
1,465 1,394 
1,364 
625 1,272 
1,182 1,198 
497 1.138 
220 1,137 
1,029 1,133 
995 1,069 
- 1.061 
- 1.057 
- 1.039 


796 


639 
151 


231 


153 


499 
424 


- 3. 77
 4.501 
- 3. ]4f 4.343 
80
 2.67] 3.685 
73? 1. 237 3, ]76 
J.360 1.460 3.020 
1.600 3.017 2.782 
I. Hili :UI!1(1 2.725 
26] 1.663 2.5
O 
- - 2,148 
6. J56 2, 8
6 2.007 
- - 2,053 
i4C 3,
g5 1.967 
2i7 1,657 1,767 
- 703 1. 721 
1,012 1,577 1.4fì9 
- - I, J78 
- - 1,056 
- - 1.030 



176 


POPULAT/OX 


to.-Quinquennial Population of the Prairie Provinces. 
The Census and Statistics Act, 1905, provided for taking a census of population 
and agriculture in 
Ianitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1906 and in every tenth 

Tear thereafter, thus instituting, in addition to the general decennial census for all 
Canada, a quinquennial census of population and agriculture for the three prairie 
provinces. The quinquennial census of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta was 
therefore taken as for June 1, 1916, and the complete results were published in a 
report dated January 12, 1918. A summary of the principal data was published in 
the Year Book for 1918, pages 105-112. 
Total Population of Prairie Provinces.-The male and female population 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta (a) by provinces, (b) by the electoral dis- 
tricts constituted by the Representation Act, 1914 (4-5 Ceo. V, c. 51), and (c) by 
cities, towns and villages, as compared with the population by sex for 1911 and by 
totals for 1901 and 1906, was published in the Year Book of 1916-17 (pp. 95-105). 
The total population of the three prairie provinces in 1916 was returned as 1,698,220, 
as compared with 1,328,12] in 1911, 808,863 in 1906 and 419,512 in 1901. As the 
population of the prairie provinccs in 1921 was 1,956,082, the incrf'ase during the 
five year period since 1916 was 257,862 or 15.18 p.c. This comparatively low 
rate of increase, as compared with the increase of 28 p.c. during the five years 
ended 1916, was undoubtedly due to the effect of the war in restricting immigration. 
Table 34 shows the population of the prairie provinces for 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 
and 192], the population being distinguished by sex for 1911 and 1916. In Table 35 
are furnished statistics of the population of Manitoba from 1870, and of Saskatche- 
wan and AlberfJ1. from 1901, with the percentage of increase in each Quinquennium. 


3t.-Population of the Prairie Pro\inces, 1901, 1906, 1911, 1916 and 1921. 


1901. 


1906. 


1911. 


1916. 


1921. 


Provinces. 


Malt's. Fe- - 
males. 


TotaL 


:Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Total. 


Total. 


Total. TotaL 


--------- 


Manitoha........... 255,211 365,688 252,954 208,440 
Saskatchewan....... 91,279 257,763 291,730 200,702 
Alberta.... -- .. . ... . 73,022 185,412 223,792 15o,50J 


461,394 294,609 259,251 
492,432 363,787 2M, 041) 
374,295 277,256 219,269 


553,860 
647,835 
496,525 


610, 118 
757,510 
588,454 


Total........... 419,512 808,813 768,476 559,6.J.; l,328,nl D35,SJ
 76
,568 1.698,
20 1,9J6,08'! 


----------- 


35.-Popu1atlon of the Prairie Pro\inces by Sex at each Census Period from 1870 
for Manitoba and from 1901 for Saskatchewan and Alberta. 


Province and Years. 


Population. 
Males. Females. Total. 


Increase over Preceding Census. 



lales. 


Females. 


Total. 


- -- -- --- - - 
No. No. No. No. p.c. 1'\0. p.c. No. p.c. 
Manitoba- 
1870................... . 6,317 5,911 12,228 
1881................... . 35,123 27, 137 62,260 28,806 456.01 21,22ti 359. 10 50,032 40!H6 
1886. .. . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . . 59,594 49,046 lOR,64o 24,471 69.67 21,909 80.73 46,J8o 74.49 
1891. . . . , . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . 84,342 68, 16! 152,506 24,748 41.53 19,118 38.98 43,866 40.37 
1896. .... . . ..... . ... . 1 1 193,425 - 40,919 26.83 
1901 2 . .................. 138,504 116,707 255,211 64, 162 64.22 48,543 71.22 102,705 67_34 
)906.................... 205,183 160,505 365,688 66,679 48.14 43,798 37.5:J 110,477 43.29 
1911....,.............. . 252,954 208,440 461,394 47,771 23.28 47,935 29.87 95, 706 26.17 
1916................... . 294,609 259,251 553,860 41,655 16.51 50,811 24.37 92,466 20.04 
1921. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 320,567 289,551 610,118 25,958 8.81 30,300 11.69 56,258 10.16 


1 In 1896 the Canaus consisted of a count of population only. 
2 Ten-year increase shown. 



POPULA.TIOX nF BRITISH EJIPIRE 


Iii 


35.-Population of Prairie Prmlnces b)' Se\: at each Census Period from 1870 for 

Ianitoba and from 1901 for 
askatche\\ an and Alberta-concluded 


Population. IncreJ.se over Preceling Census. 
Province unci "\ e:1rs. 
}Iales. Forna'''.j Total. _ :\Ial l ,=- Females. Total. 
--- ----- 
1\0. 
o. 
o. No'1 p.C. 1'\0. p.C. 
o. p.c. 
Sm:katchewan- 
1901... . ...-_...... 4 Q ,431 41,fW; 91,279 - - - - 
1906.......... . 152,791 104,9ï2 257.763 103. 360 209. 10 63,124 150. S4 166,484 182.39 
1911. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291,730 200.702 492,432 138,939 90.93 9.';,730 91.20 2M,669 91.05 
1916................... . 363,787 284.04... 647,835 72,057 2-1.70 S:>,3-16 41.5.
 155,403 31.50 
1921. . .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . 413,700 343, SlO 757,510 49,913 13.72 59,762 21.04 109,675 16.93 
Alberta- 
1901......... ... ....... 41, 019 32,Om 73.022 - - - - - - 
1906........... .. ...... 108,28.3 ï7. 12
1 185,412 67,2e4 162.9S 45, 126 141.00 112,390 153.91 
1911.. . .. 223,792 150,503 374,295 115,509 106.67 73,374 95.13 188,883 101.87 
1916........... . 277,256 219.26? 496,525 53,464 2:J.89 68,766 45.69 122,230 32.66 
1921. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324,208 264,246 588,454 46,952 16.93 44,977 20.51 91,929 18.51 
Prairie PrO\'"Ínces- 
1901................... . 228,954 190, !i58. 419,512 - - - - - - 
1906................... . 466,257 342,606 808,863 237,303 103.64 152,04S 79.79 389,351 92.81 
1911.................. .. 768,476 559' 645 1 1,328,121 302,219 64.82 217,033 63.35 519, 25
 64.20 
1916................... . 9:J5,652 762, 56b 1,968.220 167,176 21.75 202,923 36.26 36
1, 495 28.87 
) 921.. .. . 1,058,475 897.607 1. 956, 082 122,823 1:3.13 135,039 17.71 257,852 15.18 


11.- Population of the British Empire. 
During the decade 1911-1921 the boundaries of the British Empire \\ere con- 
tracted by the voluntary giving up of Egypt and expanded by the addition of various 
territories as a result of the war. The increa
es of territory were mainly in Africa, 
where the Tanganyika Territory, 
outhwcst Africa, and portions of the Cameroons 
and Togoland were added to the Empire, with an aggregate area of 731,000 square 
miles and an estimated population of slightly oyer 5,000,000. In Asia the territories 
acquired by mandate from the League of Nations include Palestine and Meso- 
potamia, with 3,619,282 inhabitants on an area of 152,250 square miles. In the 
Pacific the territories added to the Empire include \Vestern Samoa, the Territory of 
New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and part of the Solomon islands, all of 
which were formerly German possesFions. According to the most reliable estimates 
the total area of these regions is 90,802 square wiles with a population of 637,051. 
Statistics of the area and population of the territories included in the British 
Empire in 1921 are given in Table 36, together with comparative figures of popula- 
tion for 1911. 


36.- Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 1911 and 1921. 
(From the British Statistical Abstract, Statesman's Year Book, and other sources.) 


Countrie!l. 


Area in 
square Census of 
mile!!, 19:?1. 1911. 


Population. 


Census of 
1921. 


t:urope. 
England und 'Vales...... ........................................ 
Scotland.......... ....... .. .... ., ..... 
j;i:
ty:;e IJ




.. . . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : . : : : : : : :: } 
Isle of \Ian................ 
Channel Iblands.......... .......... -. ... 
Gihraltar.............................................. .. . 

laltaE. .......................................................... 


58,340 
30,405 
32,586 


36,070,492 
4,760,9().1 
1,250,531 
(3,139,688) 
52,01!i 
!16,ti99 
19,120 
211,564 


37,885,242 
4,81'2,288 
1,284,OOO
 
3,139,688 3 
60, 23ð 
89,614 
21,000 
213,000 


227 
75 
Ii 
117 


Tot-a!, Europe.................. ... .................. . 1%1,7511 .j,j,601,Ut 47,57;),0711 
623ï3-12 



l,S 


POPULAT/OK 


36.-Area and Population of the British Empire, by Countries, 
1911 and 19
1 -continued. 


Countries. 


Asia. 
Ad('n, including Perim................. 
SOcotra..... . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . ... . . .. . . .. . . 
Borneo- 
Rri tish North Borneo. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Brunei. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
:'arawak...... . ... .... . ... . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Total, Borneo........... 


Bahrein Is. Prot..... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 
Ceyiï

(ú
:
 ï;::.....:: 
 
 : 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 : 
 
 : 
 
 
: : : :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cyprus6 7...........................,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 
Hon




;rlt
ri

: :..:::.::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: } 
India, British... .... . . 
Xative t;tates.. ................ -... 


Total, India............................ 


:'trait!' :--;cttlements. 
Laboon.. __.. 
Chlistmas Is... -.... 
COCOb or Keeling Is._ 
Total, Straits ::;ettlementb and dependenclC
. 
Asiatic }Iandates- 
Palestine......... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
)l('sopotamia (Iraq)... .................. 
Total, Asiatic )[andatcs........... 


rí'l{erated }Ialay States- 
Perak......................................... ...... 


:

:
bÙ

:::.::::::::::..... ..:: :::: ::::::::: 
l'ahang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................. 
Total, Federated )íalay States................. 


'(;lÚederateù }talay States- 
Johore.. .............................. ................ 
Kedah.. __.. .......................... ..... -- -- ..... 
Pí'rlis................ ....... ......... .....,. ...... ......... 
l
elantan. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. '.. 
Trengganu. .............. . . ... ................... 


Total, r nfederated }Ialay 
tates....... .. .. .. .. . . ..... 


Wei-lIai-Wei................... .. 
Total, A!>ia 


Afrlcll. 


British Ea"t Africa- 
Kenya Colony and Prot....... . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .... .. .. .. . . . . . .. . 
Tanganyika Terr. (late German East Africa).................. 
Uganda Proto . - . - ................. 
Zanzibar Prot....... . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . -- .. ... 
Pemba........... .................. .... 
J.lauritius.........................,................. ........... 
Dependencies of. .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . 

yai'aland Prot.............,.......................... .......... 
:-;t. Helena................................................ ........ 
Ascension.... . .. . ...... .. .. .. . . .. '.' .. . .. .... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 
Tnstan da Cunha................................................. 


Area in 
square 
mil('s, 1921. 


Population. 
Census of Census of 
1911. 192'1. 


80 46,165 54,923 
1,382 12,000- 12,000- 
31,106 208, 183 208,183 3 
4,000 21; 718- 25,454 
42,000 500,000 600,000 
77, 106 729,901 833,637 
275 - llO,ooQfo 
25,331 4, 106,350 4,504,549 
- - 70,000- 
3,5M 274,108 310,808:0 
3\11 366,145 } 625, 166 
!JO,594 
1,093,074 244,221,377 247,003,293 
709,555 70,888,854 71,939,187 
1,802,629 315,110,231 318,9t2,480 
1,572 715,529 } 881,939 
28 6,546 
62 1,463- 1,100 
- 749 SOO 
1,662 724,287 883,839 
9,000 - 757, IS2 
143,250 - 2,849,282 17 
152,2.';0 - 3,606,464 
7,875 494,057 59('),055 
3,138 294,035 401, 00\1 
2,573 130, 199 178,762 
14,037 118,708 146,064: 
27, 623 1,036,999 1,324,890 


7,500 
3,800 
316 
5,870 
6,000 
23,486 


180,412 
245, \186 
32,746 
286,751 
154,073 
899,968 


282,244 
33S 554 
40,091 
309,293 
153,092 
1,123,274 


285 
2,U6,
:i 


147,133 
323,M3 b.-Il 


33
 ,:10') , 030 


245,050 2,402,863' 2,376,000 
365,000 - 4,122,000 
1l0,300 10 2,843,325 3,066,327 Il 
tHO 114,000 ! 197,000- 
3bO 83,000 
720 368,791 385,074 
S9 6,690 
39,573 970,430 1,201,983 
47 3,477 3,747 
34 400 250 
- - 130 



POPULATIOS OF BRITISH EJIJ>IJ-lE 


17tt 


36.- Mea and POlmlation of the British Empire, by Countries, 
1911 and 1921-contillued. 


I Area in Popuhtion. 
sq uare -- -- 
Census of Census of 
miles, 19
1. 1911. 1921. 
156 22,691 24,811 
68,000 344,323 300,000 4 
11,716 404,507 417, i12 
275,000 125,350 152,98.3 
149,000 771,077 81)3,6
0 
291,000 822,482 931,500 
6,678 99,959 133,563 
276,966 2,564,965 2. 7S2, 719 
35,284 1,194,043 l,429,3!JS 
50,389 528,174 628,827 
110,450 1,686,212 2.087,636 
322,400 - 227,432 
795,4S!I 5,973,394 7, 156,012 


Countrief<. 


Africa-concluded. 

eychelles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
i;omaliland. Prot. ............................. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
South Africa- 
Baf<utoland. . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
:Bechuanaland Prot.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rhodesia, Southern...................... . -... 
Rhodesia, Northern........................................... 
Swaziland................................................... . 
{;nion of South Africa- 
Cape of Good Hope........ .... .., ........... ........ .... ..... 

atal.......... _ . .... - - -..... -............................... 
Orange Free State... .. . .... .................. 
Transvaal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . 
Hou th \Vest Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Total, Union of Sou th Africa.... . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . 
West Africa- 
'xigeria, Colony and Protectorate of............... 


British Cameroon................ __ ......... 
Gambia:O..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . - . 
Gold Coast, Ashantiand Prot.......................... . 
Northern Terr. Prot... . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Togoland.................................................... . 
Sierra Leone:iO. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 


Total, West Africa... . _ . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 



nglo-Egyptian ::)udan......................... 


336,700 
31,000 
4,132 
79,506 
31,100 
12,600 
30,000 
525,038 


Total, .-\frica............. ............................ 3,897,9
1 


1,014,000 


America. 


ßernllJda l . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... ........ . .. .. . 
ominion of Canada........................................... .. 
Falkland Is.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

ritish Guiana lf .................................................. 
ritish Honduras................................................. 
iewfoundland................................................... . 
W


aI
di
 i
i;
ds
 . . . . - . - . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Bahamas... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . _ ." . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . 
Barbados......... ............................. 
Jarna.ica. . . ...................... ......................... -. 
Cayman Is. . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Turk's and Caicos Is... . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .. .. ... . . . .. .. . . . 
L
ward Islands 
Virgin Is .. .. __ .. . 
S!. Çhristopher. ... 
:'\evls. ...... ........... ..... . 
Anguilla. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
Antigua, including Barbuda. . . . . . . . . . 


:i::i::
.. .. .. : : .. : : : : : : : : : : : : . . . . . . . 
Trinidad. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 
Tobago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Windv.ard Islands- 
St. Lucia. . . _ . .. ....... 
St. Vincent...................... 
Grenada and the Grenadines. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .... - . . . . . . . 


Total, West Indies... .. . . . . . .. . . 


19 
3,729,665 
7,500 
89,480 
8,592 
42,734 
120,000 
4,404 
166 
4,207 
89 
166 
56 
68 
50 
34 
170 
33 
305 
1,862 
111 


Total, America.... . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . .. 4,010,229 


i2
73-12! 


2:tl 
150 
133 


(9,269,00021 118,500,000 
\7,857,983 J 
- 400,000 4 
145,101 240, OOO
 
1,503,386 2,078,043 
360.000 4 527,914 
- 188,265 
1,403,132 12 1,541,311 
20,539,602 23,475,533 
3,400,000 13 5,850,000 
39,296,361 50,678,2-1.') 
18,994 20,127 
7,206,643 8,788,483 
3,275 3,271 
296,041 307,391 
40,458 45,3lï 
238, 670 263,683 
3,9-19 3,621 
55,944 53,031 
171,983 156,312 
831,383 858, 188 
5,486 5,253 
5,615 5,612 
5,557 1 
26,2S3 
12,945 
4.075 t 122,242 
J2,265 
12,200 J 
33,863 
312,803 } 365,913 
20,749 
4g,637 52,250 
41,877 44,925 
73,636 73,406 
1,695,321 1,737,132 
9,503,351 11,169,025 
-- 


12,239 



IbO 


PUPULA.TION 


36.-Area and Population of thf' British Emplrf', by Countries, 
1911 and 1921 -concluded. 


Countries. 


Australasia. 


Au
tra1ia, Common\\ealth of- 
f ic{
:1




;





 .:. :. :. : : : : : : : : : : : : . . . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ! 







:fi;:

.
..:.:.:::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::
: ::::::::) 
Tasmania. . . _ _ 
Queen<:land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Area in 
square 
miles, 1921. 


Population. 
Cenl"Us of Census of 
1fIl1. 1921. 


309,432 
940 
87,881 
380,070 
523, 620 
975,920 
2Ct,215 
670,500 


1,64Ct,734 
1,714 
1,315,551 
408,558 
3,310 
282,114 
191,211 
605,813 
4,455,005 


Total, Commonwealth1&............................... 2,974,581 


Terrltor
. of Papua..... ...... .... .............. 
Dom. of New Zealand I8 ................... ............. 
Terr. of Western Samoa.. 
:'\ auru... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Fiji...... . 


l'acifì(" I"lands- - 
Tongan I>;. Prot. (Friendly Is.}...... ... ............ . . __. __ 
TClr. of Xe\\ Guinea (late German Xe\\' Guinea) - I.. ..... 
:Sew Guinea (Kaiber Wilhelm's Land}..................... 
Hismarck Archipelago. ............................. .... 
&lon10n Is. Prot.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Brit. f-:olomon Islanru. Prot.................................... 
Gilbert and EHice Is. Colony.. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. " . 


t:
:
.
.


:.'.':::.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : 

tarbuck Is.. -. . . -. .......... . . .. . 
J an is Is. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ....... _ . .. .. . . . . . 
}!:alden. .......................................
............. 
Total, Pacific Islands.... .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . 


2,099,72
 
2,5,_ 
1, 531. 52!' 
495,336 
3,870 
332,213 
213,877 
757,634 
5,436,794 


90,540 380,000" 276, 8i>-
 
103,861 1,008,468 1,218,91J 
1.260 - 37,157 
10 - 2,129 
7,083 139,541 157,266 


385 23,737 
70,000 - 
15,752 - 
3, &>0 - 
11 , 000 150,000 
20
 31,121 
Ib 59 
2 140 19 
I - 
11 3:1 
35 168 
101,2001 205,255 


23,57
' 
350,000 
188,OOOt 
17,OOOi 
150, 65()6 
36,122 
59 
140 


30 
168 
765,741 


Grand total. ..... 


Total, -\.ustr'llasla.................................... 3, 27t1. 53';1 6, 1!\1\, 269 7 .89t.
 


H9,719,2.'i8 


SUM" \RY BY COXTINEr-.'"'l8- 
Europe....................................................... . 
Asia.... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 
Alrica....................................................... . 
.-\merica.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . 
Australasia. _. _... .. ....___....__. _. '.. 


. . .. 13, JU,5191 121,133,076 


121,7511 45,601.214 n,575,070 
2,116,084 323,542,8ð1 332,302,030 
3,8{17,9:?0 39,296,361 50,678,245 
4,010,229 9,503,351 11,169,025 
3,278,535
 Ct,IS8,269 7,894,8
S 


ITenitory heretofore kno\\n as the United Kingo.om: area, 121,633 square mile!:'; population, 1921, 
47,341,070. 2 Estimated population 1\orthern Ireland, 11/22. 3 Census 19)1. :-;0 census in 1921. t Estim- 
ated population. & Estimated population, 1919. 0 Excluding the military and per80ns on ships in Ilarbours. 
7 Admini"tered b
' Erudand under a convention dated 4th June, 1878; annexed on the 5th Xovember, 1914. 
i By the ShantunJ! settlpment at \'ia!>hingtoll, January, 1922, Wei-Hai-Wei is restored to China. 8 Ad!11Ïni;,- 
tered provincc:" only. 10 Incluùing 16,169 square miles of v.ater within the territorial limits o[ the t.:ganda 
Protectorate. 11 Estimated population, December, 1921. I
 Including 567,5úl chilùren-scx not stated. 
13 Estimated population, 1917. u Exclusive o[ certain Aborigincb estimated to number 13,000 at the census 
of 1911. 1& The population "fa ted for Au"tralia is exclusive of full-blooded Aborigines, estimated at 100,000 
in 1911. 10 Kumher o[ Papuans estimated. 17 Population in 1920. 18 The area (2S0 square miles) and 
population (12,59S in 1911) of the Cook and other island" of the Pacific arc excluded. The Xiaori population 
(49,844 in Hili) is also excluded. 18 Population in HJl4. æ Preliminary return. !\ 
orthern Protectorate 
and 
outhern 
igeria and Colony in I\JIL 



POPULATIO.V OF THE WORLD 


181 


12.-Population of the World. 
Statistics glvrng the number and density of the population of the various 
continents and countries of the world at the latest enumerations are presented in 
Table 37, which has in the main been based upon the similar table in the official 
year book of the Commonwealth of Australia. In many cases, more especially in 
Africa, the populations are rough aprrm.imations. 
31.-Number and Density of the Population of the '"arious Countries of the "odd. 


Country. 


{'ontlnents 
Europe...... . . . . . . .. .. . 
Asia........-.......... 
Africa.... ...... 
Korth and Central 
America and the 
West Indies.......... 
South America..... . . . . 
Australasia and Poly- 
nesia... .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 


Popula tion. 
Xumber. Density.! 


474,970,182 
1,017,676,054 
144,368,361 


145, 531,4S7 
64,26ï,810 
8,569,840 


TotaL.... _ __...... l,855,383,7:i4 
Europe - 
Russia................ . 
Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
V nited Kingdom. .. .. . . 
Italy....... .. . . . .. .. . . . 
France................ . 
Poland. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Spain {inc!. Canary and 
Baleáric Islands.).... 
Rumania.............. . 
Czecho-Slovakia. . . . . . . 
Jugo-Slavia............ . 
Hungary.... . . . . . . . . . . . 
Belgium............... . 
ill etherlands......... ., . 
Austria. ................ 
Portugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sweden............... . 
Greece................ . 
Bulgaria...... ......... 
Lithuania............. . 
Switzerland..... . . .. .. . 
Finland............... . 
Denmark............. . 
l\"orway ................ 
Turkey............... . 
Esthonia.............. . 
Latvia..... . .. ... . . . .. . 
Albania.... . .... . . . . .. . 
Danzig................ . 
J,uxemburg............ . 
:\lalta..... .... .. .. .. .. . 
Iceland.......... .. .. .. . 
FiuDle. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
\lonaco............... . 
Gibraltar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
::;an Marioo............ 
Liechtenstein.. . . . . . . . . . 
Andorra............... . 


Total. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 
-\sla- - 
China and Depenùen- 
cies... . . . . .. .... . . .. . 
British India.......... . 
Japan and Dependencies 
(incl. Korea)......... 
Feudatory Indian States 
Dutch };
ast Indies. ..... 


122,288,160 
5!J, 8.5ï, 2S3 
47,341,OïO 
40,070,161 
39,209,766 
26,886,399 


20, ;83, 844 
17,393,149 
13,595,816 
11,337,68ö 
7, 8iO, 83
 
7,684,2ï2 
6,841,155 
6,131,4-15 
5,957, !J85 
5,903,762 
5,447,077 
4,861,i39 
4,800,000 
3,&;0,320 
3,3.35,237 
3,289,195 
2,646,306 
1,8!n,OOO 
1,750,000 
1,503,193 
1,400,000 
351,380 
263,824 
213.000 
94, 690 
49,806 
22,956 
21,000 
12,027 
10,716 
5,231 


474,970,182 


436,094,053 
247,003,293 
77,606,154 
71,939,187 
49,161,047 


1 Number of persons per square mile. 


73.78 
326.25 
388.85 
362. 19 
184.38 
180.39 
106.70 
142.2-1 
25().55 
118.56 
219.91 
654.31 
5-13. 73 
19!).29 
167.88 
34.12 
129.90 
119.57 
31.07 
242.88 
22.30 
191.85 
21.17 
173.77 
75.56 
60.13 
121.74 
4115.62 
264.08 
1,820.51 
2.38 
6,225.75 
2,869.50 
11,200'00 
316.50 
164.86 
27.39 
126.60 


Country. 


126.60 
59.86 
12.55 


Asia-concluded. 
Russia in Asia.......... 
Philippine Islands. .. . . . 

i:

::::::::::::::::: : 
Turkey in Asia..... . . . . 
Tonking.. ..... _ . _ . . . . . 
Afghanistan...... _ 
Annam. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . 
NepaL................ . 
Arabia (Independent). . 
Ceyl m............ ..... 
Cochin China.......... 
Syria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Bo'<:hara. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
:\lesopotamia. . 
Smyrna........... __... 
Kurdi8tan and Armenia 
(Turkish). . .. . . . . . . . . 
Georgia............... . 
Azerbaijan............ . 
Cambollia............ . 
Far Ea
tern Republic. . 
Kiau Chau. . . . . . . .. . .. . 
Federated :\lalay States 
Armenia.. .... ......... 
:\-lalay Protectorate.... 
Straits ::;ettlements..... 
British North Borneo, 
Brunei and ::;arawak.. 
Laos.................. . 
Palestine. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 
Hong Kong and Depend. 
Goa, etc... .... . . . . . . 
h.hiva................ . 
Oman...... . .. . . . . . . .. . 
Timor, etc.............. 
Cyprus.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 
French India...... . . .. . 
Bhutan.. ............... 
Kwang Chau Wang..... 
Wei-hai-wei... .......... 
Bahrein Islands... . . . . . 
:\-racao, etc............. 
)laldive I"lands........ 
Aden and Depenùencies 
Sokotra. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


18.19 
9.-15 
2.46 
33.43 


Population. 


Number. 


21,046,008 
10,350,730 
9,500,000 
9,121,000 
8,456,900 
6,470,250 
6,380,500 
5,731,189 
5,600,000 
5,500,000 
4,504,549 
3,452,24
 
3,000,000 
3,000,000 
2,84:1,282 
2,500,OaO 
2,470,900 
2,372,403 
2,096,!J73 
2,000,000 
1,811,725 
1,427,000 
1,324,890 
1,214,391 
1 123 274 
, 88.3: 839 
833,637 
800,000 
770,000 
625, 166 
54S 472 
519:000 
500,000 
377,815 
310,808 
265 200 
250: 000 
168,000 
147,177 
110,000 
ï4,866 
70,000 
54,923 
12,000 


Total............... 1,017,676,054 
Africa - 
Belgian Congo.. . 
Nigeria and Protector- 
ate.................. 
Egypt. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
French Equat. Africa. . 
Abyssinia........:.... . 
Tanganyika Territory.. 
V nion of 8. Africa.. . . .. . 
Algeria. .. . . __ . . . . . . . . . . 
Angola..... ........... 

radagasca.r and adja- 
cent islands.......... 


111.43 
225'97 
297. 03 
101.J8 
87.38 


16, 750,OaO 
18,500,000 
13,387,000 
9,000,000 
8,000,000 
4,122,000 
7,156,012 
5, lIDO, 974 
4,119,000 


3,54.3,575 


Density) 


3.56 
90.48 
}.5. 1:3 
45.86 
:
0.!J5 
l.j9.6-l 
26.04 
144.15 
103.70 
5.50 
177. 8
 
156.92 
26.19 
:H.97 
19.89 
96.90 
3-1.32 
92.10 
61.73 
34.54 
2.78 
528.52 
47.96 
79.68 
47.83 
531.79 
10.81 
8.211 
85.56 
1,598.8Y 
3:34. B-1 
21.62 
6.10 
51.54 
86.72 
1,35:3.06 
12.50 
884.21 
516.41 
440.00 
18,716.50 
608.70 
6.10 
8.68 
59.85 


18.41 
54.94 
38.25 
9.16 
22.86 
11.29 
8.99 
26.11 
8.50 
15.55 



182 


POPULA TIOX 


37.-l\umber and Density of the Population of the Various Countries 
of the World-concluded. 


Country. 


Afrlra -concluded. 

torOCL'O......... .... .. . 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.. 
Portuguese East Africa. 
l:"ganda Protectorate... 
rpper Volta............ 
Kenya Protectorate.... 
S,em;gambia and Niger. 
1ums.......... . 
Gold Coast and Pro- 
tectorate..... . 
Liberia............ .. 
French Guinea......... 
:Rhodesia. . . .. . . . . . . .. . 
I vory Coast....... .. 
French Cameroon...... 
Sierra Leone and Pro- 
tectorate..... . . 
Senegal. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
Kyasaland Protect..... 
Britif'h Cameroon...... 
Tripolitania and C
're- 
naica. ... ." . . . . . . . . . . 
Dahomey. .. .. .. . . .. . 
Frene h Sahara.. 
Rio de Oro and Aùrar. 
Territory of Z\iger..... 
Italian ::)omaliland..... 
:::;panish 
ioroceo....... 
llasutoland........ ..... 
Togolanù (Bri tish). ... . 
Togoland (French).... . 
Eritrea. ... ...... 
)I.auritius and Depend.. 
Briti8h ::)omalilanù..... 
Portuguese Guinea.. . . . 

ïauretania. .. .. . . . .. . . . 
Gambia and Protect... 

uth West Africa...... 
Spanish Guinea........ . 
Zanzibar and Pemba... 
Reunion.. . . . . . . .. .,. 
llechuanaland Protect.. 
Cape "\ erde Islam.lß... 
::)\\ aziland . . . .. .. . . .. . . . 
Comoro and 
íayotte.. 
:French t;omali Coast... 
::)t. Thomas and Prince 
Islands.............. . 
:;eychelles. . .. .. ....... 
.Fernando Po, etc... . . . . 
Hni..... ........ . 
::)t. Helena............. 
Ascension.. . .. . . .. . . .. . 


Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
1\orth and ('entral 
Amerlra and "est 
Indies 
Lnited States.......... 
l\lexico.. . .. . .. . . . . . . . 
Canada. ............... 



ti: ....-::::::::::::::: 
Guatemala............ . 
::;alvador. ..... . . . . . . . . . 
Porto :Rico. ..... .. . . . .. 
::)an Doruingo.......... 
Jamaica........... ..... 
Nicaragua............. . 
Honduras... .... . ... 
Costa Rica.. ........... 
Trinidad and Tobago... 


Population. 


Kumber. 


6,000,000 
5,850,000 
3,120,000 
3,066.327 
3,000,100 
2,376,000 
2,400,000 
2,093,939 
2,078,043 
2,000,000 
1,851,200 
1,735,120 
1,545,680 
1,500,000 
1,541,311 
1,225,323 
1,201,983 
400,000 
1,000,000 
860 590 
800: 000 

OO, 000 
iOO, 225 
650,000 
liOO, 000 
497,712 
188.265 
500,000 
405,681 
385,074 
300,000 
289,000 
2liO,000 
240,000 
227,432 
200,000 
l!i7,OOO 
173,190 
152,!J8:i 
14!J,7!i3 
13a, 563 
!i5,617 
65,000 
58,907 
24,811 
23,M4 
,W,OOO 
3,747 
250 


144,368,361 


105,710,620 
15,501,684 
8, ib8, 483 
2,8b:J,004 
2,500,000 
2,003,5711 
1,501,OUO 
.1,2119,8011 
897,405 
1)58, 188 
(j&),119 
637,114 
468,373 
365,913 


Density.1 


26.90 
5.76 
7.29 
27.79 
19.43 
9.69 
6.54 
41.88 
26.13 
,50.00 
19.44 
3.94 
12.67 
9.01 
51.04 
16.54 
30.37 
31.73 
2.46 
10.26 
0.52 
7.33 
2.02 
4.66 
77.92 
42.48 
14.94 
22.84 
8.86 
475.98 
4.41 
20.73 
0.75 
58.08 
0.70 
21.12 
193.13 
178.55 
0.56 
101.21 
20.00 
66.40 
11.23 
163.63 
159.04 
29.29 
20.73 
79.72 
7.35 
12.55 

 


Country. 


North and C('ntral 
Am('rlca and "est 
Indles--ooncluded. 
K e\\ foundland and 
Labrador. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Martinique. .. . . . . . . . . . . 
Guadeloupe and Depen. 
Barbados... ........... 
Windward Islands.... . 
Leeward Islands.. . . . . . . 
Alaska. . . .. . . . . . . 
Curaçao......... .... 
Bahamas.............. . 
Bri tish Honduras..... 
Virgin I>;lands of li .S. <\.2 
Bermudas.... . ... 
Greenland (Danish). _. 
Turks and Caicos Is... . 
Cayman I81ands... . . . . . 
St. Pierre and 
Iiquelon 


Total............... 
South Am('rlra - 
Brazil (inel. Acre)..... . 
Argentine Uepublic.. _.. 
Columbia (exc!. Pana- 
ma).................. 
Peru............. ..... 
Chile. . . . . . . .. . . 
Bolivia........... ... 
"enezuela............. . 
Ecuador. 
Uruguay... . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Paraguay.. . ..... . 
Panama Hepublic. . . . . . 
British Guiana.... .. .. . 
Dutch Guiana....... . . . 
Frpnch Guiana. . . . . . . . . 
Panama Canal Zone.... 
Falkland Islands. . . . . . . 
South Georgia. ......... 


Total..... . 


35.55 
20.21 
2.31 
65.34 
245.00 
.1.49 
113.86 
378.40 
46.42 
203.99 
12.97 
14.39 
20.36 
185.17 


Australasia and Poly- 
n esla - 
Commonwealth of Aus- 
tralia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
N ew 

aland........ .. . 
Hawall................ . 
Papua.. ................ 
Territory of New Gui- 
nea......... .......... 
Dutch Kew Guinea..... 
Fiji. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Solomon Islands {Brit- 
ish)................. . 
New Hebrides......... 
1\ ew Caleùonia and De- 
pendenciel!.. . .. . . .. . . . 
Mar8hall Islands, etc. 
(Japanese mandate).. 
Western ::iamoa......... 
French El!tablishments 
in Uceania.. ......... 
Gilbert and Ellice Is. .. 
Tonga. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Guam................. . 
Samoa (American).... . 

auru 181and....... .. . . 
TotaL............. . 


Number. 


267,304 
:
44,439 
22
,822 
155,312 
170,581 
122,242 
55,036 
53,702 
.')3,031 
45,317 
26,051 
20,127 
13,449 
5,612 
5,253 
3,918 
145,531,487 


30,64:>,296 
8,6!J8,516 
5,855,077 
4, Ü:!O, 201 
3,754,723 
2, 

!I, 970 
2,411, !J52 
2,000,000 
1,494,953 
1,000,000 
401,428 
307,3111 
113,181 
4!1,009 
22, 
5H 
2,255 
1,000 
64,267,810 


5,436,7!14 
1,218,913 
255, !J12 
276, 8
8 
555,000 
200,000 
157,266 
150,650 
tiO, 000 
55,700 
4!J,690 
37,157 
31,477 
:J6, 122 
23,572 
U,:!46 
H 324 
2: 129 
8,569,840 


Population. 


Densi ty. 


1.64 
634.91 
318.31 
941.64 
330.58 
170.73 
0.09 
133.26 
12.04 
5.27 
197.36 
1,059.32 
0.29 
25.05 
59.02 
42.13 
18.19 


9.35 
7.54 
13.28 
6.40 
12.95 
5.62 
6.05 
17.24 
20.72 
5.69 
12.40 
3.44 
2.4!J 
1.53 
43.37 
0.35 
1.00 
9.45 


1.83 
11.73 
39.6b 
3.06 
6.19 
1.65 
22.20 
13.69 
10.91 
7.70 
51.76 
29.48 
20.71 
175.58 
61.22 
63.32 
81.61 
212.90 
2.M 


1 Xumuer of persons per !>quare mile. 


2 Late Danish \\'t.'"t Indies. 



VITAL STATISTICS 


183 


II.- YIT AL STATISTICS. 


The collection of vital statistics commenced in Canada, as in England, with 
the registration of baptisms, marriages and burials by the ecclesiastical authorities. 
These registers, maintained by the priests from the first settlement of the country, 
have made it possible for the vital statistics of the French colony to be compiled 
from the year 1610. 1 In the beginning, only one copy of such records was made, 
but in 16ï8 the Sovereign Council of Quebec ordered that in future such records 
!'hould be made in duplicate, and that one copy, duly authenticated, should be 
delivered to the civil authorities. This arrangement was continued after the cession 
of the C'ountry to England, and was extended to the newly-established Protestant 
churches by an Act of 1 ï93, but the registration among the!'e latter remained seriously 
defective, both in Lower Canada and in the newly-established provinC'e of lT pper 
Canada. 
In English-
peaking Canada, vital statistics were from the commencement 
seriously defective, the pioneer settlers often going out into the wilds far from the 
authority of government and the ministrations of religion. \Yhile a law existed in 
t.; pper Canada requiring ministers of religion to deposit duplicates of their registers 
of bapti!'ms, marriages and deaths with the clerks of the peace for transmission to 
the provincial secretary, this law remained practically a dead letter. Again, the 
efforts made to secure records of births and deaths at the censuses of 1851 and 1861 
produced mo!'t unsati'3factory and even ridiculous results, as was pointed out by 
Dr. J. C. Taché, secretary of the board of registration and statistics, in a memorial 
published in the report of the Canadian :\linister of Agriculture for the year 1865. 
Xevertheless, in spite of the inherent unsoundness of securing at a point of time in a 
decennial census a record of births and deaths occurring over a considerable period 
of time, this method was persisted in down to 1911, when the obviously untrust- 
worthy character of the results obtained led to the discarding of the data obtained 
at the inquiry. In l\Iontreal and Toronto, for example, the local records showed 
11,038 and 5,593 deaths respectively in the calendar year 1910, while the census 
records showed only 7,359 and 3,148 deaths respectively in the year from June 1, 
1910, to May 31, 1911. Similar discrepancies were shown for other areas, proving 
the census data to be very incomplete. 
The Dominion Government instituted in the early 80's a plan for compiling 
the annual mortuary statistics of cities of 25,OOO'population and over, by subsidizing 
local boards of health to supply the information under special regulations. A 
beginning was made with the five cities of Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Halifax 
and St. John. By 1891 the list had grown to 25, at a time when in most of the 
provinces the only birth and death statistics were those of the municipalities. Upon 
the organization of provincial bureaus of vital statistics, however, this work was 
abandoned, though a conference of Dominion and provincial officials, held in 18g3, 
passed a resolution calling upon the provincial and Dominion authorities to co- 
operate in the work of collecting, compiling and publishing the vital statistics of the 
Dominion. This resolution had, however, no immediate practical results in securing 
accurate or comparable vital statistics. 
Each province (except New Brunswick, which had no vital statistics) enacted 
its own legislation on vital statistics and administered such legislation according 
to its own individual methods. \Vhile the vital statistics of Ontario were published 


1 For a summary of the vital statistics of the Roman Catholic population from 1610 to 1883, see the 
Statistical Year Book of Quebec, 1921, English or French edition. p. 51. For details by year!! of this move- 
ment of population, see Vol. \' of the CenBuso1187J, pp. 160-265 and Vol.I\' of the CensÏ1sof 1881, pp. 134-1-15. 



184 


POPULATIOK 


in considerable detail annually from 1871, the arrangements for the collection of 
data were unsatisfactory. Only in 1906 was the publication of vital statistics begun 
in Prince Edward Island (no report for 1912 has ever been ii'sued), and in Nova 
Scotia the publication of vital statistics dates only from 1909. Because of the 
lacunæ, and even more becawo:e of the incomparability of facts collected, of methods 
of collection and of standard of enforcement, Canadian vital statistics remained 
e"'-tremely unsatisfactory and impossible to be compiled on a national basis, as was 
pointed out by the 1912 commi<;f':ion on official statistics, which recommended that 
"for the Dominion, now cngaged in building up its national unity, it i:;; important 
that uniform data should rcnder possible to Ftatisticians the inFtitution of true 
interprovincial and international comparisonf':. By effective co-operation of the 
province:;; with the Dominion this object should be capable of attainment without 
sacrifieing the liberty of eaeh province to satisfy its own special statistical require- 
ment:;;." 
The scheme of co-operation, thus outlined, has now been brought into cffect as 
a eonsequence of the e:-;tablishment of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics under the 
Statistics Act of 191
, which f':pecifically provided that the Bureau should publish 
an annual report on vital statistics, and of the Dominion-Provincial conferences on 
vital statistic:;;. The Fcheme was in the first inFtance drawn up in the Bureau and 
submitt< d to the various provinces; later a Dominion-Provincial conference on 
vitall-tati:-ti('s was held in June, 1918, when a comprehensive and final discussion 
took plm'f' 
.\t the eonferenees of 191R, it wa:': agreed: (1) that the model \ïtal Statistics 
A('t prepan d by t he Dominion Burf'au of f-;tati:-;tics, '" hen accepted by the legisla- 
t ures, 
hould fcrm the ba
i
 of the vital stati:-tie:-; legiFlation of the f':everal provinces, 
thus H'euring uniformity and comparability; (2) that the provinces should under- 
tah.e to obtain the returns of birthf':, marriages and deaths on the prescribed forms 
as approvul ar<l adopted at the conference, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics to 
supply the forn
", free of ('harge; (3) that th provinces should forward to the Dom- 
inion Burcau of :--'tati:-:ties, at such time
 as might be agreed upon, either the original 
return of births, m.lrriag:c's and deathf':, or certified transcriptions of the same; the 
Dominion Bureau of Sf at isticf, to undertake the mechanical compilation and tabu- 
lation of t he same. 
rrdcr the scheme outlined ab
ve, the vital statbtics of all the provinces, eXl'ept 
Quehec. have heen secured and compilf'd 011 a uniform basis for the year 1920, and 
with the cûnmlcncement of 19
1, it bceame possible to issue complete monthly 
statements for the eight provinces. The first annual report has been issued, covering 
the year H)21, and may he obtaincd on application to the Dominion btatistician. 
Statisties showing births, marriages, deaths and natural increase in the nine 
provinces of Canada in reccnt years are givcn under the various headings in the 
follo\\ ing tables. The statistics for the eight provinces constituting the rcgistra- 
tion area of Canada are compiled for the provinces in the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, while the figures for Quebec are taken from the provincial returns. The 
totals for the nine provinces are approximately equivalent to what they would be 
for the Dominion as a whole, 
ince the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Terri- 
tories, which arc not as yet covered by the ncw scheme of vital statistics, contain 
between them less than 1-70Oth of the population of the Dominion. 
Two important considerations should be borne in mind by the students who 
use either these tables or provincial report:, for comparative purposes. 



XATURAL IXCREASE 


185 


First, in spite of the improvements recently effected, registration generally, 
and the registration of births in particular, is not universally carried out. The great 
extent of the country, and the isolation of many of its inhabitants, partly account 
for this unf;atisfactory situation. 
Secondly, the great differences in the age and sex distribution of the population 
in different provinces, as shown by the Census of 1921, make comparisons (of crude 
birth rates, for instance), as among the provinces unfair and misleading. Thus, 
for instance, in British Columbia in 1921, there were only 773 females of ages 15 to 
44 to every 1,000 mal('f; of thef'c ages, while in Quebec there were 1,017 and in Prince 
Edward Island 9
6. Evidently in view of the great disproportion between the sexes 
in British Columbia, the crude birth rate per 1,000 of population in that province 
cannot properly be compared with the crude birth rate in Quebec or Prince Edward 
Island. Again, in conscQuence of different age distributions of population in the 
different provinces-the Prairie Provinces, for instance, have a very young popula- 
tion because of the healthy young immigrants whom thcy attract-a comparison of 
cr.ude death-rates of the provinces is misleading. In the Prairie Provinces, ta l wn as 
a unit, only 126 per thousand of the 1911 population and 149 per thousand of the 
1921 population had passed 45 years of age, while in Quebec 178, in Ontario 233 
and in Prince Edward Island 264 per thousand of the population were in 1921 over 
45 years of age. These latter provinces, having a much la,rger proportion of persons 
of advanced ages, will inevitably have a higher crude death rate per thousand of 
population than the Prairie Provinces. 
The natural increase of the population of Canada is first dealt with, followed by 
<!:.tailed tables of births, marriages and deaths in the order namrd. 


I.-Natural Increase. 


Summary statistics of the births, marriageR, deaths and natural increase per 
1,000 of population are given for the years 1920, 1921 and 1922 by provinces in 
Table 38. The figures for 1922 are provisional and are not available for the province 
of Quebec, which is not included in the registration area. 
The province of Quebec has perhaps the highest rate of natural increase per 
1,000 of population of any civilized country, 20.0 in 1920 and 23.4 in 1921. This 
brings the average for Canada (exclusive of the territories) up to 15.6 in 1920 and 
17.8 in 1921, while the remaining eight provinces, constituting the registration 
area, show as their rate of natural increase 13.7 for 1920 and 15.7 in 1921. In 
Australia the average rate of natural increase for the Quinquennium 1917 to 1921 
was 14.26 and in New Zealand 13.29, in England and Wales 7.20 and in Scotland 
8.54 per thousand of population, so that the registration area of Canada compares 
quite favourably with other British countries. It must be remembered, however, 
that 1917 and 1918 were war years. 
The rates of natural increase pcr annum per 1000 of mean population for 
other countries during rccent years are a
 follows, the pel iod on which ohservation 
is baRed being giWll in each case in parenthe
es: Denmark (1911-15),12.87; Japan 
(1914-17), 12.26; Netherlands (1916-20), 12.25; Norway (1911-15), 11.82; 
Finland (1913-17), 9.14; Italy (1913-17), 8.11; Switzerland (1912-16), 7.89; 
Sweden (1916-20), 6.60; Spain (1915-19).4.60; Ireland (191G-20), 3.89; France 
(1910-14), O. -13. . 



1b6 


POPULATION 


The present natural increase of the population of Canada is in the neighbour- 
hood of 150,000 per annum, about one-third of which is due to Quebec. 
The births, marriages, deaths and natural increase per thousand of population 
in Canadian cities having a population of 10,000 and over are given for the calendar 
year ]921 in Table 39. 


38.-Summary of Births, )Iarrla
es, Deaths and :Satural Increase, by Prm1nces' 
for the ca)('ndar ) ('ars 1920, 1921 and 1922. 


Province. 


Birt.h 
Births. ra:
6ör 
Ii ving. 


Marn- I Death Excess 


al 
Marri- age D h rate per b . of increase 
ages. rate per eat s. 1,000 lfths 1,000 
1,000 r . over 
living. lVmg. deaths. li
::g. 


1920. 
Prince Ed\\ard Island............. 2,301 25.9 607 6.8 1,279 14.4 I, (m 11. 5 
X ova Scotia.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 13,18] 25.3 4,411 8.5 7,563 14.5 5,621 1O.!ì 
X ew Brunswick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,778 28.1 3,780 9.9 5,628 14.7 5,150 J"3.-I 
Ontario......... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72,297 25.0 29,361 10.2 40,410 14.0 31,887 11.0 
"!\Ianitoba..... h................... 18,322 30,6 6,068 10.1 6,511 10,9 11,811 19.7 

askatchev.an......... -........ .".. 22, 839 31.1 5,320 7.2 5,918 8.1 16,921 2:1.0 
Alberta. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .-. 16,531 29.0 5,W7 9.0 5,674 10.1 10.857 19.1 
British Columbia... ...:::::.. .... 10,492 20.5 4,690 9.2 4, ï3!J 9.2 5,753 11.3 
--------- 
Total for Registration Area........ 166,741 26.0 59,344 9.4 77, 722 12.3 89,022 l:i.j 
Quebec........................... . 86,328 37.2 21,5!ì7 9.3 40,686 17.5 45,642 20.0 


Canada (euluslve of the T('rrå- 
torles). _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 
.i:J, 069 


29.j 1'0,931 


9.j 118,408 


13.7 13-1,66& 


15.6 


1921. 
Prince Edward Island............. 2,156 24.3 518 5.9 1,209 13.6 947 10.7 
Xova Scotia.......... . . .. . . . . .. .. . 13,021 24.9 3,550 6.8 6,420 12.3 6,601 12.6 
Xew Rruns\\ick................... 11,465 29.6 3,173 8.2 5,410 14.0 6,055 15.6 
Ontario. ....... . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . 74, 152 25.3 24,871 8.5 34,551 11.8 39,6011 13.5 
"!\tß.ni toba.. .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . 18,478 30.3 5,310 8.7 5,388 8.8 13,O!J0 21.5 
f'askatche\\an.... .. . -....-_...... 22,4!1:1 30.0 5,101 6.7 5,596 7.4 16,897, 22.6 
Alberta. ." ...... . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . 16,561 28.1 4,661 7.9 4,940 8.4 11,621 20.0 
British Columbia.................. 10,563 20.3 3,889 7.4 4,208 8.0 6,445 12.3 
-------- 
Total lor Registration Area..... .. . 168,979 26.3 51,073 8.0 67,722 10.6 101,257 15.7 
Quebec........................... . 88,749 37.6 18,659 7.9 33,433 14.2 55.316 23.4 
-------- 
{'anada (ncluslve of the Terrl- 257,728 101,1';'; 11.5 1ãG,573 17.S 
tories). . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.4 69,732 8.0 


1922. 
Princ(' Edward Island............. 2,055 23.4 579 6.6 1,089 12.4 966 11.0 
Kova Scotia....................... 12,591 23.8 3,167 6.0 6,616 12.5 5,975 11.3 
KewBrunswick................... 11,461 29.2 2,7!J5 7.1 5,129 13.1 6,332 16.1 
Ontario............................ 71,264 23.9 23,360 7.8 33,969 11.4 37,295 12.5 
Manitoba.......................... 17,694 28,& 4,1)08 7.7 5,747 9.2 11,947 19.1 
Saskatchewan..................... 21,89ï 27.9 5,061 6.4 6,016 7.7 15,8!ìl 20.2 
Alberta..... ...................... 15,896 26.0 4,263 7.0 5,115 8.4 10,71)1 17.6 
British Columbia.................. 9,004 18.0 3,657 6.8 4,494 8.3 5,lOO 9.7 
.fotalforRegistrationArea........ 162,552 2-1.8 4ï,690 7.3 68,175 1
 94,377 14.4 
NOT1i:.-All figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 
Birth, marriage and death rates for 1920 and 1922 are calculated on the estimated population lor 1920 
and 1922, and for 19:!1 on the population as sho\\n by the census of 1921. 



NATURAL INCREASE 


IS7 


39.- Summary of Births, 1larrlages, Deaths and Katural Increase, by Cities of 10,000 
. and over, for the calendar ).ear 19
1. 


Census Excess Natural 
Ci ties. population, Births. Marriages. Deaths. of births increase 
over per 1,000 of 
1921. dea ths. population. 
P. E. Island- 
Charlottetov. n.... . . . .. . . . 10,814 337 148 278 .j() 5.45 
Nova Scotia - 
Halifax.. . . . . . . 58,372 1,836 922 903 933 15.98 
Sydnpy. . .. . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . 22,545 472 227 278 194 8.60 
Glace Bay ..---.-- .a___.. 17,007 255 111 223 32 1.8
 
New Bruns" irk - 
St. John. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ., . -17,166 1,225 558 785 440 9.33 
)loncton...... . .......... 17,488 620 204 235 385 22.01 
Quebec- 618,506 
)rontreal....... . .. 21,136 5,984 10,293 10,843 17.53 
Quebec...... . ....... 95,193 4,015 857 1,806 2,209 23.21 
\" erdun.. . . .-..... 25,001 839 93 1 281 558 22.32 
Hull........ __ 24,117 1,075 193 1 258 817 33.88 

herbrooke. .. . . . . . . . __ . . . 23,515 785 175 1 339 446 18.97 
Three Rivers... . . . . 22,367 955 182 392 563 25.17 
Westmount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,593 71 311 138 -67 -3.81 
Lachine.................. . 15,404 602 59 1 193 409 26.55 
Outremont. ............... 13,249 92 35 1 80 12 0.91 
St. Hyacinthe. . . . . . . . . . . . 10,859 308 94 1 132 17ß 16.21 
Shawinigan Falls........ . . 10,625 567 711 174 393 36.99 
Levis... __ --... 10,470 357 46 1 208 140 14.23 
Ontario- - 
Toronto. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521,893 13,378 6,309 5,8S4 7,4\14 14.36 
Hamilton . 114,151 3,408 1,354 1,459 2,039 17.86 
Ottawa.................. . 107, 843 3,250 1,149 1,644 1,606 14.89 
London. ........... 60,959 1,458 672 974 484 .7.94 
\Vindsor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38,501 1,326 653 465 8tH 22.31 
Brantford. __. . . . .. . . . . .. . . 29,440 858 329 338 520 17.66 
Kitchener... - -- 21,763 611 247 261 350 16.08 
Kingston... __ __........... 21,753 tì48 262 420 218 10.02 
Fort William......... . . . . . 20, 541 6U5 204 255 440 21.42 
Peterhorough............ . 20,994 554 260 273 281 13.38 
::;ault 
te. Marie. . . . . . . . . . 21,092 70ti 245 265 441 20.91 
St. Catharines............ 19,881 710 259 298 412 22.73 
Guelph................. .. 18,128 424 226 316 108 5.96 
Stratford................ . 16,094 4:)8 200 231 227 14.10 
St. Thomas. -- .. . . . . . . . .. . 16,026 3S.,) 170 223 162 10.11 

ort.Arthur..... . .. 14,886 518 165 1!-J7 321 21.56 
SarNa..... . . ............. 14,877 379 166 181 198 13.31 
Niagara Falls............. 14,764 447 383 172 275 18.63 
Chatham................ . 13,256 391 212 231 160 12.07 
Galt...................... 13,216 359 125 158 201 15.21 
Belleville.... . . . . . . . . . ... . 12,206 365 159 206 159 13.03 
Owen Sound... . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 190 332 109 185 147 12.06 
Oshawa.................. . 11,940 409 111 154 255 21.36 
North Bay...__.... __..._ 10,692 417 124 130 287 26.84 
Brockville.......... ._ ... 10,043 258 114 177 81 8.07 
}Ianltoha- 
\\'innipeg. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179,087 6,323 2,810 1,774 4,549 25.40 
Brandon....... _.......... 15,397 402 234 214 278 18.06 
St. Boniface....... ....... 12,821 472 157 316 156 12.17 
Saskatchewan - 
Regina................... . 34,432 1,171 680 376 795 23.09 
Saskatoon............... . 25,730 938 572 332 606 23.54 
Moose Jaw...... .......... 19,285 695 393 213 482 24.99 
Alberta- 
Calgary .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 63,305 2,086 1,074 722 1,364 21.55 
EdJnonton............... . 58,821 2,136 1,059 782 1,354 23.02 
Lethbridge.. . . . . . . . . . . " . 11,0!-J7 406 234 156 250 22.53 
British Columbia - 
Vancouver............... . 117,217 3,298 1,606 1,377 1,921 16.39 
Victoria. . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38,727 926 426 437 489 12.63 
New Westminster. _....... 14,495 441 177 :m :!14 14.76 


1 Catholics only. 



188 


POPULATIOX 


2.- Births. 


Almost throughout the civilized world, the birth rate has in the past generation 
been on the decline, though the consequent decline in the rate of natural increase 
has to a considerable extent been offset by a decline in the death rate. 
The crude birth rate of England and Wales, for example, was 35.4 per 1,000 
population on the average of the decennium 1871-80, 32.5 in 1881-90, and 29.9 in 
1891-1900. In 1913 the birth rate WB..'3 24.1 and though it rose to 25.5 in 1920 it 
fell again to 22.4 in 1921. 
Similarly in France, the crude birth rate declined from an average of 25.4 per 
1,000 population in the 1870's, 23.9 in the 1880's and 22.2 in the 1890's to 20.4 in 
1920. In Germany, again, the crude birth rate was 39.1 in the 1870's, 36.8 in the 
1880's, 36.1 in the 18aO's and 23.6 in 1922. 
In Canada the birth rate stilI stands at the compnratively high figure of 29.4 
pcr 1,000 in 1921-the last year for which complete figures are available. This is, 
however, larp:cly due to the influence of Quebec, whpre the birth rate stood at the 
very high figure of 37.6 per 1,000 in 1921, as compared with 26.3 per 1,000 in the 
. registration area, where the figures varied from 20.3 per 1,000 in British Columbia 
to 29.6.in New Brunswick, 30.0 in Saskatchewan and 30.3 in Manitoba. 
Preliminary figures for 1922 Rhow 162,5.52 living births, of which 158,738 
were single births; 1,889 were twin births (3,778 infants); and there were 12 cases 
of triplets (36 infants). Complete statistics for 1920 and 1921 are given in Table 40. 


4O.-Summary .-\nal)"sis of Uirth Statistics for the calendar )'ears 1920 and 1921. 


Living births. Birth 
Single Xumber Numbel Il- rate per 
Provinæ. births. pairs of ca!les of legiti- 1,000 
l\Iale. Female. Total. t\\Îns. triplets. matE's. popu- 
lation. 
- - - - - - 
1920. 
Prince Edward Island... 1,172 1,129 2,301 2,257 22 - 71 25.9 
Xova Scotia............. 6, i40 6,439 13,179 12,872 152 1 453 25.3 
:'{ew Bruns\\ick......... 5,578 5,200 10,778 lO,54!1 113 1 234 28.1 
Ont1trio........ . . . . . . . . . . 37,044 35, 253 72,297 70,655 791 20 1,387 25.0 
Manitoba............... . 9,399 8,923 18,322 17, 845 231 5 328 30.6 
Saskatchewan.......... . 11,836 11,003 22,839 22,221 303 4 21f1 31.1 
Alberta................. . 8,463 8,068 W,531 16,107 209 2 273 29.0 
British Columbia....... . 5,458 5,034 10,492 10,292 100 - 96 20.5 
- - - - - - - - 
Total Registration Area. 85,690 81,049 166,739 162, 798 1,921 33 3,061 26.0 
Quebec..... .. " . . . . . . .. . 44,975 41,353 86,328 _1 _I _1 _1 37.2 
- - - - -- - - - 
Canada (eulusiveortbe 
T('rritorles). ... . . . . . . . 130.66;; lU,402 253,067 162, 798 
 1,9lJ2 33 2 3, CHili 21.4 
- - - - - - - - 
1921. 
Prince Edward Island... 1,073 l,Oð3 2,156 2,104 26 - 49 24.3 
Nova Scotia. ...... 6,695 6,326 13,021 12,702 158 1 396 24.9, 
Xew llrunswick....: -::: 5,942 5,523 11,465 11,209 128 - 205 29.6 
On tario.. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 38,307 35,845 74,152 i2,548 784 12 1,592 25.3 
}lanitobs. ............... 9,455 9,023 18,47b 18,025 222 3 420 30.3 
Saskatchewan.......... . 11,620 10,873 22,493 21,b73 304 4 258 30.0 
Alberta......... . . . . . . .. . 8,493 8,068 16,561 16, Ii 1 192 2 299 28.1 
British Columbia. ....... 5,549 5,104 10,653 10,404 123 1 128 20.3 
- - - --- - - - 
Total Registration Area. 87, 134 81,845 168,979 165,036 1,937 23 3,347 26.3 
Quebec........ .._....... 46,705 42,044 88,749 _I _1 _1 _ 1 37,6 
- - - - - - - - 
Canada (excIushe orthe 1,937 2 23 2 3,3,17 2 28., 
TerrItories}.......... . 133,
a9 123,889 257 , 7
 16.),036 2 


1 These statistics are not available for the Province of Quebec. 
2 Partial totals (or eight provinces, figures for Quebec not being available. 



BIRTHS 


1$9 


Undoubtedly the test of birth rate most generally accepted by vital f:tatisticians 
is supplied by the comparison of the total number of legitimate births with the 
total number of married women between the ages of 15 and 45, though a i"mall 
number of births occur where the mothers are either below 13 or pa
t the 45th 
birthday. This test is applied to the registration area of Canada in Table 41. 


41.-Births per 1,000 l\larrled Women of Chiltl-bearing Age, b;r Pro\inces, 1921. 


ProyincE' . 


Prince Edward Island............... ..................... 
Nova Scotia......................... .... 
New Brunsv. ick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ontario....... .........--..... .... 
::\[anitoba................ _ _.... ..................... 
Saskatchewan........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. - . .. ......... 
Alberta............................................ ...... 
British Columbia........................................... 
Canada 'registration area)... . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 
Quebec.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Canada (euIushe of Territories)........ ................... 


Married Le!!itimate 
births 
women per 1,000 
between Legitimate married 
the al!;es of births. women of 
15 and 45 ('hild-bear- 
years. ing age. 
Ko. No. No. 
8,610 2,107 245 
57,916 12,625 218 
44,33:1 11,260 254 
319,307 72,560 191 
82,325 18,058 219 
104,348 22,235 213 
8:1,353 16,262 195 
73,039 10,525 144 
833,231 165,632 199 
265,488 88,749 1 334 1 
1,098,719 2ã!,381 1 232 1 


1 No statistics of iUegitimate births in Quebec are available. The total numbpr of births in Quebec 
has accordingly been used, though as a result the fertility of Quebec and of Canadian marriro women is 
BOmewhat overestimated. 


Table 42 shows the number of living births reported for each province in 1921 
which were male and female, together with the proportion of male to female births. 
Prince Edward Island is the only province in which the number of female births 
exceeded male births. The preliminary figures for 1922 indicate that among every 
1,000 born in 1922, 512 were males and 488 females, as compared with a proportion 
of 516 to 484 in 1921 and 514 to 486 in 1920. 


42.- Births by Sex and Ratio of l\lales to Females, 1921. 


Births, 1921. 
- 
Pro\-i.nce. I 
lale!'. Females. ::\lale:5 
to 
Total. Ppr cent Per cent 1,000 
Numb('r. of tot al. Number. of total. females. 
}}rincE' Ed,\ard Island....... 2,156 1,073 4!1.8 1,083 50.2 999 
Xova Scotia...... 13,021 6,695 51.4 6,326 48.6 1,058 

ew Brunswick.. ...
::::::. 11,465 5,942 51.8 5.523 48.2 1,On 
Ontario.... . 74,152 38,307 51.7 35,845 4-;.3 1,069 
:\lani toba. . ,. . . . . . . . : : : - - . - . 18,418 9,455 51.2 9,023 48.8 1.0tb 
Saskatche\\an. ... .......:::: 22,493 11, 620 51.7 10,873 -18.3 1,06\1 
Alberta.......... .... ...... . 16,561 8,49:1 51.3 8,00'1 48.7 1,05:J 
British Columbia.... . . . . . . . 10,653 5,549 52.1 5,104 47.9 1,08. 
Total Registration Area. . . . 158,979 87,134 51.6 81, 845 48.4 1. 065 
Quebec.... ........... ...... 88,149 46,105 52.6 42,044 41.4 1,111 
Canada (exclusive of the 
Territories) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 257,728 138,839 ;>>1.9 123,889 48.1 1,080 



!90 


jJOPU LA. T IV.V 


I11egitimacy.-The ratio of illegitimate to total births ii', gencrally speaking, 
low in Canada ai' compared with other countries. 
Out of 16S,979 living births in the regi:4ration area of Canada 3,
47, or 2 p.c., 
were returned in 1921 as the issue of unmarried mothers. Preliminary statistics 
for 1922 show that out of 162,552 births reported in the registration arpa, 3,3üx or 
2 p.c., were illegitimate. Statistics are givcn in Table 43. 


43.-Dlegitlmat(' Births in Registration Ar('a b)" .\ge of l\lother and h) Prminces 9 
1921 and 1922. 


Age of mother. P.E.I. 
$. KB. Onto Man. RaSK. AHa. B.C. Total. 
- -- - - - - - - 
1921. 
rnder 15 years ...... 1 - iI 11 4 5 - 2 26 
1.j-19.... ... 14 ]51 í2 551 144 106 1 50 1,089 
20-24. . . . . .-. 19 168 S4 528 154 66 1 45 1,065 
25-29. . .............. 7 43 26 208 56 31 1 13 385 
30-34 . ....... 3 16 i 112 30 30 - 14 212 
35-39........ . ...... - 9 i 63 1!J 11 - 2 111 
40-44 . .............. .. - 5 3 15 q 5 - 2 39 
45-49.. . .......-..... - - - 4 2 - - - 6 
Xot given............ ..... 5 4 3 100 2 4 2!J6 - 41-1 
- - - -- - -- -- - - 

lale..... . ...... 16 201 113 i!i6 222 122 154 68 1,692 
Female. ....... 33 195 92 7!16 198 136 ]45 60 1,655 
- - -- -- - - - - 
Total hlrths .. 49 396 
O5 1,';92 -I2u 258 
99 HI' 1,3,&7 
-- - - - -- - - -- - - 
Per cent of total births.. . 2.3 3.0 1.8 2.1 2.3 1.1 1.8 1.2 2. 
---- -- - --- - -- -- - - - 
1922. 
rnder 1.5 year:;... - 2 3 20 5 1 6 2 39 
15-19. _ --..... 14 182 89 544 110 105 105 51 1,230 
,. ..<II 
20-24. ......... 16 11l is 479 145 i5 104 29 1,097 
2.5-29.. .... ............. 10 5S 26 192 56 27 36 15 42 
30-34. . ............. 5 24 8 102 37 21 22 9 22 
35-39. . . .. - 12 8 ,j8 20 13 17 3 131 
40-44... . .... - 5 5 14 6 3 4 - 3/ 
45-49.. . .... - 1 - 1 1 - - - 3 
. 
,ot given........... 4 - 4 98 - 2 15 - 123 
- -.--- - - - - - -- 
\tale.... .. 23 236 115 HZ2 210 131 169 45 1,751 
Female... .-.. .... 26 219 106 6btJ 200 116 140 64 1.55 
- - - - - - - - 
Total births ........ ,19 I.iii 

l 1..)0" no 
-I; 309 109 3,30 
-- -- -- - - - -- - 
Per cent of total births... 2.4 3.6 1.9 2.1 2.3 1.1 1.9 1.1 2. 
- 


() 


o 
8- 


7 

 
o 


XOTt.. The ti/!Ures for 192
 are !'ubject to revi
ion. 



BI IlTHS 


191 


Sti11births.--Statistic
 of the number of ['hildrm born dead in 1!)
1 and 1922 
are shown below for the registration area of Canada, according to the status and 
age of the mother. In Quebf'c in 1921 there were in all 2,837 still-births. 


!".-Stillbirths in Registration Arf'a b). Age and status of :\Iother, and b!' 
PrO\inces, 1921 and 1922. 


Age DC mother. 


U nmar- 
ried 
mothpr!'. 


1921. 


r nller 15 years DC a!!;e. . . ... . . . . . 
15 years. ., .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. '" 
16 .. 
17 .. 
18 ,. .... ........... 
19 .. ........................ 
20 .. .................... '" 
21 .. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 
22 " .......................... ... 
23 .. ............. ........... 
24 .. .... 
25 " .. .. _ _ .. .. 
26" ........... 
27" .................... 

8 :: .......... .............. ...... 
29 ........................ 
30 years and over............... 
"Gnknown..... ................ 


Total 


1922. 


"Cnder 15 :\-.ears of age........... 
IS years...... . . . . . . . . . . 
16 .. ................ ... 
17 .. _...__..._....... ..... 
18 .. . . . 
19 .. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
20 .. ........................ 
21 .. ........................ 
22" ........................ 
23 " ....... ............. .... 
24 " ........................ 
25" ....................... 
26 " -...... 
'27 " ....... . . . . . . . . .. . .' '" 
28" ........................ 
29 .. ........................ 
30 years and over. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
lJnknown........ ....... ....... 


Total... ... . . . . . .. . . . . . 


Htillbirths. Registration Area. 


)lurried mothers. 


I 
P.E.I. I '\.S. N.B. Onto Man. Bask. AHa. B.C. 


2 
:3 
10 
11 
26 
16 
21 
10 
18 
14 
16 
9 
12 
6 
3 


:J 
.j 
I 
3 


2 
:J 
2 
:J 
21 
11 


34 
29 


2 
6 
;) 
I) 
12 
18 
12 
IS 
19 
23 
21 
12 
16 
22 
164 
141 


3 .) 
7 12 
6 43 
8 7S 
4 92 
19 85 
II 125 
S 127 
10 157 
12 158 
10 173 
11 106 
10 150 
8 II9 
87 1,284 
100 626 


I 
4 
II 
II 
10 
10 
21 
14 
20 
25 
21 
3,,) 
23 
16 
253 
111 


I 
I 
2 
4 
11 
9 
16 
20 
23 
18 
14 
20 
17 
22 
29 
16 
276 
129 


399 


Total. 


2 
7 
4 
4 
6 
4 
11 
7 
9 
II 
9 
76 
175 


3 
4 
24 
44 
103 
132 
162 
169 
219 
203 
243 
258 
26:1 
204 
244 
19:J 
2,198 
1,721 


,')8 '{96 3U 3,3-10 ã86 62
 399 326 6.3.
 


2-10 


5 
5 
II 
15 
22 
16 
13 
7 
9 
12 
9 
13 
5 
2 
3 
2 
25 
18 


1 
2 
2 


2 
3 
2 


3 
.) 
2 
27 
13 


2 
5 
9 
13 
12 
11 
27 
15 
15 
28 
21 
18 
19 
23 
197 
1 


1 
4 
19 
8 45 
9 54 
2 89 
8 97 
9 99 
6 130 
II 137 
15 lùi! 
13 146 
II 157 
Il Il9 
14 107 
112 1,.310 
28 388 


2 
13 
10 
11 
14 
24 
20 
18 
29 
25 
28 
34 
21 
314 
3 


1 
6 
10 
16 
22 
20 
16 
23 
20 
13 
22 
32 
20 
255 
145 


XOTE.- Figures Cor 1922 are subject to re\'i,;Ïon. 


l!r! 


63 


-116 259 3,UI0 566 621 


1 
7 
12 
7 
17 
12 
18 
19 
17 
12 
14 
IS 
22 
IS2 
69 


'!27 


1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
4 


5 
6 
IS 
47 
III 
125 
155 
182 
202 
227 
248 
235 
250 
26-1 
247 
217 
2.513 
79ï 


10 
14 
2 
13 
9 
6 
6 
91 
132 


295 I d,S'!!' 


Birth Rates in Various Countries.-The relative po
ition occupied by Can- 
ada and its indiyidual provinces among the countries of the world with respect to 
crude birth rate (the annual number of births per 1,000 of population) i!': 
hown in 
Table 45. 



192 


rOPUL.1Tln.y 


45.-Crude Birth Rates of Yarious Countries in Recent Years. 


Country. 


Russia, European.................. 
Rumania....... ... ................ 
Bulgaria. .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 
Serbia. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Quebec. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Chile............... ............... 
Ceylon..... ..... ........... ....... 
Japan.............:............ '" 
Jamaica................. . 
Portugal. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Spain............................. . 
Hungary......................... . 
('anada...... . .. ................. 
New Brunswick. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Union of S. Africa (whites)......... 
)[allitoha....... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 

etherlandB.................... .. 





r:

:::: : . : : : . . . : : : : : : : : : 
Queensland. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 

ew South Wales.. ................ 
Denmark. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Scotland. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Crude 
Year. Birth 
Rate. 


1909 
1914 
1911 
1912 
1921 
1914 
1
20 
1921 
UI19 
1920 
1921 
1922 
19
1 
1922 
1920 
1922 
1920 
1922 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 


Country. 


44.0 
42.5 
40.2 
38.0 
37.6 
37.0 
36.5 
35.1 
34.1 
32.2 
30.4 
29.4 
29.4 
29.2 
28.9 
28.3 
28.2 
27.9 
27.0 
26.6 
25.9 
25.5 
25.2 


Finland........ ................ 
Swi tzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Australia.. .................... 
Prussia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Norway.......... ............... 
South Australia......:........... 
Ontario...... ................... 
Xova Scotia.... .... __. __ ..... 
United States l ..... .... _....... 
Germany............. .... ....... 
Prince Edward l"land....... . . . . . 
Western Australia..... . . . . . . . . . . . 
New Zealand... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Victoria.. ............. . ...... . 
United Kingdom. ........... 
Em:land and Wales.. .... ..... 
.Au>!tria. .. 
llclgi urn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Sweden.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ireland......................... . 
Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
British Columbia..... .. ......... 


Crude 
Year. Birth 
Rate. 


1920 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1920 
1922 
1!122 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1920 
1921 
1920 
1921 
1917 
1922 


25.1 
25.1 
25.0 
24.9 
24.6 
24'1 
23.9 
23.8 
23.7 
23.{\ 
23.4 
23.4 
23.3 
23.2 
22.5 
22.4 
22.1 
21.4 
21.4 
'20.4 
20.2 
19.0 
18.0 


J Birth Registration Area. 


3.- Marriages. 
Nearly a century ago it was observed in the "Cnited Kingdom that the number 
of marriages tended to be high when the price of wheat was low and to be low when 
the price of wheat was high. This was quite naturally the case among a population, 
the majority of which was living at a comparatively low standard of comfort, and 
where the staple food, as a consequence, was the chief factor in the cost of living. 
More l'ecentIy, the curve showing maJiriage rates has in the United Kingdom 
and in other English-speaking countries ceased to bear any constant relation to the 
price of wheat, the staple foud of the peuple, though it ::>till does so in poorer countries. 
Its place in influencing the marriage rate, has, however, been takm by the general 
level of prosperity. j\larriage,-; in such countries as the united Kingdom, the l'nited 
States, Canada and Australia tend to increase in "good times" and to diminish in 
"hard times," when great numbers of those who are contemplating marriage are 
led to postpone such marriage until the advent of better industrial conditions. 
Even in the short period covered by the vital statistics of the registration area 
of Canada, the truth of the above statement is supported by the evidence. In 
1920, a year of great prosperity, the marriages occurring in the registration area of 
Canada numbered 59,344 or 9.4 per thousand of population; in 1921 they declined 
to 51,073 or 8.0 per thousand, and in 1922 to 4ï,(3!)0 or 7.3 per thousand of popula- 
tion, largely owing to the industrial depre:--;
iun in these years. It should also be 
mentioned, of cour::>e, that there duubtIc.:;::> o()ccurred in 1920 a number of deferred 
marriages, which under more normal conditions would have occurred in the war 
years. Summary statistics of marriages contracted in 1921 and 1022 appear in 
Table 46. 



JfARRIAGES 


193 


46.-l\larriages and Jlarriage Rates, by Provinces, 1921 and 1922. 


Population Marriages, 1921. Population Marriages, 1922. 
Provinces. in in 
thousands, Per thousands, Per 
1921. No. 1,000 1922. No. 1,000 
pop. pop. 
- 
Prince Edward Island... ............ 89 518 5.8 88 579 6.6 
Nova Scotia................ ......... 524 3,550 6.8 528 3,167 6.0 
New B runs\\ ick. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 388 3,173 8.2 392 2,795 7.1 
Ontario........................ ..... 2,934 24,871 8.5 2,981 23,360 7.8 
1\lanitoba.......................... . 610 5,310 8.7 626 4,808 7.7 
Saskatchewan............. _.. _...... 758 5,101 6.7 786 5,061 6.4 
Alberta. . . . .. . . . . . _ 589 4,661 7.9 611 4,263 7.0 
British Columbia. ..::::::::.:::::.: 52'; 3,889 7.4 539 3,657 6.8 
- 
Canada (registration area). . . . . . . . . . 6,417 51,073 8.0 6,551 47,690 7,3 
Quebec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,361 18,659 7.9 - - - 
Canad:> (exclusive or the Terri- 
torles) . . . . . . . . . . .. ............. 8.745 69,732 8.0 - - - 


NOTE.-The figures for 1922 are preliminary. 


Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms.-Statistics showing the 
previously existing conjugal condition of the contracting parties in the 5] ,073 
marriages which took place in the registration area in 1921 are presented in Table 47. 


47.-Previous Conjugal Condition of Brides and Grooms, 1921. 



(arriages between 
Provinces. Bachelors and Widowers and Divorced Men and 
Spin- Wi- Di- Spin- Di- Spin- Wi- Di- 
vorced Widows. vorced vorced 
sters. dows. Women. sters. Women. sters. dowse Women. 
- - - - - - -- - 
No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. 
Prince Edward Island.... . 446 17 - 28 25 - 1 1 - 
Nova Sco1ia.............. 2,965 154 10 227 168 3 18 4 1 
New Brunswick........... 2,607 141 23 221 141 7 19 8 6 
Ontario. 20,958 1,052 49 "1,657 1,032 20 68 28 7 
Manitoba.::::::::::: ::::: 4,438 254 40 307 215 6 38 9 3 
Saskatchewan............ . 4,240 303 26 289 204 2 24 11 2 
Alberta.................. . 3,787 276 40 276 220 10 37 7 8 
British Columbia.. " . . . . . 2,975 247 92 243 186 27 67 19 33 
- - - - 
 - 
 - - 
Can3da (registration 
area).. . . .. . . .. . ..... . 42,416 2,4,1,1 280 3,2-18 2,191 75 272 87 GO 


Nativity of Brides and Grooms.-It may be noted in Table 48 that more 
than 50 p.c. of brides and grooms in the western provinces were not Canadian born, 
while in the eastern provinces in most instances more than 70 p.c. were native born. 
In Prince Edward Island 97 p.c. of contracting parties were Canadian born. In 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick more than 80 p.c. were native born. Altogether 
40.1 p.c. of the grooms and 36.7 p.c. of the brides were born outside of Canada. 


62373-13 



lfJ-t 


PUP eLl TIn.\" 


-t!'\. - '\"athit
. b
 Pf.'rc('ldagt's. of P('rsons l\larried in the Rf.'gistratlon .\rea. 
b) PrO\inces, 1921. 


PrO\ inrI'S. 


I Popu- 
lation in 
t l\Ous- 
o ands. 


\larriag('s. 


Per cent di8tributicn of Grooms amI HI ides hv 
Xativity. . 


Total. 


}>er Horn in pro"\ ince Born in other norn 
) ,000 of re:,idence pro"\"inces. el"e"\\ here. 
popu- -- 
- 
lation. GrooJll::!. Bridr". Grooms. Bri(le,.. Groom,..' Bride". 


- - -- - 
l'rinrc Ed"\\anl 
J"lan(l. h9 51" 5.8 92.3 94.6 .'i'0 1.9 :!. i 3..'i 

ova Scotia.... _.. 524 3,;;:;0 6.8 7E.3 81.3 'H 4.5 17.3 14.2 

 ew Bruns"\\ ick. . :{8h 3,Ii3 8.2 73.4 78.0 10.1 S.4 16.5 13.6 
Ontario.. .. . .. . .. .. 2,9:'4 24,871 R.!j 63.6 66.7 5.{) 4.7 :JO.8 2s.6 
\lani toha.. .. .. .. . . 610 :i,310 1;.7 26.4 37.2 Ib.l 14.1 35.5 .h.7 
:;:a
katche\\an..... . i58 .'i,101 6. i i.l 15.6 31. ! 28.1 61.5 56.3 
Alberta.. .. .. .. .. .. 589 1,61\1 7.8 7.0 14.2 26.1 25.1 ü{).9 60.i 
llritish Columbia. 525 3,8õ9 7.4 13.7 18.3 22.6 20.5 63.i 61.2 
-- - - - - - --- - 
('anada (rt'
ls tra- 
tlon area) ., ... 6,,117 ,'i1.073 ;.9 ,16.9 52.0 13.0 11.3 to. 1 36.7 


,\1arriage Rates in Various Countries.-For comparativc purp0:-' p:,, thc 
crudc marriage rate per 1,000 of population in various countrip:, of thc wurld is 
shown for the indi('atcd years in Tabl(' 49. 


!9.-Crude Jlarriage Ratt's of "arious ('ountri('s in ReC('Ilt 't'a..
. 


Countr)' . 


I Crude 
ì ear. hIarriage 
Hate. 


Prussia. . . . . . . 
Germany....... . 
Hungary. . _. 
Serbia.. .... 
Spain......... ..... 
l:nited Kingdom...... ......... 
union of DouthAfrica {\\hite,.,)... 
Bulgaria..... . 
"etLerlands. . . . .. . . . 
Japan........ . . . . . 
S\\itzerland... . 
\ïctoria.... .. . . . 
:-'out h Australia. .... . 
J )enmark ........... 

ew :-;outh Wales........ 
:\'ew Zealand. 
-\ustralia... . 
Rumania.... ...... .. 
El1.II;land and \\al(';;....... 
Belgium. 
:-,cotland. .. .. .. . . . . 
\\ e;;tprn 1\ ufitralia 
Hus8ia, European. . 


Crude 
Year. 
larriage 
Rate. 


Country. 


19:! 1 
1922 
1922 
1911 
1921 
1919 
1920 
1911 
1921 
1921 
HI20 
1
21 
19n 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1914 
J!I21 
1912 
1!'21 
1921 
1909 


11.fI ('anada 
11.1 Quebec... .... ...... 
\0.5 TabIliania... 
10.3 Queen81and......... 
10. 3 .
)!I t
rio .. .. .. .. . 
!J.9 \[amtoba... 
\1.9 France... .. 
9.4 \ustria............ .... 
g.') ::\e\\ llrun,.,wicL............... 
9.1 \Iberta... .......... 
9.0 ""on\ ay.. . . .. . . . .............. 
S.9 British Columbia. ............. 
8.8 Finland. . .. .. . .. .... 
8.8 Sweden. ................ 
8.8 Prince Elh, ani bland.......... 
8.7 Saskatche\\an.. ..-.. ---.. 
8.6 Ireland.. ......... 
s.5 Xova::;cotia..... 
s.4 Chile..... ....... ........... 
b'O Ce)lon............... 
8.0 Portugal. 
s.o Italy.... 
j'.!1 Jamaica.. 


19U 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1!12:! 
HI2
 
HI13 
1912 
19:!2 
1922 
1921 
1922 
1920 
1\121 
1922 
1922 
1\119 
1922 
190i-lh 
1920 
HIl8 I 
1920 
1909-12 


7.9 
7.9 
7.8 
7.8 
7.8 
i.i 
7.5 
i.-l 
i.l 
7.0 
6.9 
6.8 
6.7 
6.6 
1\.6 
6.4 
6.1 
6.0 
5.1) 
5.
 
5.0 
4.1 
4.1 


4.- Dea ths. 


" it hin the pa
t ('ent lIl') and UlU1 e e:'l'P('ially \\ it hin the pa
t gencrat i(1ll t herc has 
uccurnd gcnprally throughuut the ('ulmtri('s of the white world a notable de('line in 
the dmth rate, ex('ept wherc Ulan ha:, hrought death upon him::;elf through wars 
and the aftermath of wars. How far this dp('liue ha:, been due to advaw'cs ill l1ledical 
:..wiencc, how far to bet tPl" sanitation and ho\\ far to thc improw'lJ}eut in the 
J,!:cneral cunditions of living as a result of tlH' increase in the produ('t ive pow('r of 
humanity, i:, in di
put(>, hilt ('oll('erlling the f:lf'ts there is no douht. 



DEATHS 


195 


Perhaps thf' mo
t impref:sive testimony regarding this declinf' in the df'ath 
rate is furnished by the mortality f:tatÏ:5tics of Rweden, when' vital 
tatistics have 
been kept with great accuracy for the whole nation ever sincf' 17.30. There the 
crude death rate declined from an average' of 35.6ì per 1,000 in the decade 1751-1)0 
to H.20 in the decadf' 1011-20, and to 12.71-\ (preliminary figure) in HI2:? 
Rimilarly, in England, the crude death ratp, which was 22.6 per 1,000 in the 
()O'
 and 21.3 in the 70'
 and 18.2 in the 90's of the last cmtury, deelined to 1.3. [) 
in 1906, 13.8 in 1913 and 12.1 in 1921. In 
cotland, again, the rate wa.;;; 22.1 in 
the 60's, 21.8 in the 70'
, 18..) in the 90'
. 16.4 in 19013 and 13.6 in 1921. 
Of COUl"f:e, tlI(' preccding f:tatements arc not to be' takC'n to mean that eyc'ry 
year will show a decline in the death rate a
 compared with the preceding Year. 
There will always be year
 of specially high mortality, as for instance 191ð, when the 
death rate in Ontario, the mo
t populous of the provinc('s included in the registra- 
tion area of Canada, was 15.3 per 1,000 as against 12.0 in 1917 and 11.9 in 1919. 
Over a decade, however, these idios) ncrasies of individual years are reduced to> 
negligibility, and it remain::; true that from decade to decade there is, genemJIy 
speakin
 and under normal condition...:, a decline in the crude death rate of the count- 
ries of the white world. 
.\s for Canada. there i:,> little dount but that the del'line in the death rate whil'h 
has been ob::-:erved in other countries has also occurred among ourselves, though 
on account of the improved registration in rpcmt years the diminution of the death 
rate is not apparent from the statistics collected. In Quebec, however, wherC' the 
same methods of registration have b('pn ('mployeò for many years, the mortality 
has shown a decline in recent year
 from 17.89 per 1,000 ill 1910 to H.}.') per 1,000 
in 1921, largely on account of thp rpòuction in infnnt mortnlit.y. 
The total deaths and dpath rate,> nre given in Table 50 for the regi
tration area 
of Canndn, by provinces. It is worthy of note that the total deaths in 1921 and 
1922 (preliminary figures for the latter year) show a con
idC'rablc decline n,.: com- 
pared with 1920, the first y('ar in whi('h the statistic
 are available on a comparative 
bnsis for the area. 


50.- Deaths and Death Rates h) PrO\inces, 1920, 1921 and 1922. 


Population Total Crude death rate per 
(in thousand" I. Deaths. 1,000 population. 
Provinces. 
1920 1921 l!122 1920. 1921. 1922. 1!J20. 1!121. 1!122. 
estim. census. e'!tim. 
- - - - - - - - - 
Prince Ed\\anl Island..... 89 8!! 88 1,279 1, :'09 I,OS!! 14.-1 13.6 12.4 
Xova Scotia....... ,p' __. 520 524 528 7,563 6,420 6,616 1-1.5 12.3 12.5 
Xe\\ Rrummick. 3R-1 388 392 5,623 5,410 5,129 14.ï t:i. !! 13.1 
Ontario.. . 2,RS9 2,934 2,931 40,410 34, 551 33, !16!J 14.0 11.... 11.4 
.\Janitoba.... . 598 610 626 6,511 5,388 5. ï4ï IO.P S.') 9.2 
t-:askatche\\an........ . ï3.5 757 786 5,918 5,596 6,016 S'O ï.-1 ï.7 

\lberta .. . .. . . . . . . . . 570 .588 611 5,674 4,940 5.115 10.0 
.-1 
H 
British Columbia. ... _ . .. : 511 525 539 4, ï39 4.2!1S 4,494 9.3 8.0 8.J 


Canarla (registration are.t) 6.296 6,415 6,551 77, ï22 67,722 68,175 12.3 10.6 10.4 
Quebec.... .2,323 2,361 40,68633,433 17.5 1-1.2 
Canada (eU'lushe 0; - --- - -- - _ 1 - 
Territories)............ 8.619 S,77G - l1S,jOS 101,tã5 13.; 11.,) - 


Mortality by Sex.-_\ccorJing to Table 51, thC' numl)('r of male children born 
in 1921 in the rf'gistration area exceeded the total mnlc d('ath
 for the year by 
50,723, while the gain in tlw f('male populntion during thC' :-all\(' p('riorl wa,.: .ïO..ï:H. 
623i3-13} 



196 


POPULATION 


That is to say, while the number of male children born exceeded the females by 
5,289, yet, owing to the higher mortality among males as compared to females, 
Q8 : 77, the net increase for the year of the male over the female population in the 
registration area was reduced to 189. 


51.-Excess of Births o\'er Deaths, by Provinces, for each SCI and by Totals, 1921. 


Pr 
K 
K 
ÜJ1 
M 
Sa 
Al 
Br 


Males. Females 
Provinces. E"tcess of 
Births. Deaths. Lirths over Births. Deatns. 
aea ths. 
inee Edward Island.. 1,073 619 454 1,083 590 
ova Scotia. . . . ... . .. . 6,695 3,372 3,323 6,326 3,04S 
ew Brunswick........ 5,942 2,858 3,084 5,523 2,552 
tario............... . 38,307 18,062 20,245 35,845 16,489 
anitoba. ... . ........ 9,455 2,964 6,491 9,023 2,424 
skatchewan......... . 11,620 3,078 8,542 10,873 2,518 
berta... . . . . . . .. . . .. . 8,493 2,858 5,635 8,068 2,082 
itish Columbia...... 5,549 2,600 2,949 5,104 1,608 
- 
 
Total. . . . . . . . . . 87,134 36,411 50,723 81,8,15 31,311 


Both sexes. 
Excess of Excess of 
births over births over 
deaths. all deaths. 
. 
493 947 
3,278 6,601 
2,971 6,055 
19,356 39,601 
6,599 13, O!JO 
8,35.'i 16,897 
5,986 11,621 
3,496 6.445 
50.53'& 101,2,')7 


Mortality by Cause.-In Table 52 are shown the deaths in the registration 
area in 1921 and 1922 by twenty leading causes. In both years diseases of the 
heart headed the list with 8.9 p.c. in 1921 and 9.6 p.c. in 1922-a significant increase. 
Pneumonia came second with 8.8 p.c. in 1921 and 9.3 p.c. in 1922, cancer in third 
place with 7.13 p.c.. in 1921 and 7.47 p.c. in 1922, and tuberculosis in fourth place 
with 7.07 p.c. in 1921 and (}.76 p,c. in 1922. While a comparison covering only 
two consecutive years must be considered as of a very tentative nature, the increases 
in heart disease and cancer must be regarded as very significant, especially since 
:similar increases are occurring in other countries. On the other hand, the decline in 
tuberculosis must be considered as altoget
er satisfactory. 
62.- Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading Causes, 
1921 and 1922. 


Causes of Death. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Onto Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Total. 
- - - - - - - 
 
1921. 
Diseases of heart......... . 96 563 420 3,394 429 339 308 472 6,021 
Pneumonia............... . 97 505 500 3,005 563 498 446 352 5,966 
Cancer. . .,. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 480 279 2,585 427 309 281 3R8 4,826 
Tuberculosis, lungs. . ... . . . 112 579 344 1,731 305 256 260 316 3,90 
TuberculOflis, other organs 16 123 69 352 115 66 53 92 88 
Premature birth.......... 20 195 141 1,630 3.10 460 3.0 1M 3,250 
Diarrhoea and enteritis. . . 42 241 295 1,619 377 326 243 75 3,21 
Senihty...... . . . . . . . . . . .. . 126 614 389 1,404 82 136 98 65 2,914 
Cerebral haemorrhage. 47 211 175 1,553 177 143 97 197 2,60 
apoplexy. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . 
Discascs of arteries........ 15 161 as 1,b24 127 99 84 157 2,55- 
Congeni tal debility.. .... . 27 291 149 1,029 185 247 2-') 85 2,26 
,,- 
Nephritis................ . 44 196 12ü 1,145 116 140 111 163 2,041 
Diph theria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 63 56 653 148 172 156 33 1,29 
Infj uenza. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . 20 70 84 509 57 69 67 64 94 
Bronchitis... . . . . . . . . . . .. . 15 87 46 510 71 83 47 46 9 
ColIS(enital maUormations. 9 49 35 493 81 90 60 45 862 
Paralysis............. .... 36 144 96 382 52 18 48 33 80 
Appendicitis............. . 11 56 47 344 72 123 107 S6 816 
Anaemia, chlorosis....... 9 44 37 511 34 34 31 35 735 
Drowning................ . 6 39 30 358 54 47 33 111 678 
4.11 other causes. . . .. .... . 368 1,709 2,004 9,520 1.586 1,941 1,848 1,259 20,235 
- - - - - - - - 
Total. . .. . . . . . . . . . 1,%0' 1,420 6,410 3,1,551 i,3S8 i,591 4,M 4,208 17,722 


3 
6 
8 


o 
a 
5 
7 
o 
05 
9 



DEATHS BY CAUSES 


197 


52.-Deaths in the Registration Area of Canada from Twenty Leading ('auses,. 
1921 and 1922 -concluded. 


Causes of Death. P.E.I. N.S. N.B, Onto Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Total. 
- -- - - .- - - - 
1922. 
Diseases of heart. . . . . . . . . . 111 578 487 3,752 442 368 318 534 6,590 
Pneumonia............... . 107 659 481 3,135 561 539 443 395 6,320 
Cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 534 321 2,605 445 345 317 440 5,092 
Tuberculosis, lungs...... . . 96 559 354 1,629 307 254 238 320 3,757 
Tuberculosis, other organs 15 132 63 347 69 86 65 75 852 
Premature birth.......... 20 228 188 1,672 366 444 370 189 3,477 
Diseases of arteries....... 20 140 110 2,044 157 124 124 154 2,873 
Diarrhoea and enteritis. . . 23 165 207 1,112 520 421 285 106 2,839 
Senili ty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 561 337 1,266 82 161 82 60 2,691 
Cerebral haemorrhage, 
apoplexy. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 278 169 1,586 168 106 89 148 2,589 
Infl uenza . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 24 218 196 91n 183 293 269 209 2,353 
!\ephritis................ . 33 210 134 1,100 179 160 126 156 2,098 
Cong;eni tal debility. . . . . . . 26 217 170 874 172 25S 148 73 1,938 
Diphtheria.............. . 7 45 44 410 150 199 131 23 1,012 
Congenital maUormations 3 55 33 491 94 101 73 53 903 
Bronc hi tis.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 13 95 39 445 73 54 8.J 40 842 
Appendici tis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 57 39 331 89 125 125 66 836 
Anaemia chlorosis. . . . . . . . . 13 44 31 525 50 32 33 47 ï75 
Paralysis.... .. . .......... 22 115 100 368 37 25 27 40 734 
Diabetes mellitus......... 8 52 4.'> 370 58 44 55 74 706 
All other caU!!cs........... 272 1,674 1,581 8,946 1,545 1,877 1,711 1,2\12 18,89& 
- - - - - - 
 - - 
Total.. . . . . .. . . . . . 1,089 6,616 5,1
9 33,969 5, it7 6,016 5,115 4,4IU 68,175 


Tuberculosis.- Deaths assigned to tuberculous affections numbered in the 
aggregate, 4,789 in 1921 and 4,608 in 1922, the latter figures being subject to revision. 
The males numbered 2,439 in 1921 and 2,353 in 1922; the females, 2,350 and 2,255 
respectively. The mortality rate for the registration area was 747 per million 
people in 1921 and 703 per million (provisional) in 1922. In England the crude 
rate per million population was 1,131 in 1920. Tuberculosis caused in 1921 out of 
every 1,000 deaths, 106 in Prince Edward Island, 109 in Nova Scotia, 76 in New 
Brunswick, 60 in Ontario, 78 in Manitoba, 58 in Saskatchewan, 63 in Alberta and 97 
in Briti
h Columbia. 
53.-Deaths from Tuberculosis in the Registration Area, by Sex, 1921 and 1922. 
Si tes. r.E.I. N.S. N.B. Onto :\lan. Bask. Alta. B.C. Total. 
- ----- - - 
1921. 
Respiratory system. Total 112 579 344 1,731 305 256 260 316 3,903 

1 57 274 147 856 165 131 133 211 1,974 
F 55 305 197 875 140 125 127 105 1,929 
:Meninges and central 
nervous system.... Total 7 52 31 119 50 18 17 46 340 
)i 2 38 17 67 27 11 9 26 197 
F 5 14 14 52 23 7 8 20 143 
Intestines and peri- 17 16 205 
toneum. . .. .. . . . . . . Total 4 22 18 85 23 20 
M 3 10 8 31 11 4 12 6 85 
F 1 12 10 54 12 13 8 10 120 
Vertebral column.. .Total 2 13 6 28 6 5 3 7 70 
?Ii 11 3 12 3 3 3 5 40 
F 2 2 3 16 3 2 2 30 
Joints.. . .......... Total 3 14 4 2 2 4 29 
?I,l 2 6 1 1 2 12 
F 1 8 3 1 2 2 17 
Other organs... . . . . . Total 11 10 48 11 6 5 6 99 
?II 7 6 26 5 2 3 4 53 
F 4 4 22 6 4 2 2 46 
Disseminated....:. .Total 22 4 58 21 18 6 13 143 

I 8 2 32 9 14 3 10 78 
F 1 14 2 26 12 4 3 3 65 
Total, both sexes........ . 128 702 413 2 083 420 322 313 408 4,789 
:\1: 62 350 183 1,030 221 166 163 264 2,439 
F 66 352 230 1,053 199 156 150 144 2,350 



19
 


I'OPCL1 TIOS 


53.- Ueaths from Tuberculosis in the J(e
i!itration .\rea, b) 
ex. 1921 and 
19
2 -('onclU(kd. 


:-,ite:<. I P.L.I. 
.
. K.B. Ont. :Man. :--:a"h.. Alta. B.C. Total. 
HJ::?2. , 
He::-piratory 8
stelll. ..
 I ;,0 266 li7 i!I, WI l:?i 121 214 1,901 
l' 4l! :?!':{ li6 832 158 l:?i 11i 106 1,855 
:\lenin['.t:8 and C'entml I 
nen ous S) ,.. telll .. 
, 2 
R i G2 Ii 15 12 16 169 
.. 1 2i !I 4:i 10 14 i 10 123 
Intestine:< and peri ton- 
('unl. \i 1 10 9 35 3 11 8 12 89 
F 5 10 14 59 11 8 10 8 125 
, l'rtehral rolumn. :\j 2 3 4 15 1 4 4 5 38 
F - 5 1 16 4 2 2 1 31 
Joint,... .. .:\1 1 6 1 4 - . 2 1 5 20 
F 1 2 - 9 2 - 2 - 16 
Other organs . \( - 4 6 24 2 8 9 3 .'ift 
I - S ? :!2 4 1 3 3 r 
Di;.
eJllinated. \I' - 9 5' 27 10 15 4 10 80 
r 2 10 5 29 5 6 3 2 62 
Total, hoth St'W'" 111 691 JHî 1.9i6 376 340 30.'1 39:i 1,60..'1 
\I 56 336 209 964 IS2 182 159 265 2,35:
 
F 55 355 20i 1. 012 194 158 144 130 2,255 


XOTE. -The figures for 1922 are ,..uhjert to r<,\'i"ion. 


Cancer.-DC'ath
 assigned to cancer aggregated in 1921 4,82û, 2,309 males 
and 2,517 females, and in IfJ22 !),092, 2,414 males and 2,ß78 females. The crude 
rate was in 1921, 7!)2 and in 1922, 777 per million population. Out of every 1,000 
death:--ò in the rC'gist rat ion area in 1922, 75 w('re assigned to ran('er a
 ('ompared \\ith 
7] in 1921. By prm"inc(':--ò, the number of deaths dup to caJH'('r per 1,000 total deaths 
"pre in 1922 as folluw:'i, figures for 1921 bf'ing gi\"('Il in parenthesp:'i for comparative 
purpo:-:es: PriIH'e Edwmd Island, 7
 (û4); Xova 
('otia, Rl (7;")); X('w Brunswick, 
ü:3 (52); Ontario, 77 (7!)); l\Ianitoba, 77 Cï9); f':a:-:katehe\\;IIl, !)7 (.ï5); 
\Ihprta, 
li2 l.ï7); Briti
h Columhia, 98 (92). 


5-1. neath" from (.'ancer in the I(e
istration .\ua, b) Sex, 1921 and 1922. 


Total, 

ites. }>.I:.I. x.
. X.B. Or.t. \Ian. :'ask. Alta. n.r. regi,;- 
tration 
area. 
- - -- - - - - - 
1921. 
Buccal ca\Ït:\.... :\1 3 13 6 Hi 9 11 5 13 Hi 
F - 1 1 11 3 - 1 - Ii 

tomaC'h anclli\'eT :\' 21 9/ì if, 483 118 89 H5 90 1. 05R 
]' 13 \10 4i 37i i
 48 2h 49 73U 
I)eritoneum, inte,..t ines. 
and rectum. . 
I 5 33 11 171\ 29 IS 32 32 3:!S 
F 7 41 17 213 24 18 16 3S 374 
Female !1:enital organs... F 4 38 23 216 43 29 20 40 433 
Breabt....... . ......F 6 19 20 235 21 31 16 29 3;; 

kin.... . :\1 1 11 7 41 4 3 6 5 78 
1-- - 3 - 25 - 4 - - 32 
rn"peeified organs......M 9 65 35 38i 58 41 40 53 6h
 
F 8 iO 36 312 40 17 32 39 .')54 
- --1-- - - - -- - - - 
Total"............. ,'- 39 218 135 1. 176 21h ItJ2 168 193 2,309 
r 38 262 144 1.409 209 147 113 195 2,517 
- - 
.- - - -- .m l - - - - 
Total, hot h "('\1',... ... ìì 4
0 2i!t 2.;;N:i :109 2S1 3t\.
 4.!
26 



( OJ[ PA.RA1TVE Df<..'A I'll If.' 1'88 


199 


5-1. J)t'aths from ('anrer in thl' Regi"tration Area. 1>)' Sex. 19
1 and 19

 -concluded. 


Total, 
:,itp" P.E.I. X$. ".B. Ont. 'Ian. :-:ask. Alta. B.C'. reg:is- 
tration 
area. 
- - -- - - - -- 
1922. 
Buccal cadt) . .. .)1 5 2U 13 SO 14 13 10 12 16, 
F - 4 1 14 - 2 - 4 25 
:,tomach and lin.r.. " IS 109 64 4,6 109 97 ;1'; Hl3 1,054 
r H 112 fiO 391 8ï 56 43 ï3 836 
Ppritoneum, intestines. 
ami rectum. . 
, 6 23 23 203 33 29 23 34 3ï4 
r 5 44 30 235 22 14 29 36 415 
Female genital organ" __r 4 36 15 24:
 46 25 36 45 ,no 

rea
t. .. FI 11 34 23 231 33 24 21 37 411 
:-:kin. .. . \1 2 19 7 49 ; 4 10 6 10-l 
F 1 4 5 2ï - 1 2 2 42 
rn,.p('cified organ- . ;\1', 9 67 4:i 3ï!J 6') 53 45 59 715 
F 10 62 3. :!'i7 34 2; 20 29 496 
- - --- - - - - - - - - 
Total" .. .. \f 40 238 150 1. 18ï 223 1% lti6 214 2,414 
F 45 296 171 1.418 222 149 151 226 2,6ï8 
- -- - -- - -- -- --- - 
Total. both st'\es..... !ì5 534 3
1 2.b05 U5 :U;; :m HO 5,092 


X01'E.-The figures for 1\122 are subject to re,'ision. 


Comparative Death Rates of Different Countries.-In Table 55 will be 
found a comparative statement of thf' (Tude dC'ath rate
 of various countries and 
provinces for the latest available year. It i", worthy of note that three Canadian 
provÏIwC':-; have the lowest df'3th rates in the list, and that the rf'gistration area of 
Canada ha,.; a lowC'r death rate than an." othC'r leading country except Australia 
:md XC'w Zealand. The Im\ death rate:--: :)1'1' in all thr('C' cases duC' in part to a favour- 
ahlf' agC' distrihution of population. 


5ã.-{'rude Death Rates of '"arious ('ountries in Recent Years. 


Country. 


Sashatche\\an... . .. . 
British Columbia. 
.-\lberta...... . 

P'\ Zealand...... 

janitoba........ . 
Queensland. .... 

ew 
outh Wale" 
Australia 
South Australia. 
Tasmania. 
{'anada 1 . . . . . . . . . 
\Y.este
n Au,;tralia. .. 
\ lctona. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
T:nion of South Africa (whites)..... 
Ontario........ . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . 

orway.......................... . 
Ketherlands...................... . 
England and Wales. _.. ...... 
1:;weden................. .. 
Prince Edward Island.... ........ 
Kova Scotia....... . . . . . . . .. ...... 
r ni ted Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . 
Denmarh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
rnited 
;tates] 


IHegj"tration .-\rea. 


Crude 
Year. Death 
Rate. 


1922 
1922 
1922 
1921 
1922 
HJ21 
\921 
1921 
1921 
1\121 
19
2 
1921 
HI21 
l(J2U 
1922 
1921 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1921 
1920 
\!J20 


Country. 


Crude 
Year. Death 
Rate. 


7.7 
8.3 
8.4 
8.ï 
9.2 
9.3 
9.5 
9.9 
10.0 
10.3 
10.-1 
10.4 
10.5 
11.1 
11.4 
11.5 
11.9 
12.1 
12.4 
12.4 
12.5 
12.5 
12.9 
13.1 



ew Brunswicl
. ........ 
Belgium....... ...... 
Kco tland .. . . . . . .. . .. 
Pru",;ia.. ... 
Quebec... ... 
Ireland...,.... ... 
Dwitzcrlaud .. 
Germany....... ...... .. ..... 
Finland. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Austria... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
France.......................... . 
Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 




;

:':':':'::::::::""" :::::: 
Bulgaria......... . 
Jamaica................. ........ 
Japan.......... ........... ... . 
Rumania.. ..... ............ 
Portugal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Chile.... . . ., .. .. 
Russia, European. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Ceylon.. .. . .. . 


1922 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1922 
1920 
1921 
19.20 
1916 
1922 
1912 
1921 
1911 
1919 
1921 
1914 
19B-18 
1907-16 
1909 
1920 


13.1 
13.4 
13.6 
13.6 
14.2 
14.2 
14.4 
I.'H 
15.2 
16.2 
16.5 
20.1 
20.8 
21-1 
21.3 
21.5 
22.2 
22.7 
23.8 
24.4 
28.6 
28.9 
29.6 



200 


POP ULA TIOJ.V 


Infantile and Maternal Mortality. 


In recent years a great part of the energy devoted by the medical profe<;sion 
and s:mitarians to bring about a decline in the death rate has gone to reduce infant 
mortality, and in this fif'ld a large measure of success has been attained. In Canada 
both the Dominion, provincial and municipal health authorities have taken part 
in the struggle to reduce infantile mortality, and usually, in the absence of epidemics, 
each year is showing an improvement. Even in the three years for which the figures 
are available for the registration area, there is evident a considerable decline in 
infantile mortality. 'While in 1920 more than 10 p.c. of all children born died in the 
first year of life, in 1921 the proportion dropped to 8.8 p.c. or 14,893 deaths in a 
total of lû8,979 births, and in 1922 the infantile death rate showed a further 
betterment, dropping to 8.6 p.c. or 14,069 deaths in a total of 162,552. Deaths of 
children undcr one year of age constituted 20.6 p.c. of all deaths in 1922, as com- 
pared with 21.9 p.c. in 1921, and 21.4 p.e. in 1920. Table 56 shows that in ncarly 
every province the infant death rate per 1,000 living births i:s lower in 1922 than it 
was in the two preceding years. 


liS.-Infantile Mortality by Pro\ånces, to
ether with the rate per 1,000 Living Births.. 
1920, 1921 and 1922. 


Infant Deaths. Infant Dèath Rate 
per 1,000 Births. 
Provinces. 
1920. 1921. 1922. 1920. 1921. 1922. 
- - - - - 
PrincE' Edward Island.... _ __ e............... 184 180 150 80,0 83.5 73.0 
Nova Scotia.... . .. . . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1,536 1,311 1,225 116.5 100.7 9;.3 
New Brunswick....... . .. . . . . '" . . . .... 1,454 1,299 1,188 134.9 113.3 103.7 
Ontario............................................ . 7,497 6,768 5,910 103.7 91.2 82.9 
Manitoba.... . . . . .. . . . . . . .... ., 1,882 1,533 1,666 102.7 83.0 94.2 
Saskatchewan.. . .................... 1,958 1,814 1,874 85.7 80.6 85.6 
Alberta... _................... ............... 1,545 1,391 1,430 93.5 84'0 90.0 
Bri tish Columbia.. .. .. .. . . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . 638 602 626 60.8 56.5 64.6 
- - - - - 
 
Canada (registration area).......................... 16,694 14,893 14,069 100.1 88.1 86.6 
Quebec...................... ...... ............. 14,134 11,387 - 163.7 128.3 - 
- - - - - - 
Canada {excla..be or the territories).... . . . . . . . . . . . 311,828 26,280 - 121.8 102.0 - 
I 


NOTE.-The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 


Infant Mortality by Sex.-Table 57 shows that while male births in 1921 ex- 
ceeded female births by 5,289, yet owing to the greater mortality among male 
infants, their net advantage at the end of the year was only 3,066. For the registra- 
tion area, the ratio of deaths to 1,000 births was 98 for mak
, as against 77 for 
females, ánd 88.1 per 1,000 births both sexes. 



INFAXT lI-IORT ALITY 


201 


li7.-:Sumber and Ratio of Infant Deaths In the Registration Area to Living Births, 
by Sc, and Pro\inces, 1921. 


:\Iales. 


Females. 


Both 
Sexes. 


I Deaths under 1 yr. Deaths under 1 yr. Deaths 
Living Living per 
Births. 
umber Per 1,000 Births. N b Per 1,000 1,000 
I
 Births. _ ' urn er. Births. Births. 
Prince Edward Island........ 1,073 95 88 1,083 85 80 83.5 
Kova:-::cotia................. 6,695 73.'\ 110 6,326 573 90 100.7 
KewBruns\\ick.............. 5,942 740 124 5,523 559 101 113.3 
Ontario...................... 38,307 3,918 102 35,845 2,845 79 91.2 
Manitoba......... _ __ ... 9,455 868 92 9,023 665 74 83.0 
Saskatchewan............. ... 11,620 1,048 90 10,873 766 70 80.6 
Alberta...................... 8,493 808 95 8,068 583 72 84.0 
British Columbia............ 5,549 343 62 5,104 259 51 56.5 
Totals............... 87,13-1 1 8,558 ---;s 81,81,) 6,335 -n----ss.t 


Provinces. 


Infant J/ortality by Cau8e.-More than 82 p.c. of the total infant mortality in 
1921 was attributed to 12 diseases, being 83 p.c. for male children and 82 p.c. for 
female children. In 1922 the same 12 causes were re
ponsible for more than 86 p.c. 
of the infant mortality. In Table 58 are gi,'en the statistiC's of infant mortality 
by causes for both years. 


58.-lnfantile Jlortality by Sex in the Registration Area, by Principal Causes of 
Death, 1921 and 1922. 


1921. 1922. 
Cause of Death. 
:\Iale. Female. Total. }fale. Female. Total. 
-- - - -- 
Premature birth..... _ 1,862 1,391 3,253 1,908 1,479 3,477 
Diarrhoea and enteritis........::::::::: 1,:348 969 2,317 1,203 931 2,134 
Co
enital debility..................... 1,322 943 2,265 1,139 797 1,936 
Pneumonia............................. . 918 676 1,594 889 661 1,550 
Bronchitis..................... ......... 150 116 266 104 94 198 
Congenital malformations............... 470 363 833 504 385 889 
Convulsions. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 325 201 526 284 205 489 
Whooping cough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 212 406 143 138 281 
Other infectious diseases. _ .. 293 190 483 527 370 897 

l:j
iù
'.: : : : : : : : : : : : : : :: : : : : : : : : :: . : : 45 33 78 34 30 64 
92 83 175 58 44 102 
Hernia........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 6J 41 105 50 27 77 
Cause of death not stated............... 472 354 826 408 293 701 
Other diseases.......................... 1,003 763 1,766 727 547 1,274 
--- - - - 
Total.......................... . 8,55& 6,335 1-1,893 8,008 6,001 1-1,069 
Rate per 1,000 living births........ .. . . . . 98.2 77.7 88.1 86.6 


NOTE.-The figures for 1922 are subject to revision. 


Infant Mortality in Various Countries.-The rate of infant mortality to 
living births has been greatly reduced in civilized countries by the recent advances 
in medical science and in sanitation. The low rccord is held at the pre:5ent time by 
New Zealand, where in 1921 the rate of infantile mortality was only 47.8 per 1,000 
living births as compared with 68 in 1905. Queensland, with an infantile mortality 
rate of 54.2 in 1921, made a remarkable record for a sub-tropical country, while 
Norway and Sweden with rates of 62.3 and 64.4 respcctively in the latcst available 
year
, were the lowest among European COHn tries. 
As showing the improvement in recent years, it may be stated that the rate of 
infantile mortality in England and Wales has been reduced from 128 per 1,000 
living births in 1905 to 83 in 1921, while the rate in Germany has declined from 
196 in 190--1 to 134 in 1921. In thc Nethcrland:5, again, the rate has declincd from 



202 


I)()I'C Ll TIO.\' 


l:n I'pr l,oon livinJ!: hirths in 190.') to 72.f' in H120. I-'tatisti(':,; m'p p:iwn hy I<,ading 
countries in Tablc 59. 
ã9.- Ratc of Infant )Iortalit) I)l'r 1.000 I.hing Births in Various Countries of the 
\\orld in Rcccnt Years. 


Rate oC " R.'J. te oC 
('ountQ. Year. inCant Country. Year. inCant 
mcrtality morta Ii t) . 
--- 
:'\ew Zealand....... 1!J21 47.8 II Hcotland........ 1921 90.0 
Queensland........ . 1921 54.2 Alherta .. 1922 HO.O 
Xorway...... _ 1919 62.3 Denmark..... . 1920 90.7 
Xl''' South Wal
' 1921 1\2.6 \f ani toba .. 1922 94.2 
;-'\\ eden... .. .. . . . . . . HIl7 64.4 T'inland 1920 9().7 
Pritish Columbia....... 1922 64.6 :-';o\.a 
(.()tia.. 1922 97.3 
:-=outh Australia.. ... 1!J21 65.5 ficJ,Úunl. 1919 102.9 
Australia... . l!121 65.7 K
'\\ Brun,miek 1922 103.7 
\ïctoria. In21 72.6 QuebeC'. . 1921 128.3 
Xethcrland, 1920 72.8 
;;

ny... . 19'21 1
4.0 
Prince I
d\\anl I,l.wd. 1922 73.0 1922 1
4.0 
Ireland 1921 76.0 :-'l'rhia. 1911 1-1Ii . 0 
rrance. . 1!1l:? 78.0 :O;pain. 1921 147.4 
Tasmania. . . . . . . . l!1:?1 78.0 Ital) l!121 147.1) 
Western Australia . ....-. .-. 1!!21 78.3 Bulgaria. 1\111 l:ifi .11 
{Onion oC South -\!lieu (\\ hite,,) 1111!1 82.0 Jamaieu 1919 lIil.0 
Ontario........ . .... 1922 82.9 Japan. . 1921 l'iS.5 
F.nl!;land and Wales HI21 83.0 Ceylon... . 1920 182.0 
{"nitI'd Kin
dom.. 1\121 8:3.0 I Itum.ni.. 1914 187.0 
f'\\itzerland..... . "1 HI20 R
.8 I1une;an. 1922 199.6 
f'askatchewan.. _. .. 1922 81).6 \U8t ria 
 .. ... .. . . . 1918 205.8 
rniterl States l ..... 19:?0 S5.8 1{lIssia, EuTO)X'an...... 1909 248.0 
('anada l ................. . 19
 RG.G Chilp. 1914 286.0 
I Hl'gistration Area. 


Infant :Mortality in Citics.-In fOl'Jl\('r time:-: C'ÜI('S \\"('re ronsidcrf'd to he> 
"tl\(' gra\"pyaHls of population." The numhf'r of de>aths, c'onf-:ef)lIt'nt upon thc rapid 
:-prC'
.(1 of Ìnff'ctious di
ease::;, wa
 generally grc'atC'r than the number of births and 
it wa
 the ]))'pvailing opinion that ('it if'S would naturally comC' to an end if they were 
not })('ing cun
t antly rC'inforced by fre
h young life from the prolific' countrysidc. 
ThC' unhC'alt hiness of ('it ies was f'spp('ially rlt'st rtH't ivp of infant lifC', and it is one> of 
thc' greatC'st triumphs of our time that tht' ('ity mc, is in our days, if not as 
hC'althy, yf'Ì not ne('pst-;arily morc dangC'rous to human liff' or l':-:pecially to infant 
lifp, than lifC' in thc ('ountry a
 a whole. 
To give parti('ular examples, thf' ratC' of infantilc mortality in I
ondon, England 
"8.s in HI
I, 80 per 1,000 living births as ('('mpared wit h a rate for England and 
\YalC's of b3 per 1,000. I\ew York City experiC'n('C'd in 1921 an infant mortality of 
ï1lwr 1,000 a!': against a rate of 85.8 pcr 1,000 for thc rcgistration area of thC' rnitC'ò. 
:-\tates. The department of the RC'ine (Paris) had in UH 9 an infantilc mortality 
of 11
 per 1,000 living hirths as compared with 12
 for thc 77 departments of Franre 
for which Ow vital statisties wcre collect cd. In Gt'rmany again, the infant mor- 
tality for BC'rlin was, in 1921, 13.5 per 1,000 living births as compan'd with 134 for 
t hC' whole> country. 
In Canada, our C',,-pcric'nce, cxcept in the provin('C' of QupheC', has abo up to 
tll(' pre>se>nt hepn rather favourable to the citif'!':. Montreal had in 1021 an infant 
mortality of l.')X p<'r 1,000 living births as compar('d with 128 for the province of 
QuebC'C'. On thc other hand, Toronto had in HI:!1 an infant mortality of 91 per 
1.000 living hirths as again!':t 91.2 for the provin('c of Ontario. 
o too, 
\\ïnnilwg e...:perienced in lU21 an infantile mortality of 77 pC'r 1,000 as compared 
with 
:{ for :\Ianitoba, and YancouvC'r in 1921 an infantilc mortality of 59 per 1,000 
living hirths as compared" ith 56.!} in thc S<t]JlC' yC'ar in thC' provincc of British 
Columhia a:- a whol('. 



JIATERS.1L JIORTALITr 


203 


Rtati-.:ticf' of the rat<, of infantile mortality an' p;tn'Il for the lmdinp: eitiC'f' of 
the \\ orld for the latest ayailahle year:-; in Table 60. 
60. -Rate of Infantile Jlortalitr per 1.000 I.hin
 Births in Great ('ities of the World 
in Recent '-ears. 


Cit)-. 


.-\u!'1.lami. . . . . . . .. ............ 
.\msterrlam... . 
(' hristiania. 
Zurich. 
Home..... .. 
Victoria.. . . . . 
Vancouver... . . 
f-;to!'khoIm................... . 
Brisbane............. " ....... 
:-;ydney, Kew Fo:outh Wall's..... 
Copenhagen... . 
Xew York... 
Gpnp\"a. 
\\ ellington. .... . 
. \(le laide. . . 
:\lelbourne... . 
J lobart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
\\ïnnipeg......... .......... '" 
Hamilton...... ................ 
London. Enl/:..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Perth, W. Australia......... ... 
Birmingham. .................. 
Regina.... . ... 
Wasl>ington. 
Edmonton. 
:-;aska toon.. .. . 
Toronto. . . . . . . . 
J,ondon, Ont. 
Buenos Aire
. 
:\lanchester. . . . 
Paris.. . . . . . . . . . 
Hamburg. 


Year. i
f


iì
 II 
mort3lit
 . 


1920 
1921 
1921 
1916 
191.') 
1921 
1921 
19
1 
1921 
1921 
1921 
HI21 
1\116 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1919 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1916 
1921 
Hl21 
1921 


City. 


4,> Edinburgh... 
54 Antwerp.... . 
54 J,i verpool.. . . 
55 G la,;gow 
56 -\berrlepn. . . . 
56 
Ionte \ïdpo... 
59 Dresdpn. . 
61 Rellast. 
62 Dublin.... 
62 Munich........ 
67 Genoa.............. 
71 Berlin, Gprmany....... 
7::\ Halifax........ 
74 J.eipzig."... 
71 Ottawa.......... 
74 Cologne 
7;; Chicago..... 
77 Vienna........ 
78 Ht.John............. 
80 Pragup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
81 :--;hcrbrooke..... 
82 :\1 ar,;eille-,;. . . . . . 
82 
îontreal...... 
85 Quebec. .. . .. . . . 
89 Breslau. . .. . . . . . 
91 Hio rle .Janeiro... 
91 :\Iadriù.. 
!12 Florpn!'!'. . .. . . 
94 Petrognlll 
94 :\I:adras. 
95 Bom bay 
95 


Ratp of 
Year. infantile 
mortality. 


1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
19Hì 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1916 
1921 
1921 
1!J2! 
1921 
1921 
1916 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1920 
1916 
1921 
1921 
1921 
1912 
1915 
1916 
1912 
1921 
W20 


96 
98 
105 
106 
108 
111 
115 
115 
12:{ 
126 
126 
135 
135 
136 
139 
140 
145 
146 
147 
151 
154 
157 
158 
163 
170 
170 
177 
192 
249 
2Rl 
fi56 


"Maternall\lortality.-.\ subject of cognat<, intere
t with infantile mortality 
i
 that of maternal mortality. The maternal mortality in the C'ight provincei:; con- 
f'tituting the registration area of Canada i
 
hown hy agC' group:; in Table 61, and 
by causes in Table 62. 
61.- Jlaternal Jlortalit) in the Re
istration Area, b) \ge Groups, 1921 and 1922. 


.\g(' croup-. P.E.I. K.S. ì\
.B. Onto l\lan. Sask. Alta. B.C. Total. 
--- - - - - - - - - - 
IMI. 
15-19.... ...... 1 2 4 22 3 7 4 - 43 
20-24. . ...... - 13 7 51 14 22 18 12 137 
2.'i--29. . .. 2 10 9 93 15 19 34 7 189 
:m-3!1.. 3 22 20 174 39 68 46 29 401 
40-4H. . 1 9 7 47 10 12 9 3 98 
- -- -- -- - -- - - - 
Totals. 7 56 4, 3!ì7 hi 1
8 111 51 S6S 
- - - - - - - - - 
Ra tp per 1,000 Ii \ in!! birt h,; 3.2 4.3 4.1 5.2 4.4 5.7 6.7 4.8 5.1 
- - - - - - - - - 
1922. 
lã-19. . 1 3 5 18 4 7 6 2 46 
20-24. . .. 2 13 5 70 8 23 19 6 146 
25-29. . 3 14 14 71 29 28 24 7 190 
a0-39. . - 32 30 158 4::\ 50 47 33 393 
40-49.. _ I 8 5 51 14 17 13 11 120 
50 and over. - - - 1 1 - - - 2 
Age not stated'. . . . . . . . . . . : - - - 1 - - - - 1 
- - - - - - - - - 
Totals. . .U 59 370 99 12,) IU9 59 ts9S 
- -- - - - - - -.- -- 
H.atcper 1,000 Ii \"i ng births 3.4 5.6 5.1 .').2 5.6 5.7 6.9 6.1 5.5 


XOTF.- Thl' fi
url',", for 1!122 are ,",uhjppt to rè\"Ì;:ion. 



204 


POPULATION 


C2.-IUaternal Mortality in the Registration Area, by Causes of Death, 1921 and 1922. 


I Total, 
Cause of death. P.E.I. N.S. :-'.B. Onto Sask. AHa. B.C. regis- 
:Man. tra tion 
area. 
- - - - - - - - 
1921. 
Accidents or pregnancy- 
total. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 1 8 3 !J
 17 26 23 11 1
7 
(a) Abortion. .......... - 1 2 39 9 8 9 4 72 
(b) Ectopic gcstation... - 1 - 11 3 - 8 4 27 
(c) Other aCl'idents or 
pregnancy.......... . 1 6 1 48 5 18 6 3 88 
Puerpcral haemorrhage.... 1 8 13 47 7 17 9 5 107 
Other accidents or child- 
birth-totaL....... . . . 1 5 4 48 15 21 21 5 120 
(a) Caesarean section.. . - 1 - 4 2 - 2 3 12 
(b) Othcr surgil'.al oper- 
ations amI instru- 
mcntal delivcry..... - 1 - 4 - - - - 5 
(c) Others under thif' 
title............... . 1 3 4 40 13 21 i.9 2 103 
Puerperal sepsis...... ..... 2 9 6 75 24 33 26 14 189 
Phlegmasia alba dolens; t 
pU('
eral em holism or 
 
sud en death in puer- 
perium. .. ............ - 2 3 14 3 4 3 3 32 
Puerperal albuminuria and 
convulsions.......... - 2 23 15 81 14 21 18 9 183 
Following cbildbirth (not 
othern ise defined). .. . - 1 3 24 1 6 11 4 50 
Puerperal diseases or the 
hreast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - 
- - - - - - - - - 
Totals. ..... 7 56 47 387 ISI US III 51 SSS 
- - - - - - - - - 
1922. 
Accidents or pregnancy- 
total............. ..... 2 12 12 í8 18 27 25 18 192 
(a) AhortiQn............ - 6 2 34 9 12 17 13 93- 
(b) Ectopic gestation... - 1 4 . 18 3 5 2 - 33 
(c) Other accidents or .. 
pregnancy. ....... . . . 2 5 6 26 6 10 6 5 66 
Puerperal haemorrhage.... - 5 6 55 14 21 12 6 119 
Other accident!'! of child- 
birth-totaL......... . - 8 6 42 11 10 16 4 97 
(a) Caesarean 8cction.. . - - 2 15 2 1 1 - 21 
(b) Other surgical oner- 
ations and instru- 
mental delivery.. ... - 1 - 3 - 1 2 - 7 
(c) Others under this ÞOI 
title... . - 7 4 24 9 8 13 4 69 
Puerpera) sepsi
:".:::::::: 2 12 14 59 24 31 22 9 1i3 
Phlegmasia alba dolens; 
puerperal embolism or 
sudden death in puer- 4 
perium............... . - 2 2 22 4 4 8 46 
Pucrperal albuminuria and 2 !)5 19 23- 23 13 197 
convulsions.......... . 21 11 
Follm\ ing childbirth (not 
othprv. h.e defined). . . . 1 10 8 29 8 9 3 5 73 
Puerperal disl'ases of the 
breast............... . - - - - 1 - - - 1 
- - - - - - - - -----+- 
Totals. ........... 7 70 59 370 99 J
5 109 5' 89!S 


XOTE.-Thc figure" ror 1922 are subject to revision. 



IJI,fM IGRATION 


205 


IlL-IMMIGRATION. 


Immigration has throughout Canadian history played a great part in reinforcing 
Canadian population, especially the English-speaking population. 'Vhile the great 
majority of French-Canadians can trace their genealogy back to ancestors who left 
the Old 'World 200 or 250 years ago, or even longer, the great bulk of English- 
speaking Canadians are comparative newcomers both to Canada and to this con- 
tinent, though a considerable number of the United Empire Loyalist families had 
been resident in the old colonies for generations before they moved north to estab- 
lish English-speaking settlements in Canada. During the middle third of the 
nineteenth century there 'was a great English-!'peaking immigration which settled 
the province of Ontario and made it for the first time more populous than the sister 
province of Quebec, thus bringing about the agitation for representation by popula- 
tion. Thereafter immigration slackened until the dawn of the twentieth century 
brought another flood of settlers to the newly opened territories of the Great North 
West, resulting in an increase of population between the censuses of 1901 and 1911 
greater than the combined increase of the three decades from 1871 to 1901. 


I.-Statistics of Immigration. 
Immigration during the second decade of the twentieth century promised at 
its commencement to be even greater than during the first. In its first three years 
no fewer than 1,141,547 persons are report.ed to have entered Canada for purposes 
of settlement. If this rate had been maintained, the population of Canada in 1921 
would certainly have been in excess of ten millions instead of bcing less than nine 
millions. The war, which commenced on August 4, 1914, dried up the sources of 
our immigration in Great Britain and Continental Europe, where every able-bodied 
man was needed for the defence of hi'S country. Immigrant arrivals from the 
United Kingdom in 1918 only numbered some 3,000 as compared with 150,000 in 
1913; from Continental Europe immigrant arrivals numbered only about 3,000 in 
1916 as compared with approxii1lately 135,000 in 1914. Since the war, immigration, 
though increasing, has never approached that of the pre-war period, which is prob- 
ably a fortunate circumstancc, since the capital necessary to set in employment 
such great bodies of labourers as came to Canada in 1912 and 1913 could hardly 
have been sE'cured. 
Immigration to Canada, as to other new countries, is generally greatest in 
"boom" periods, when capital as well as labour is leaving the older countries for 
the newer in order to secure the more remunerative investments gcnerally to be 
found in virgin territories where the natural resources are still unexploited. In 
periods of depression, however, the sending abroad of both capital and labour is 
diminished, both preferring at such times to endure the evils which they know at 
home rather than take the risks of a new departure at a distance. This proposition 
is aptly illustrated by the statistics of Table 63, which show that during the past 
25 years, immigration was at its minimum in the year of deepest depression, 1897, 
that it steadily increased from that time forward until 1908, that a decline took 
place in the fiscal year ended March 31, 1909, on account of the short depression of 
1908, that thereafter immigration steadily increased till 1913, while the fiscal year 
ended March 31, 1914, showcd a decline due to the depression which occurred in 
the year preceding the war. In the fiscal years 1915 to 1919 political rather than 
economic conditions restricted immigration, but with the expansion of business at 
the end of the war mil" immigration was more than doubled, while the depression 




Oü 


1'01't' L1 TIns 


which characterind 19:21 and 19:!:! is J"(.fleeted in tlH' dC'clining immigrat ion of t hp 
fiscal years ended March 31, H)2:! and 1!}:!:3. The improvement in bu
in('ss 
('onditions in 19:23 has been r('flcetcd in an incrca
e of immigration during the fir,..;t 
half of thc fi:-:cal year mding l\Iarch 31, 19:2--1. During these Rix m.onths 9--1,33:3 
:-cttlers entered Canada as compared with 46,331 in thc same period of the pre- 
ccding year-an increase of 104 p.c. 
The number of immigrant arrivals in Canada from the rnitC'd Kingùom, the 
United States and other countrie:,; is given hy years from 1
97 in Ta.ble 63. 


63o-N'umber ofImmigrant Arrhals in Canada from the t:"nited Kingdom. the rnite(1 
states and other countries, 1891-19'!3. 


I I 
I lmmig.ant Arrivals Immigrant .\.rrival,; 
from from 
Fiscal I rnitcd - Total. Fi8cal Total. 
Years. rnited Other Year!:!. l'nited United Other 
I King- Coun- King- Coun- 
dom. 
taÌllS. tries. dom. :::;tates. tries. 
-- -- - - 
ISHii............. . 11 ,38
 2,412 7,921 21, ilG 1911. .... 123,013 121,4;)1 66,620 311,Ob1 
1898 1 .. ... .. . . . . . . . ll,17
 9,119 ll,G08 31,900 1912...__. 130,121 133, il'l 82,40G 354,237 
lROOI... .. .. lD, 660 11,945 21,918 44, 54
 1913. .. . .. . : :: : 150,542 139,000 112,
" t 402, 4
2 
1000 2 .... .. .. 5,141 8,54a 10,211 23, 895 l!Jl4.......... . 142,622 107, 530 134,7:!'i :
S4,SiS 
1901. ............. 11,810 17, H8i 19,
52 40,149 1915.. . . . . . .. 43,276 50,77!! 41,n4 144,7S!! 
1002.. . .. .... 17 , 259 26,388 23, 732 67,379 1916..... . ... 8,Ii64 3fì,037 2,9
6 4S,5.n 
1903. .. ..... . 41, i92 49,473 37,099 12".364 1917...... 8,282 61,3S!! 5,70:
 75.:371 
1904. . . .. .. .. . .. . . ,)0,374 45,171 
4, iS6 1:
0, 331 HJlg.. .. .. .... 3,1i8 il,314 4,;)82 79,074 
I!I05. .. . .. . . . .. . G5, 
59 4:\, 543 37, 364 141ì,266 1919. __ -- . .. 9,914 40,715 7,Oi
 ;)i, i02 
HI06.. __..... 
tj, 796 ,'>7.796 44.4 Ï2 Ih!l,064 1920. . 59,G03 49,651; 8,07i 117,336 
100i 3 ._ ...... .. ,)5,791 34,ö50 :-:4. 
li 124,667 1921. . .... 74,262 41-j,059 26,151; 14S,477 
1008. 120,182 58,:n
 
n,07,'j 262,469 1922 39,020 29.345 21,6
4 
9,!1!19 
1909... 52,901 59,8:32 34, 175 146,90S 192
. . 34, 50S .,.) 00-' l1ì,372 72,887 
..... --, ' 
1910. ..... 59,790 IO:
, 798 4.'>,206 20>>.7!14 


, 


1 Calendar year. 2 
ix month:-, January to June, inclu"i\"e. 3 Xinp month" cnrfed :\Iarch 31. 
XOTJI:-Ree Table 7 of this i>ection for an e,.timate of the mo\ement of population between the 
censu"e:- of 1911 and 1921. 



ationality of Immi
rant Arrivals.-Immigration, whit'h \\ a:-- at a low ebb 
during the war period, may oncc marC' t)('come, \\ hC'n normal condi t ion
 arC' restored, 
the chief means of reinforring population and populatinj.!; the va:-:t waste spacC's of 
Canada. "L'nder sueh condition
 the racial and linguistic composition of that immi- 
gration become
 of paramount importance, Canadian::; generall.\' prefer that fo'f'ttlers 
should bc of a rC
ldily a:--:
imilable typC', already identifipd hy raec or languaj.!;c with 
one or other of the two great races now inhabiting thi
 country-and tllUs prC'parC'd 
for the as.;umption of the dutiC's of dpmol'ratie Canaclian eitiz('w..hip. :-:;inec the 
FrC'nrh are not to any grC'at e'i:tí'nt an ('migrating peoplp, thOis lIlpans that thf' prC'- 
fC'rablC' sett Iprs are those who spí'ak the Engli:-h languagC' - t hosc eoming from the 
{-nit(.d h.ingdolll or tllf' l nited :-\tat('s. Xext in ordpr of rp:alinC'..:s of a:-,similation 
arc thc' :-;eandinavians nnd the Dutch, who readily IC'al"ll Engli:-:h and arc already 
acquainted with thf' working of freC' dC'morratic institutions; a fc'" 'year
 ago most 
Canadians would have included the Germans in the sanl(' r:ltC'gory. :--\C'ttlcrs from 
Houthern and Eastí'l'n Europe, howevpr desirable from the pU1'('ly economiC' point of 
view, arc lcss readily assimilate(1, anù thC' CanaùÏanizing of the people from the::;e 
rcgions who came to Canada in the first fourteen years of this century is a problem 
both in thc agricultural Prairie Provinces and in the cities of the Eafo't. Les," Wo;.<;imil- 
able still, according to the gC'lwral opinion of Canadian
, are tho:-:p who comc to 
Canaùa from t hC' Orií'ut. 



lJ/JIIGRAXT ARRIVALS 



Oï 


On the whole the great bulk of Canadian immigration of the past gC'neratiun 
has been drawn from the Engli:,;h-speaking countriC':-.;, and from tho!'e continental 
European countries where the population Ü; ethnically nearly related to the Briti
h. 
The nationalities of the immigrant arrivals of t he 
 yC'ars from H)1() to ] fI
:
 arC' 
shown in Table 64. 


6-1.-Immi
ant .\rrimls in Canada. by Xationalities all!. Ital"e,. fiscal )o'ea)"" 1916-t92:
. 


,ationalities. 1!/16. 1!J!7. 1915. 1!J19. In:?o. 19:?1. In:?:? 1 1 ",' 
.
_.J. 
- - - - - - - 
RIÎti:;h ;O-;ubjPct- eritish Isles- 
English .............. 5,857 5,li-t 2,477 7,954 45, lï3 47,6S" 23,22.') HI, 11\:-- 
Irish. ................ 818 95S 174 336 2,751 6,3Kl 3..')72 3,66
 
Hcottish. . . ..................... 1,887 2,01\2 473 1,518 10,997 19,248 11, .j96 11,071 
Welsh. ..................... 102 88 54 106 682 !H3 li27 581 
- - --
- - -- - - - 
Total, British Isles....... . 8, 664 8,2'\2 3,178 9,914 59,603 74,252 39,020 3t,:;OS 
- -- -- - - -- - 
Other British- 
Africans, South.................. 11 1 4 23 63 32 41 
Australians..................... . 32 18 34 35 88 90 76 67 
Bermudians.. ....... ........ ...... 16 10 I 1 S .) 7 
East Indians............. ........ 1 10 l:i 21 
Jamaicans........... . 9 6 24 2 3 Ix 13 :m 
\laltese........... ..... 4 109 144 2 405 I4U :!-1 3-;- 
X e\\ foundlanders. . . . . . . 255 1,21:J 1,199 512 4-13 1,042 :!1i7 1,552 
X ew Zealanders. . . IS 12 13 15 31 40 
5 3:! 
-- - -- ------- - -- - 
Total, Other British....... 330 1,405 1,428 5(j7 11114 1,411 562 1,80<; 
- --- --- - -- -- --- 
Grand Total, British Subjects... 8,99-1 9.'ìS7 4.606 to,.U;t 60,:)97 75,673 39,.3S2 36,316 
European Continental :\ a tionali- 
t ies- 
_\Ibanians 6 6 
-\ustJ ianb 15 5 26 14 2:
 
Bel
ians... ...... ......... 172 1:?6 19 48 1,532 1,645 503 3lü 
Bulgarians.. . .. .. . . . . . . . . I I 4 27 III 
C'zecho-SIO\.aks..... . I 4 308 152 101 
Dutch..... IS6 151 !J4 59 154 595 183 Il!1 
Esthoni:ms. 12 
Finnish. . 139 249 113 2 44 1,401 274 1,lïI 
French. . . . . 180 199 II4 222 1,5
4 861 332 
:--1 
Germans. 27 9 I I 12 137 178 ::?16 
Gn'eks._ 145 258 45 4 39 357 209 Hi 
Ih'bre\\s, 'n.
'.
.'.'.'.'..... 1:-' 28 2 15 32 !J20 2,336 tj:;!, 
Hebre\\s, \ustrian...... .. . I 1 1 I 
I Iebre\\ s, German.. I 
Hebre\\s, Polish. . .. ... . . 36 1,600 5,216 1,3711 
lIebrews, Hus.,ian.. . . . . . . . 46 108 :
o 48 242 
51 i5:! 
Hungarians. . . 23 48 2:! 
Italians...... . 3SS 758 189 4!J I, 16S 3,h
0 2,413 2,07t 
Jugo-Hlavs.. __ 6 2 I 12 hf! 180 l:!tj 
T atvians. _ . . ... I 
Lit huanians.. HI LO(i 
1.uxembergers. . . iii 1ü ii ;! 
Polish........ ............ I) 12 76 -1, O!i I ::?,70: 2,92
 
Purtugue!'e 1 4 
Rumanians,...... . 4 -1 21 9W i5!} 427 
Rus!<iars. . 40 25 42 42 51 1,077 321 
:?2 

can.dinavian!< - 
D
mes. . 167 145 i4 44 233 :;11 541 382 
Icplanders 15 9 3 12 11 :;0 31 21 
'\orwcgian. ... 2032 303 235 !11 179 429 4
0 ,')Oi 
;0-;\\ edes. ................. 177 332 156 101 ::?41 715 4-12 !ltS 
;O-;panish .. ................... II 76 28 12 15 202 6 15 
;O-;WiS8..... 42 30 12 II 100 235 1S7 ]52 
Turks. . . . . . . . . : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : I 8 3 :J 
t-kranians... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 491 89 36 
- - - - - - - - - 
Total t;uropean ('ontlnental 

"tionalltles. ....... . . . .. . _ . . .1 2.020 2,831 1,1.jS ;
; .'1.51.i 
O. S6:J 11'. .jI:l I:
, 
O'" 



208 


POPULATION 


6-t.-Immigrant Arrha1s in Canada. by lS"aHonalities and lCaces, fiscal )-'ears 
1916-1923 -concluded. 


Nationalities. 


1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. 
-------- 
8 2 
2 4 4 
3 2 10 85 70 59 
88 393 769 4,333 544 2,435 1,746 711 
1 3 1 2 
9 2 
401 648 883 1,178 711 532 471 369 
1 3 1 
34 98 35 22 61 144 42 42 
3 2 2 1 9 1 
3 9 2 18 443 123 91 
38 2D3 273 220 62 110 24 44 
3 3 1 
-------- 
571 1,.U7 1,968 5,758 1,413 a, i72 2,4m I, a2-1 
-------- 


Non-European Nationalities or 
Races- 
Arabians................. ....... 
A rgen tinians. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 
Arnlenians. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
ChinPRe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Cubans......................... . 
LR,vptians... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Japanese... _. _............. _..... 
1\tl'xieans........... .. 
Negroes..........._..... _ _.. _..' 
Persians........................ . 
Syrians......................... . 
West Indians.................... 
Other Coun trips. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 


Total Non-European N"atlonall- 
ties.. ...... _...._. _ _ _ _ _. _ _ _... 
From the UnltedStates J .. ...... 36,952 61,409 71,a-l2 40,736 49,711 MI,169 29,4.12 22,039 


Grand TotaL........... 48,537 75,a74 79,07-1 57,70
 117,336 H
.H7 89,999 72.8
7 


I Includes United Statcs citizens via ocean ports. 


Destination of Immigrant Arrivals.-The destination of the immigrant 
arrivals in Canada are given for the pcriod from 1901 to 1923 in Table 65, which 
may be compared with the census tables (Tables 1 to 4 of this section) showing the 
increase of population in the decades between 1901 and 1921. While immigration 
to the Maritime Provinces during the period was comparatively small that to 
Quebec was very considerable, and that to Ontario very large. The lion's share of 
the immigrant arrivals, however--over 1,520,000 persons-gave the Prairie Prov- 
inces as their destination, and 410,619 stated their destination as Britif'h Columbia 
or the Yukon. 
. 
G5.- Destination of Inmügrants into Canada, by Prodnces, 1901-1923. 


Mari- British 
Sask- Colum- 
Fiscal Year. time Quebec. Ontario. )lani- a tche- Alberta. biaand Not Totals. 
Prov- toba. wan. Yukon shown . 
inees. Terr'y. 
- - - - - - - - 
1901. ............. ........ 2,144 10,216 6,208 11,254 14,160 2,600 2,567 49, 149 
1&02................ _..... 2,312 8,817 9,798 17,422 22,109 3,483 3,34
 67,379 
1903................ ..... 5,821 17,040 14,854 39,535 43,898 5,378 1,838 128,364 
1904............... ....... 5,448 20,222 21,266 34,911 40,397 6,994 1,093 130,331 
1905................... '" 4,128 23,666 35,811 35,387 39,289 6,00& 1,977 146,266 
1906..................... . 6,381 2.>,212 52,746 35,648 28,728 26,1ï7 12,406 1,766 18\1,064 
1907 (9 mos.)...... .. .. . . . _ 6,510 18,3l!J 32,654 20,273 15,307 17,559 13,650 3D5 124,667 
1908................. ..... 10,360 44,157 75, 133 39,789 30,5.10 31,477 30,768 19'> 262,469 
1909.._........_......... . 6,517 19,733 29,265 19,702 22, 146 27,6'>1 21,862 32 146,908 
1910. ... . .. ... . .. . 10,644 28,524 46,129 21,04!J 2D,218 42,509 30,721 - 208,794 
1911. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 13,23ti 42,914 80,035 34,653 40.763 44,782 54,701 - 311,084 
1912. .... .... .. .. . . ., . . .. . 15,973 50,602 100,227 43,477 41i,15
 45,957 51.
3 - 354,237 
1913. . . . . . . ..... .. . . . . . . . . 19,8oo 64, 8J5 122,798 43,813 45.147 48,073 57,960 - 402,432 
1914..................... . 16,730 80,368 123,792 41,640 40,999 43,741 37,608 - 384,878 
1915..................... . 11,104 31,053 i4,873 13, 1\Iti 16,173 18,263 10,127 - 144,789 
1916. . . ..... ... .. .... .. .. . 5,981 8,274 14,743 3,487 6,001 7,215 2,83(; - 48,537 
1917..................... . 5,710 10,930 26,078 5,247 9,874 12,418 5,117 - 75,374 
1918..... .... . '.' . ... .... . 5,247 9,059 23,754 6,252 12,382 16,821 5,559 - 79,074 
1919..................... . 3,860 6,772 13,826 4,IS62 8,552 11,640 8,190 - 57,702 
1920. .... .... . . .. ........ . 5,554 13,078 39,344 11,387 14,287 20,000 13,68ti - 117,336 
1921. .. . ... .... .... .. " .. . 6,353 21,100 62,572 12.649 13.392 17,781 14,630 - 148,477 
1922. . . . . . . . . . .. .... . . . .. . 3,222 13, 724 34,590 8,904 9,894 11,825 7,840 - 89,999 
1923. .. . . .... " . ... . ... .. . 3,298 9,343 30,444 6,037 8,18ti 8,798 6,781 - 72,887 
- - - - -- - - - 
Tobll. . . .. . . . .. .. . 176,339 577 ,958 1,0-10,9411 510,674 1,010,
27 41I1,n8 13.211 a,7-10,61 



CCCUPATION OF IM1'tIIGRAI...-T ARRIVALS 


209 


Occupation of Immigrant Arrivals.-As stated below in the paragraphs 
dealing with immigration policy, the settlers most universally acceptable to Can- 
adians are those who settle on the land or those females who enter domestic service. 
In Table 66 will be found statistics of the occupations of immigrant arrivals in 
Canada during the fiscal years ended March 31, HI22 and 1923. 


GG.-Occupation and Destination of Total Immi
ant Arrhals in Canada for the 
}'iscal Years 1922 and 1923. 


Description. 


Farmers and farm labourers- 
:\1.en..................... ........... 
\Vomen........... .................. 
Children....... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 


Generallabourers- 
l'Ilen......._......... __. "" _ ... 
\Vomen........................ . .... 
Children........................... . 


Mechanics- 
l\ien. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
\Vomen.... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 
Chi
dren....... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 
CierI,s, traders, etc.- 
):en................................ 
\Yomen............................ . 
Children........................... . 


Miners- 
'1.en............................... . 
\YOInpn............................ . 
Children. . . ... ..... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Domestics- 
\\.omen.... .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . 
Not classified- 
l\[
m............................... . 
\Ybmen............................ . 
Children.... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Totals- 
!\len..... ....... ... ...... ........... 
\\"omen............................ . 
Children........................... . 
Totals. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Des tina tion- 
Maritime Provinces..... . . . . . . . 
Quebec. . __ . . . . . 
Ontario..... . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 

ïanitoba.......................... . 
Saskatchewan...................... . 
l-'..lberta. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
British Columbia.............. ..... 
Yukon. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


1922. 1923. 
Via From the Via From the 
Ocean lJ ill ted Totals. Ocean United Totals. 
Purts. 
tates. Ports. States. 
------ 
11,556 8,049 19,605 11, 370 6,389 17,750 
3,600 2,384 5,984 2,536 2,070 4,606 
3,185 2,861 6,046 2,242 2,541 4,786 
2,812 1,802 4,614 2,675 884 3,559 
844 445 1,289 388 229 617 
594 340 934 344 169 513 
3,623 2,285 5,\108 4,158 1,382 5,540 
1,886 544 2,430 1,293 386 1,679 
919 453 1,372 836 351 1,187 
1,404 1,175 2,579 1,003 688 1,691 
1,049 489 1,5
 651 315 966 
428 283 711 237 181 418 
494 146 640 920 175 1,09!> 
101 19 120 111 31) 141 
109 22 131 142 25 167 
6,880 755 7,635 6,273 701 6,974 
3,256 1,995 5,251 2.264 1,387 3,651 
9,973 3,073 13,046 7,359 2,414 9,773 
7,941 2,225 10,166 6,078 1,696 7,774 
------ 
23,145 15,452 38,597 22,390 10,896 33, 286 
24,333 7,709 32,042 18,611 6,145 24,756 
13,176 6, IS-! 19,360 9,879 4,966 14,845 
-------- 
60.6,;! 29.3,15 89,999 ';0,880 22,007 12,1:187 
------ 
2,033 1,189 3,222 2,368 930 3,298 
9,357 4,367 13,72-1 6,163 3,18:! 9,343 
25,741 8,
W) 34,5\10 24,417 6,027 30,444 
7,188 1,716 8,(104 4,589 1,457 6,037 
5,365 4,5::!9 9,8i14 4,413 3,773 8,186 
5,24:
 6,582 11,825 4,113 4,685 8,798 
5,722 2,008 7, no 4,819 1,833 6,652 
5 10'; 110 7 1.)0) 129 


Prohibited Immigration.-The following is a summary of the classes whose 
admisf'ion to Canada is prohibited under the existing regulations. The regulations, 
ho" ever, do not apply to Canadian citizens or perbons having Canadian domicile:- 
(1) Imbeciles, feebleminded persons, epileptics, insane persons, persons 
of constitutional psychopathic inferiority, pf-'rsons suffering from chronic 
alcoholism and thosf' mentally defective to such a degree as to affect their 
ability to earn a living. 
WB73-H 



210 


]J()PCLATIO.Y 


(2) Pl'rsons afficted wit h tuherculot-:i
 ur wit h any loat Iwsonw, con taJ!:ious 
or infpctious di
pasp or a disl'ase whiC'h may hp (bngprous to public b'alth; 
immigrants who arl' dumb, blind or otlwrwisp physically dpfectin'. 
(:3) Prostitutps and wonwn and girls ('oming to Canada for allY immoral 
purposp, pimps. IH'ocurpr
 and pl'rsons "ho ha \"(. he(.n ('onyieted of any crinH' 
involving moral turpitude. 
(4) Professional beggar
 or vagrants, charity aided immigrants and 
lwrsons who arl' likdy to bl'C'ome public charges. 
(5) Anarchists, pl'rsons who dishf-'lieve in or are oppof:pd to org:miZl'd 
governnwnt or who belong to any organization teaching disbelief in or oppo::,i- 
t ion to organized government, persons who have bepn guilty of pspionage or 
high treason and pprsons who have lwen deported from Canada. 
(ü) ppr:-<ons oyer fiftf'l'n years of age' unahle to read. 1'lw literacy tt'st, 
however, dops not apply to a fathe'r or grandfather OVf-'r fifty-fin' year
 of agp, 
or to a wifp, mot}wr. grandmot}lI'r or unmarried daughter or wido\\l'd daughter. 
The Immigration _-\.ct providf's fpr the rpjt'etion and deportation of immigrants 
helonging tu the prohibited cla,.;sl's and :llso for the dl'portation of tho:,p who become 
undpsirable
 within Canada" it hin fiye years after ll'gal entry. 
TIll' operatiun of t hp ahoye rpgulations is illustrated in Tablp 67, which givps 
the numbers of immigrants rf'jected or dl'ported after admission, thl' causes of sueh 
rÞjection or deportation, and thp nationalitips of thosf' (Jpportf'd, for p:H'h of the tl'n 
fiscal years pndpd HH4 to l!I
:J, togdhpr with the totab for thp 21 fi<wal ypars from 
190:J to 1 !):!3. 


61. - R{']edions of Immigrants upon .\rrhal at Orl'an Ports and Dl'l)Ortatiolls after 
Admission, b)' Princil)al ('auses and by SationaliUes, 1903-19
:I. 


:\'umher Hejcded at Ocean Port!!. 


I. 
lotal 


Principal causc
. 





t 1914. 1915. lOW. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. 


-----.------ --- 
.-\ccompanying pati
nts.. 434 16 5S 4 8 1 9 13 39 
ß

:
:[E


'.".:.:.::::: 7r 6 - 6 7 
 1 _ 
2 3 - _ ; _ : 
 _ 1 4 7 
 _ _4 _ 
 1 \ _ =j _ -i _ ï: _ _2 6 5 1 
Criminality............ . 
Head tax........ ...... 
Lack offunds... . 1,675 994 452 3S 55 19 10 28 255 2: 1 2 , 
J ikely to 1)('('ome a pllh- 
liccharJ!'e......... 1,768 76 il 55 55 19 2i 125 236 20'- W12,75! 
'Ieùical c.auses.... 4,162 398 319 34 30 12 J!I 21 99 fjO I 37 5.1\)1 

ot complyin!!; \\ i th 
regulations...... .' ... 2!15 178 40 11 22 8 i 474 29\ 
Previou
ly rej('cted. ... 10 - - - - - - - - 
r
k;lIed boo", II.C.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 32 i 3
1 l,:!
 
Total" .... 9. 256 I.
m - 99
1-1I;31-----m,--;t1- -iu 662 1 - mi'- I . O i'ì3, mlï:i:S
9 


13 
3 
20 


6,';;) 
12 
9i8 
92 
103 


4 


- fj 
24 3, RI') 


Principal causes. 


","umber ])cport
d artN -\dmis!'ion. 


.\.ccompanymg patients.. 
Had character.......... 
Criminality............ . 
\Ieùical CaU'leR..... . . . . . 
:-"ot r'omplying with 
rcJ!;ulatiom!..... . 
Public charges . 


H,i 10 
50ó 159 
I, 083 :
76 
2,296 570 


34 
128 
404 
379 


,'j 
6S 
:
29 
206 


9 
60 
277 
98 


3!)1 
IH 
274 
39 


10 1 

 

 1

; 

 1 J

 
2

 334 5116 6301 54:
 5,072 
iO 123 133 3\31 2112 4,5(1J 
_ I - - n . - . 
 ol 10 :
S 
103 158 236 "" 679 7.:
;O 
4;':;1-6.)
1 J.OH 1 t."U) II.6:f
lïN.fiSI 


24 4 
2,So'i3 7\5 


7S!1 


1i:
5 


161 
60:'1 


91 


Totals 


fi.90ì J . "31, J. 7:l4 J . 2-t:! I 


ã2ì 
I 



JUJ'K",aLE IJIJlIGRA TIOX 


211 


6i.-Rejections of Immi
rants upon Arrhal at Ocean Ports and Drportations aftf'r 
Admission, by Principal ('au!'"e.. and b)" 
ationaliti{'s, 19D3-1923
conclud('d. 


Xumber Deported after AdmÏ:,:;ion. 


Nationalities. 





t 1914. 1915. l!H6. 1917. 1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. Total. 


British......... . 4,358 9!j2 87ï 602 lR6 36 99 184 295 1. 107 8SR 9,584 
American. ........ .. 1,061\ 405 461 437 324 407 27!) :>\12 616 725 520 5,6::!:
 
OtllPr countries.. ... .. 1,483 47ï 3!)1\ 204 95 84 76 7!1 133 2H 22-1 3,465 
------------- 
Totals........ . .... 6,90;1 1 ,1S3-1 1,73-1 I,U3 605 527 15-1 1 bd5,I,UU 1 2,016j 1,6.12 18,ti1St 


Juvenile Immi
ration.-_\mong the most gf'nerally 
H-'f'f'ptable immigrant 
arrivab are the juveniles of both Sf'xes, who are trained by highly af'f'rediterl British 
organizations for Canadian liff' before POming to Canada, thf' boys being taught the 
lig,hter branches of farm work, whilp tlH' girls are instruct<.'d in dome:-.;tic occupations. 
On arrival in Canada the boys arp plapcd on farms, whilp tll<' girl:--; are placed <'ithf'r 
in town or f'Olmtry, but th<.' organizations remain the kgal gmlldians of the childrpn 
until they have rearllf'd